Chapter 1 Notes (cont.)

IV.  Life Processes
1.       Metabolism – sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body
a.      Catabolism – provides energy needed to sustain life
b.     Anabolism – uses energy to make various substances that form body functional and structural components.
c.      Contributing processes to metabolism:
                                                                          i.      Ingestion – taking in of foods
                                                                       ii.      Digestion – breaking down of foods
                                                                     iii.      Absorption – uptake of substances by cells
                                                                      iv.      Assimilation – buildup of absorbed substances by cells
                                                                        v.      Respiration – generation of energy, presence of O2 with release of CO2
                                                                      vi.      Secretion – production and release of useful substances by cells
                                                                   vii.      Excretion – elimination of wastes produced as a result of metabolism
2.     Excitability – ability to sense change by continually responding to stimuli (light, pressure, heat, noises, chemical, and pain)
3.     Conductivity – ability to carry the effect of a stimulus from one part of a cell to another
4.     Contractility – ability of a cell to generate force to undergo shortening for purposeful movements
5.     Growth – increase in size (number of cells or size of the cell)
6.     Differentiation – process where unspecialized cells change to specialized cells
7.     Reproduction – either the formation of new cells for growth, repair, or replacement, or production of a new individual
V.  Anatomical characteristics
          = humans have a backbone (vertebrates)
          = tube-within-a-tube outer tube body wall, and inner tube GI tract.
          = Bilateral symmetry
  1. Anatomical Position - The position with the body erect with the arms at the sides and the palms forward. The anatomical position is of importance in anatomy because it is the position of reference for anatomical nomenclature. Anatomic terms such as anterior and posterior, medial and lateral, abduction and adduction, and so on apply to the body when it is in the anatomical position.
  2. Directional Terms =
    1. Superior – Above or towards the head
    2. Inferior – Below or away from the head
    3. Anterior – towards the front
    4. Posterior – towards the back
    5. Medial – towards the midline of the body
    6. Lateral – away from the midline of the body
    7. Dorsal - toward, on, in, or near the back or upper surface of an organ, part, or organism.
    8. Ventral - Relating to or situated on or close to the abdomen; abdominal. 
    9. Deep - Extending far inward from an outer surface
    10. Superficial - being at, on, or near the surface
    11. Parietal - Relating to or forming the wall of a body part, organ, or cavity
    12. Visceral - Relating to, situated in, or affecting the viscera (soft internal organs of the body, especially those contained within the abdominal and thoracic cavities, and intestines)
    13. Proximal - Nearer to a point of reference such as an origin, a point of attachment, or the midline of the body
    14. Distal - directed away from the midline of the body
    15. Ipsilateral - on or relating to the same side
    16. Contralateral - on or relating to the opposite side
    17. Intermediate - One that is in a middle position or state
  3. Planes and Sections
    1. Sagittal Plane (Midsagittal) – divides body into equal left and right halves.
                                                              i.      Parasagittal – divides into unequal left and right sides (slightly off center)
    1. Frontal Plane – divides body equally into anterior and posterior halves.
    2. Horizontal Plane – divides body into superior and inferior halves.
  1. Body Cavities
    1. Dorsal cavity – posterior surface, cranial cavity, and vertebral column
    2. Ventral cavity – anterior surface, viscera, thoracic cavity (pleural, mediastinum, pericardial) and abdominopelvic cavity
                                                              i.      Abdominal – stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, and large intestine.
                                                           ii.      Pelvic – urinary bladder, cecum, appendix, sigmoid colon, rectum, and internal reproductive organs