Unit 1-                    Positioning of the Toes, Foot, and Ankle

Unit 2-                    Anatomy and Positioning of the Lower Leg, Knee, Femur

Unit 3-                    Anatomy and Positioning of the Hip and Pelvis

Unit 4-                    Contrast Media

Unit 5-                    Anatomy and Positioning of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

Unit 6-                    Anatomy and Positioning of the Lower Gastrointestinal Tract

Unit 7 -                   Anatomy of the Vertebral Column, Sacrum and Coccyx

Unit 8 -                   Positioning of the Lumbar  Spine, Sacrum and Coccyx                                                          

Unit 9 -                   Positioning of the Thoracic Spine

Unit 10  -               Positioning of the Cervical Spine

Unit Objectives  - Positioning of the Toes, Foot and Ankle

At the completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  1. Identify the total number of the individual bones of the foot.
  2. Identify the individual parts of a phalanx.
  3. Identify the common location of the sesamoid bones of the foot.
  4. Understand the numbering/identification of the metatarsals.
  5. Identify and locate the individual tarsal bones.
  6. List the alternate names to the following:  talus, calcaneus, navicular, individual cuneiforms.
  7. Identify the anatomical structures which form the ankle.
  8. Identify the anatomical structures of the distal tibia and fibula.
  9. Identify the joint types and classifications for the following:
  • ankle
  • intertarsal
  • tarsometatarsal
  • intermetatarsal
  • metatarsophalangeal
  • interphalangeal
  1. Identify the location of the transverse and longitudinal arches of the foot.
  2. Given a diagram of the foot, similar to that which is in Mallett, identify the various labeled parts.
  3. Understand what is meant by a dorsoplantar versus a plantodorsal projection of the toes and foot.
  4. Understand the reasoning why posterior angulations of the central ray may be used for AP projections of the toes and/or foot.
  5. Understand the importance of using tape in radiographing a toe in the lateral position.
  6. List the bones that are imaged using the Lewis and Causton Methods.
  7. List the positioning steps and central ray location for the Lewis Method.
  8. Identify the anatomy which is best demonstrated when using the Broden and Isherwood Methods.
  9. List the basic positioning steps, central ray locations/angulations and anatomy best demonstrated for the following:  

         -  AP foot

         -  medial and lateral obliques of the foot

         -  Grashey Method

         -   Mediolateral and Lateromedial projections of the foot

          -  weight bearing feet

          -  weight bearing composite method

           -  calcaneus (axial and lateral)

           -  PA axial oblique projection for subtalar joint

           -  AP ankle

           -  mediolateral and lateromedial lateral projections of the ankle

           -  AP oblique projections of the ankle

           -  AP oblique projection for the ankle mortise

  1. List an alternate name for “congenital clubfoot.”
  2. List the two positions used to radiograph the feet of a child with clubfoot using the Kite Method.
  3. Understand the importance of not changing the abnormal alignment of the feet when using the Kite Method.
  4. Other than the Kite Method, list the name of another commonly used method for radiographic demonstration of clubfoot.
  5. Understand how stress radiographs of the ankle are performed and list what anatomical abnormality/pathology may be demonstrated using this method.