IV. Life Processes
1. Metabolism – sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body
a. Catabolism – provides energy needed to sustain life
b. Anabolism – uses energy to make various substances that form body functional and structural components.
c. Contributing processes to metabolism:
i. Ingestion – taking in of foods
ii. Digestion – breaking down of foods
iii. Absorption – uptake of substances by cells
iv. Assimilation – buildup of absorbed substances by cells
v. Respiration – generation of energy, presence of O2 with release of CO2
vi. Secretion – production and release of useful substances by cells
vii. Excretion – elimination of wastes produced as a result of metabolism
2. Excitability – ability to sense change by continually responding to stimuli (light, pressure, heat, noises, chemical, and pain)
3. Conductivity – ability to carry the effect of a stimulus from one part of a cell to another
4. Contractility – ability of a cell to generate force to undergo shortening for purposeful movements
5. Growth – increase in size (number of cells or size of the cell)
6. Differentiation – process where unspecialized cells change to specialized cells
7. Reproduction – either the formation of new cells for growth, repair, or replacement, or production of a new individual
V. Anatomical characteristics
= humans have a backbone (vertebrates)
= tube-within-a-tube outer tube body wall, and inner tube GI tract.
= Bilateral symmetry
Anatomical Position - The position with the body erect with the arms at the sides and the palms forward. The anatomical position is of importance in anatomy because it is the position of reference for anatomical nomenclature. Anatomic terms such as anterior and posterior, medial and lateral, abduction and adduction, and so on apply to the body when it is in the anatomical position.
Directional Terms =
Superior – Above or towards the head
Inferior – Below or away from the head
Anterior – towards the front
Posterior – towards the back
Medial – towards the midline of the body
Lateral – away from the midline of the body
Dorsal - toward, on, in, or near the back or upper surface of an organ, part, or organism.
Ventral - Relating to or situated on or close to the abdomen; abdominal.
Deep - Extending far inward from an outer surface
Superficial - being at, on, or near the surface
Parietal - Relating to or forming the wall of a body part, organ, or cavity
Visceral - Relating to, situated in, or affecting the viscera (soft internal organs of the body, especially those contained within the abdominal and thoracic cavities, and intestines)
Proximal - Nearer to a point of reference such as an origin, a point of attachment, or the midline of the body
Distal - directed away from the midline of the body
Ipsilateral - on or relating to the same side
Contralateral - on or relating to the opposite side
Intermediate - One that is in a middle position or state
Planes and Sections
Sagittal Plane (Midsagittal) – divides body into equal left and right halves.
i. Parasagittal – divides into unequal left and right sides (slightly off center)
Frontal Plane – divides body equally into anterior and posterior halves.
Horizontal Plane – divides body into superior and inferior halves.
Dorsal cavity – posterior surface, cranial cavity, and vertebral column
Ventral cavity – anterior surface, viscera, thoracic cavity (pleural, mediastinum, pericardial) and abdominopelvic cavity
i. Abdominal – stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, and large intestine.
ii. Pelvic – urinary bladder, cecum, appendix, sigmoid colon, rectum, and internal reproductive organs