Chapter 1 Notes

Intro to Medical Science
Notes chp 1
I.  What is Anatomy and Physiology
A.     Anatomy (amatome = to dissect) refers to the study of structure and the relationship among structure.
          It is such a broad science it has to be broken down into subdivisions
1.       Surface anatomy – studies the morphology and marking of the surface of the body.
2.     Gross anatomy – study of structure that can be examined with out the use of a microscope.
3.     Systemic anatomy – study of specific systems of the body (ex. Nervous and Respiratory)
4.     Regional anatomy – study of specific regions (ex. Head and Chest)
5.     Developmental anatomy – Study of human development (egg to adulthood)
6.     Embryology – Study of human development (egg to 8th week in utero)
7.     Pathological anatomy – Study of structural changes associated with disease.
8.     Histology – Microscopic study of the structure of tissues.
9.     Cytology – Microscopic study of the structure of cells.
10.  Radiographic anatomy – Study of structure of the body that includes the use of X-rays.
B.      Physiology – deals with the function of the body parts (how the body works)
          Most times the structure of a part often determines the function (ex. Hairs in the nose)
          Also, body function often influence the size, shape, and health of the structure.
II.  Levels of structural organization
A.     Chemical – is the lowest level that includes all substances essential for maintaining life.
B.      Cellular level – the (smallest) basic level of structure and function of all organisms.
C.      Tissue – groups of similar cells that together with their intercellular material perform specific functions.
a.      Stomach cells  
                                                                                      i.      Mucous cells produce mucous, secretion that lubricates food as it passes.
                                                                                   ii.      Parietal cells produce acids in the stomach.
                                                                                 iii.      Zygomatic cells produce enzymes needed to digest proteins.
D.     Organ – different kinds of tissues joined together to form a higher level of organization.  Composed of two or more different tissues, specific functions, and usually recognizable shapes.
E.      Systems – consist of an associations of organs that have a common function.
F.      Organism – highest level that consist of all the parts of the body functioning together to make a single individual.
III.   Principle Systems of the Body
A.     Integumentary – 
a.      Definition = the skin and structures derived from it.  (Hair, nails, and sweat & oil glands)
b.     Function = regulates body temperature, protects the body, eliminates wastes, synthesizes Vitamin D, receives stimuli (temp, pressure, and pain)
B.      Skeletal –
a.      Definition = all bones, cartilages, and joints
b.     Function = Supports and protects the body, provides leverage, houses cells that produce blood cells, and stores materials
C.      Muscular – 
a.      Definition = specifically skeletal, and also visceral, and cardiac.
b.     Function = brings about movement, maintains posture, and produces heat.
D.     Nervous – 
a.      Definition = Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs (eye’s and ear’s)
b.     Function = regulates body activities through nerve impulses
E.      Endocrine –
a.      Definition = all glands that produce hormones
b.     Function = regulates body activities through hormones transported by the cardiovascular system
F.      Cardiovascular –
a.      Definition = Blood, Heart, and Blood vessels
b.     Function = carries oxygen and nutrients to cells, carries carbon dioxide and wastes from cells, maintains acid-base balance, protects against disease, prevents hemorrhage by forming clots, and helps regulate body temperature.
G.      Lymphatic –
a.      Definition = Lymph, lymphatic vessels, and organs or structures containing lymphatic tissue (WBC’s = lymphocytes)  Such as: Spleen, thymos, lymph nodes, tonsils
b.     Function = returns proteins and plasma to cardiovascular system, transports fats from gastrointestinal tract to cardiovascular system, filters body fluids, produces WBC’s, and protects against disease.
H.     Respiratory –
a.      Definition = lungs & associated pathways in and out
b.     Function = supplies oxygen, eliminates carbon dioxide, and regulates acid-base balance
I.       Digestive –
a.      Definition = long tube called GI tract, salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, and pancreas
b.     Function = Physical and chemical breakdown of foods for use by cells, and eliminates solids and other wastes.
J.      Urinary –
a.      Definition = organs that produce, collect, and eliminate urine
b.     Function = regulates chemical composition of the blood, eliminates wastes, regulates fluid and electrolyte balance and volume, and maintains acid-base balance
K.      Reproductive –
a.      Definition = organs (testes and ovaries) that produce reproductive cells (sperm and ova)
b.     Function = reproduces the organism