Chapter 4 Notes

Section 1 Resources
A. _________________ resources—parts of the environment that are useful or necessary for living organisms to survive
1. A natural resource that is constantly recycled or replaced by nature is a
____________________________ resource.
2. Natural resources that are used up more quickly than they can be replaced are called ______________________ resources; for example, petroleum takes hundreds of millions of years to form.
B. ______________________ such as coal, oil, and natural gas are nonrenewable energy resources that form in Earth’s crust over very long periods of time.
C. _____________________ energy sources can be used to help conserve fossil fuels.
1. _______________________ power—energy from falling water used to generate electricity
2. ______________—wind turns the blades of a turbine, which powers an electric generator
3. Nuclear power—the fission of _________________ atoms generates nuclear energy that is used to produce electricity
4. Geothermal power plants use geothermal energy from the ______________ in Earth’s crust to generate electricity.
5. ________________energy can be captured in photovoltaic cells, which turn sunlight into electric current, or in materials that retain heat.
Section 2 Pollution
A. A ___________________ is a substance that contaminates the air, land, or water.
B. _____________ pollutants include soot, smoke, ash, and gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides.
C. _____________ is created when sunlight reacts
D. ____________________________ results from air pollutants reacting with water in the atmosphere.
1. Acid ______________ can kill plants and animals.
2. Reducing the use of high sulfur coal and lowering pollutants from vehicle exhaust can help _________________ acid rain.
E. The atmosphere traps heat through the ____________________ effect; increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere may cause global warming.
F. ________________ depletion, the thinning of the ozone layer, is caused by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and can result in increased UV radiation reaching Earth’s surface.
G. Insulation can trap ________________ air pollutants such as carbon monoxide or radon.
H. _______________ is polluted when air or land pollutants enter rivers, lakes, or oceans.
1. _________________ water pollutants include chemical pesticides, raw sewage, and fertilizer.
2. Rivers and streams dump pollutants into the _______________; oil spills are also a source of seawater pollution.
3. _____________________ can become polluted as it seeps through particles of rock and soil or collects in underground pools called aquifers.
I. _________________ is the movement of soil from one place to another; it causes the loss of fertile topsoil.
J. Soil can be polluted by solid wastes in landfills or by ___________________ wastes such as dangerous chemicals or radioactive materials.
Section 3 The Three Rs of Conservation
A. ______________________ can help prevent shortages of natural resources, slow growth of landfills, reduce pollution levels, and save money.
B. Conservation includes __________________ the use of natural resources.
C. Conservation includes _________________ natural resources.
D. ___________________—reprocessing an item or natural resource for reuse
1. Different types of __________________ can be sorted for recycling by recycle codes.
2. Steel and other ________________ are often recycled.
3. _______________ bottles and jars can be reused or melted and reformed into new glass products.
4. _______________ can be recycled to form new paper products.
5. Vegetation waste can be ___________________ and used as soil-enriching fertilizer.
6. ________________ recycled products promotes conservation.