Brain Damage / Intelligence<br>

In one study, children who had received a moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury before the age of 3 had a mean IQ of 95 a little over three years later, compared with a mean IQ of 101 among a group of controls, according to Louise M. Crowe, PhD, of the University of Melbourne, and colleagues.

* Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability in the United States. TBIs contribute to about 30% of all injury deaths. Every day, 153 people in the United States die from injuries that include TBI. Those who survive a TBI can face effects that last a few days, or the rest of their lives.Apr 27, 2017

  • An estimated 2.8 million people sustain a TBI annually.Of them:
    • 50,000 die,
    • 282,000 are hospitalized, and
    • 2.5 million, nearly 90%, are treated and released from an emergency department.
  • TBI is a contributing factor to a third (30%) of all injury-related deaths in the United States.1
  • Every day, 153 people in the United States die from injuries that include TBI.1
  • Most TBIs that occur each year are mild, commonly called concussions.2
  • Direct medical costs and indirect costs of TBI, such as lost productivity, totaled an estimated $60 billion in the United States in 2000.3  


  • * The side effects of brain damage is:
  • Loss of consciousness for a few seconds to a few minutes.
  • No loss of consciousness, but a state of being dazed, confused or disoriented.
  • Headache.
  • Nausea or vomiting.
  • Fatigue or drowsiness.
  • Problems with speech.
  • Difficulty sleeping.
  • Sleeping more than usual.


Common events causing traumatic brain injury include the following:

  • Falls. Falls from bed or a ladder, down stairs, in the bath and other falls are the most common cause of traumatic brain injury overall, particularly in older adults and young children.
  • Vehicle-related collisions. Collisions involving cars, motorcycles or bicycles — and pedestrians involved in such accidents — are a common cause of traumatic brain injury.
  • Violence. Gunshot wounds, domestic violence, child abuse and other assaults are common causes. Shaken baby syndrome is a traumatic brain injury in infants caused by violent shaking.
  • Sports injuries. Traumatic brain injuries may be caused by injuries from a number of sports, including soccer, boxing, football, baseball, lacrosse, skateboarding, hockey, and other high-impact or extreme sports. These are particularly common in youth.
  • Explosive blasts and other combat injuries. Explosive blasts are a common cause of traumatic brain injury in active-duty military personnel. Although how the damage occurs isn't yet well-understood, many researchers believe that the pressure wave passing through the brain significantly disrupts brain function.

    Traumatic brain injury also results from penetrating wounds, severe blows to the head with shrapnel or debris, and falls or bodily collisions with objects following a blast.

   * Some images of a damage brain cell:

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    * TBI by AGE

  • Children aged 0 to 4 years, older adolescents aged 15 to 19 years, and adults aged 65 years and older are most likely to sustain a TBI.
  • In 2012, an estimated 329,290 children (age 19 or younger) were treated in U.S. EDs for sports and recreation-related diagnosis of concussion or TBI.3
  •  Adults aged 75 years and older have the highest rates of TBI-related hospitalization and death.