The writer promotes the ASSURE model.
Integrating Emerging Technology (TIM) into the Curriculum – ASSURE Lesson PlanAbstract
Educators are challenged to exceed traditional practices through the use of innovative technology and media. The ASSURE model is a step-by-step process that educators can use when creating opportunities to integrate instructional technology, such as Skype, video conferencing, and SMART Board with classroom activities. The lesson plan follows the ASSURE Lesson Template and is based on assessment of the instructional technology integration that aligns with the National Education Technology Standards (NETS) for International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE). This paper is an account of the ASSURE model lesson plan using Skype as a new and amazing instructional technology. The writer used the Technology Integration Matrix (TIM) to evaluate the use of educational technology integration in a Medical Clinic Practice class at a community college. The goal of the described lesson plan is to move from the Constructive Adaptation (C3) level to the Authentic Transformation (D5) level. The TIM is included in the body of this paper.
ASSURE Lesson Plan Instructional Situation Introduction. All effective instruction including teaching with instructional technology and media requires careful planning. Research has shown that well designed lessons begin with the arousal of learners’ interest and then progress to present new material, involve new learners in practice with feedback, ascertain learners’ understanding, and monitor follow-up (Smaldino, Lowther, & Russell, 2008). The ASSURE model incorporates the aforementioned events and utilizes a standard, research-based approach to lesson design that aligns with multi instructional plans within various institutions. Less than three months ago, the writer embraced the opportunity to investigate a new and emerging instructional technology, Skype. By investigating Skype, she learned how this digital content is transforming the way students absorb information, and how teachers engage students, prepare lessons, and assess achievement. By experimenting with Skype, the writer realized why textbooks have been replaced as the primary content medium. She also became aware that educational institutions are investigating ways in which they can benefit from the new instructional technology. Not surprised to have learned that Skype has the ability to share and create a digital content, lower costs, and make content relevant (skype.com) the writer then consulted with stakeholders of her teaching institution with regards to utilizing Skype. So as to make stakeholders comfortable about the idea, she appraised Skype as a cost effective emerging technology tool that promises to improve and expand educational offerings (Tech & Learning, 2011). Relevant stakeholders have considered utilizing the writer’s model on “Hand Washing in the Health Care Setting” as a prototype to enhance a laboratory teaching session, an introduction to a clinical setting, and a forerunner to online instruction. The lesson plan will allow students to use technology in problem-solving, and in strategic, long-range, and operational planning. The writer’s lesson plan will guide educators within the Medical Assistant program in integrating technological tools not limited to Skype into the institution’s curriculum. Such educators will guide students in their quest from the Constructive Adaptation (C3) level to the Authentic Transformation (D5) level on the TIM matrix.
The learning environment is a community college with a population of approximately 300 students. The lesson plan is an instructional unit of Introduction to Medical Clinic Practice, a required course for the Associates Degree in Medical Assisting. The one and a half hour teaching session occurs twice weekly. Consistent internet service will be required at the intended instructional site which has been identified as the teacher’s and learners’ personal domains. The writer will download the Skype program and install the product on her personal computer. Each participant will also be required to download and install the product on her personal computer.
Using the TIM to evaluate instructional practice.
The TIM is a template that may be used to guide and evaluate the level of technology that is integrated into a classroom curriculum. The levels of technology are found across the top of the matrix and are (a) entry, (b) adoption, (c) adaptation, (d) infusion, and (e) transformation. The TIM incorporates five interdependent learning environments found along the left side of the matrix and includes classrooms that are (a) active, (b) collaborative, (c) constructive, (d) authentic, and (e) goal directed (Jonassen, Howland, Moore, & Marra, 2003). The TIM illustrates how teachers can use technology to enhance learning for K-16 students. Together, the five levels of technology integration and the five characteristics of meaningful learning environments create a matrix of 25 cells. To be effective, the lesson plan will be geared toward enhancing the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for learners to gradually move from a basic comfort level with educational technology to an advanced competency level. As an application of learning theory that specifically looks at individuals as learners involves learning style (Howard, 2010), the writer now focuses on the first step of the ASSURE model, analysis of learners.
