Students with AD/HD make up three to eight percent of the classroom population according to recent studies. About four percent of the preschool population is diagnosed with AD/HD as well. However, there are two alarming statistics that coincide with these. Boys are affected four times more than girls are affected with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and the rate of children diagnosed with AD/HD has at least doubled since 1990 (Turnbull, 2010, p. 212). The rate of distributing medication to treat AD/HD has risen nearly 600 percent in this same time period as well (Davinson, 2001, p. 264). This accounts for the reason why just more than two-thirds of the students identified in the “other health impairment” by the state of Massachusetts are because of their diagnosis of AD/HD (Turnbull, 2010, p. 187). Considering the symptoms of AD/HD, such as hyperactivity, inattentiveness, and disorganization, children that have AD/HD may also be diagnosed with a conduct disorder. One third of the boys who have conduct disorders also have AD/HD and one half of the girls with conduct disorders also have AD/DH ( 212). A conduct disorder may be classified as a child who “may lie, steal, fight, or bully others. He or she may destroy property, break into homes, or carry or use weapons. These children or teens are also at a higher risk of using illegal substances. Kids with conduct disorder are at risk of getting into trouble at school or with the police” (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, 2008, p.16).
If a child has a diagnosis of AD/HD, the child may have other conditions running concurrent with AD/HD. These conditions include a learning disability (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, 2008, p. 16); approximately 20% of children with AD/HD also have a diagnosed learning disability (Turnbull, 2010, p. 215). Children with AD/HD have an average IQ score that is seven points lower than their counterparts. Twenty-one percent of children with AD/HD are tested to have IQ scores that are below 70 (215). That being said, eighty percent of students with AD/HD are educated in the general education setting alongside their counterparts (Humphrey, 2009, p. 20). Because of this and factoring in symptoms, children with AD/HD may need more time to complete tasks or may need modified versions of school work. This happens more on an individual basis according to Individualized Educational Plans developed by special educator teams (215).
Children with AD/HD may also be diagnosed with oppositional defiance order. “Kids with this condition, in which a child is overly stubborn or rebellious, often argue with adults and refuse to obey rules” (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, 2008, p.16). Some studies report that as many as 40-90 percent of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder also have oppositional defiance order, ODD (Turnbull, 2010, p. 215). Thirty-three percent of students with AD/HD may also have anxiety or depression (215) but treating the symptoms of AD/HD may reduce these symptoms as well (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, 2008, p. 16).