The analysis provides information that assists educators to strategically plan lessons tailored to meet specific needs of the learner. According to Smaldino et al. (2008) the key factors addressed in the learner analysis involves (a) general characteristics, (b) specific entry competencies, and (d) learning styles.
The instructional unit is for learners in the Medical Assisting Associates Degree program of the writer’s school. The Introduction to Medical Clinic Practice class comprises eight adult females who have varying levels of competencies in the use of instructional technology. All participants are fluent in the English Language as the primary language. The class is diverse in culture as participants find originality in various Caribbean and archipelagic islands. Participants emerge from and have created a variety of family structures and range from ages 19 to 50 years.
Entry characteristics and competencies.
All learners have basic computer skills, and based on a prior test and observation, more than 50% of the learners have advanced Microsoft and Excel technological skills. Participants range from being on Dean’s list to President’s list; that is they possess a grade point average (GPA) of 3.50 – 4.0. It is imperative that all participants would have access to the Skype software, a personal computer, video camera, microphone and audio headset and speakers.
The writer acknowledges that learning styles instruments do provide a means to assess many factors that can impact learners, and that an assessment of learning styles is still critical to effective planning of both curriculum and instructional technology. Not withstanding the plethora of learning style theories like Canfield, or Grasha-Reichman, the writer refers to the Dunn and Dunn Theory. Rita and Kenneth Dunn became aware of the many different ways in which students learn. They found 18 different characteristics of learning that could be grouped into four categories such as (a) environmental, (b) emotional/psychological, (c) sociological; and (d) physical characteristics (Dunn, 1984). The writer took the aforementioned factors into consideration as she prepared the lesson plan for her students who were mostly kinesthetic learners and visual learners.
State National Standards and Objectives
This lesson plan addresses several standards posed by the Center of Disease Control that align with national education standards. The standards and objectives are:
· The students in the Medical Clinic Practice class will enter data into an electronic spreadsheet using Excel and create graphs/charts when given baseline nosocomial data with at least 70% accuracy.
CDC (II) (375,378,416), CDC (IB) (115,159,232,234,237,418).· The students will perform a surgical hand wash technique in accordance with aseptic principles having studied the CDC policies and procedures on hand washing. CDC (II) (375,378,416), CDC (IB) (117,156,205, 207,238-241).· The students in the Medical Clinic class will create a word search activity based on vocabulary from The CDC Guidelines for Hand Hygiene in Health Care Settings, using Microsoft Word and problem solving strategies.CDC (IB) (115,159,232,234,237,418). The ICOT allows the observer to make a note of which National Education Technology Standards (NETS) were addressed during a lesson. The ICOT highlights 28 specific areas that can be covered in a lesson. The following National Education Technology Standards (ISTE Classroom Observational Tool, 2008) will be addressed during the lesson: 1A.1, 1A.2, 1A.5, 1A.6, 1A.7, 1A.9, 2A.2, 3A.1, 3A.2, 3C.1, 3D.1, 3D.2, 4A.1, 4A.2, 6A.1, 6B.1, and 6D.1 (Appendix D).
Select Strategies, Technology, Media, and Materials
The writer will downloaded the Skype program and will install the product. She will then double click on the Skype icon, and add a username and password into the “Create a Skype Account” window prior to compiling a Personal Profile page. A web-camera will be attached as a considerable feature for the visual learner. A microphone and a speaker are essential tools for the operation of Skype. To this end the writer will ensure that her microphone and speaker are functional and can be well-adjusted, prior to viewing a three-part Skype video tutorial. The writer will then search for Skype users, add her students as contacts, make video calls, and chat. These step by step activities will be itemized to each participant.
Additional material will include the following: Textbook- Lindh, W. Q., Pooler, M. S., Tamparo, C. D., & Cerrato, J, U. (2002). Clinical Medical Assisting. (2nd ed.). Albany, New York: Delmars Publishing, The CDC’s Guidelines for Hand Hygiene in Health Care Settings, hand washing soap, hand towels.Utilize Technology, Media, and Materials
Prepare the materials. The writer will ensure that each participant has the required instructional media. She will review, download, and transmit The CDC’s Guidelines for Hand Hygiene in Health Care Settings to the participants via the Skype media. The Guideline documentary will complement the contents from the text’s presentation on the infectious process and hand washing (Ludhl et al., pp. 131-181). The writer will ensure that the text book is utilized as the stakeholders of her institution are adamant on the utilization of stipulated materials. Prepare the environment. The Skype lesson activity will take place within the teacher’s personal domain and the students’ personal domain. Each participant will be in an internet-based environment, where there is a work desk station with adequate lighting and ventilation. Each participant should ensure minimal trafficking or interruptions during the designated 90 minute class session. For the purpose of surgical hand washing a wash basin with running water, soap dispenser, and hand towels will also be necessary. Prepare the learners. The writer will prepare herself for the instructional technology prior to preparing her students. She will explain to her students that the purpose of the instructional unit is to reinforce the learned concepts of the infectious process and to enhance their technological skills. She will also explain and demonstrate how the learned concepts can be applied in a clinical setting through instructional technology. Students will be made aware that as a class, their technological abilities place them in a constructive adaptation cell where they have the opportunity to select and modify technologies. Students will also be made aware that they have the potential to excel to an authentic transformation cell where they can participate in outside-of-school activities that have meaning not only for their selves but for the community as well (Technology Integration Matrix, 2010). The writer will ensure that the students receive the transmitted document namely, The CDC’s Guidelines for Hand Hygiene in Health Care Settings. From the stated document and the required text the writer will discuss with her students the following: indications for hand hygiene, components of a successful hand hygiene practice, programs to reduce risk of health care associated infections, and measures to improve health care worker safety. The writer will model the hand washing technique which will be visible via web camera.Require Learner Participation The writer will ensure that the students receive the transmitted document, and discuss the same via the Skype media. She will state the objectives for the class. By means of the Web-camera the writer will be able to view students’ environment and thus assess their preparedness for the instructional session. Students’ behavior, conduct, and professionalism can also be monitored during the instruction Students will be required to participate in at least three activities. These activities are as follows: 1. Prepare an electronic spreadsheet using Excel depicting increase of nosocomial infections due to poor hand hygiene.2. Perform a CDC surgical hand washing procedure consistent with aseptic principles. 3. Create a word search activity on hand hygiene based on the vocabulary of The CDC’s Guidelines for Hand Hygiene in Health Care Settings, using Microsoft Word and problem solving strategies. Evaluate and Revise A proactive approach was needed to demonstrate to stakeholders the benefits of linking instructional methods with instructional technology. Subsequent meetings will create opportunities for teachers to collaborate on how to reinforce the strategies shared in the Skype instructional unit and exercises within daily instructional activities. The goal is not only to implement Skype, but also to create ways in which strategies can be incorporated in other instructional activities and assessments. Ultimately, the assessment process will involve analyzing the benefits from students, educators, and stakeholders who would have utilized the technology. The teachers could also use the new knowledge and skills to create instructional practices that use instructional technology tools that have been shown to help students attain the knowledge needed to achieve the goals outlined in the ASSURE (Smaldino et al., 2008) lesson plan. Conclusion
The writer created the lesson plan as a guide for Medical Assistant students to integrate instructional technology with classroom, laboratory, and clinical activities. The writer hopes that users of the lesson plan would entice students to extend beyond a goal directed authentic transformation cell. It is her desire that students engage in ongoing metacognitive activities at a level that would be unattainable without the support of technology tools. The writer concludes with the notation that her institution is in an environment poised to provide an integrated approach to Information Communication Technology, to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the administrative process and to support and enhance educational programs (Bahamas, 2010).
References Bahamas School of Science and Technology. Retrieved April 3, 2011, from http://www.bahamaseducation.com/departments.html.Boyce, J. M., & Pittet, D. (2002). Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care settings. Retrieved April 3, 2011, from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5116a1.htm. Dunn, K. (1984). In Howard, I. (2010). EDD 8010 Module 1V. Reading. Retrieved March 22, 2011, from http://webctce.nova.edu/SCRIPT/32761201030/scripts/serve_home. Howard, I. (2010). EDD 8010 Module 1V. Reading. Retrieved March 22, 2010, from http://webctce.nova.edu/SCRIPT/32761201030/scripts/serve_home.ISTE Classroom Observational Tool. (2008). Retrieved March 15, 2011, from
http://www.iste.org/icot.Jonassen, D., Howland, J., Moore, J., & Marra, J. (2003). Learning to solve problems with technology: A Constructivist perspective. Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Lindh, W. Q., Pooler, M. S., Tamparo, C. D., & Cerrato, J, U. (2002). Clinical Medical Assisting. (2nd ed.). Albany, New York: Delmars Publishing.
National educational technology standards (NETS-S) and performance indicators for students. (n.d.). Retrieved February 12, 2011, from http://www.iste.org.ISTE Classroom Observational Tool. (2008). Retrieved March 15, 2011, from http://www.iste.org/icot. Smaldino, S. E., Lowther, D. L., & Russell, J. D. (2008). Instructional technology and media for
learning (9th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Technology Integration Matrix. (2007). Retrieved March 7, 2011, from http://fcit.usf.edu/matrix/
Appendix A Center for Disease Control Recommendation Category
Category IA. Strongly recommended for implementation and strongly supported by well-designed experimental, clinical, or epidemiologic studies.
Category IB. Strongly recommended for implementation and supported by certain experimental, clinical, or epidemiologic studies and a strong theoretical rationale.
Category IC. Required for implementation, as mandated by federal or state regulation or standard.
Category II. Suggested for implementation and supported by suggestive clinical or epidemiologic studies or a theoretical rationale.
No recommendation. Unresolved issue. Practices for which insufficient evidence or no consensus regarding efficacy exist. Appendix B
Surgical Hand Antisepsis Procedure
- Remove rings, watches, and bracelets before beginning the surgical hand scrub (II) (375,378,416).
- Remove debris from underneath fingernails using a nail cleaner under running water (II) (14,417).
- Surgical hand antisepsis using either an antimicrobial soap or an alcohol-based hand rub with persistent activity is recommended before donning sterile gloves when performing surgical procedures (IB) (115,159,232,234,237,418).
- When performing surgical hand antisepsis using an antimicrobial soap, scrub hands and forearms for the length of time recommended by the manufacturer, usually 2-6 minutes. Long scrub times (e.g., 10 minutes) are not necessary (IB) (117,156,205, 207,238-241).
- When using an alcohol-based surgical hand-scrub product with persistent activity, follow the manufacturer's instructions. Before applying the alcohol solution, pre-wash hands and forearms with a non-antimicrobial soap and dry hands and forearms completely. After application of the alcohol-based product as recommended, allow hands and forearms to dry thoroughly before donning sterile gloves (IB) (159,237
Students are actively engaged in using technology as a tool rather than passively receiving information from the technology.
|Indicator: Students receive directions, guidance, and feedback from technology, rather than using technology tools to set goals, plan activities, monitor progress, or self-evaluate.|
Indicator: Students have opportunities to select and modify the use of technology tools to facilitate goal-setting, planning, monitoring, and evaluating specific activities.
Indicator: Students use technology tools to set goals, plan activities, monitor progress, and evaluate results throughout the curriculum.
Indicator: Students engage in ongoing metacognative activities at a level that would be unattainable without the support of technology tools.
____ 3C.2. teacher applies technology to developstudents' creativity ____ 3D.1. class management facilitates engagement with technology ____ 3D.2. technology integrated as a teacher tool ____ 3D.3. technology integrated as a student tool ____ 3D.4. student grouping varied as needed to facilitate learning ____ 4A.1. student learning of subject matter assessed with technology ____ 4A.2. teacher assesses student technology skills ____ 4A.3. teacher employs a variety of assessment strategies ____ 6A.1. teacher models legal and ethical technology practices ____ 6A.2. teacher explicitly teaches legal and ethical technology practices ____ 6B.1. diverse learners enabled and empowered. ____ 6D.1. safe and healthy use of technology promoted ____ 6E.1. equitable access to technology for all students.