Ancient Greece: The Rise and Fall of the World’s Greatest Empires
(Color- Revised Parthenon)
Ancient Greece is known for the Olympics, Wars, Greek Mythology, and its amazing Architectural structures. Located in the southwestern part of the Eurasia continent, has become a flourishing country, with many tourist sites like the Parthenon, the Acropolis, and others..
Olympics: The Game of Sports
The Olympics is basically a tribute to all of the gods’ and goddesses strengths. It all started with an athletic game that was played every two years called the Isthmos, and played in the Isthmos of Corinth. Then, the Pythian Games were played every four years near a place called Delphi. Following that, was the most important of all the games, played in Olympia, in honor of Zeus, in about 700 B.C. This also came around every four years like the Pythian Games. Women weren’t even allowed to watch the games, and chosen Greek nationals could be part in the Olympics. The Olympics greatly increased from a one-day wrestling and athletic game, to a five-day multi-challenge game in 472 B.C. The first day of the festival was very religious and was dedicated to sacrifices, along with the Middle Day, which 100 oxen were sacrificed to one of the gods, and athletes also gave small sacrifices. On day two of the games, the main event, called the foot-games, were held in an arena. There were only four types of races; one was the stadion, where runners sprinted for 192 meters, or the length of one stade. The other was a 2-stade race, or a total of 384 meters, the next was a long distance run, which was about 7-24 stades or 1344-4608 meters. The last one was a race that was only 2-4 stades long, and the men had to wear complete armor, kind of like training for military purposes. Any other days would include wrestling, boxing, a mix of the two, called pancratium were involved. Boxing was a little harsher, because the men would wrap straps of soft leather over their fingers as a boost of their hits. Later, the leather got harder, and was also laced with metal, which was even worse. They also had horse-racing, but was a popular attraction, even though it was basically a “rich-man’s” game. The rules consisted of them running around a track 6 times, or for 6 laps. It was so consisted on the wealthy people, that the owner of the horse, and not the rider, would get the olive wreath. Also related to horse-racing, was chariot racing, and had both 2 and 4 horse chariot races. The Pentathlon was a series of sprinting, long-jumping, javelin-hurling, discus-throwing, and wrestling.
The Greeks believed in gods and creatures, which lived in Mt. Olympus. Here are all of the gods and goddesses they claimed to have purpose in the earth being how it is now.
Apollo is the god of light, sun, the arts, music, poetry, healing, and medicine and was the head of the Muses, a group of gods and goddesses of the arts, music, and poetry. His twin sister is Artemis.
Ares is known as the god of war.
Aglaia - one of the three Graces
Aletheia - the personification of Truth
Amphitrite - goddess of the Sea
Aphrodite - the goddess of love (Venus)
Artemis - the goddess of Hunt (Diana)
Athena - the goddess of Wisdom (Minerva)
Aura - a Titaness, the personification of the morning breeze. The Roman counterpart had the same name, Aura.
Bia - the personification of force and violence
Britomartis - a Cretan goddess who used to hunt with Artemis. Some say she invented the fishing nets.
Brizo - a goddess who protected the sailors
Calliope - muse of the epic poetry
Callirrhoe - the name of several characters, one of the is an Oceanid, the others are daughters of several river-gods
Callisto - one of the nymphs of Artemis, who was transformed into a bear
Calypso - a nymph who held Odysseus on the island of Ogygia, because she wanted to make him her immortal husband
Chloris - the nympf of spring and flowers
Clio - one of the muses
Clymene - the name of several Oceanids and of one Nereid
Creusa - a Naiad
Cybele - the goddess of Nature
Demeter - the goddess of the earth and agriculture (Ceres)
Dia - a nymph or just another name for Hebe or Hera
Dike - the personification of Justice
Dione - a Titaness, in one version she is said to be Aphrodite's mother
Dryope - a Pleiad
Eirene (Pax) - the goddess of Peace
Eos - the goddess of Dawn (Aurora)
Eris - the goddess of Discord
Eurynome - a Titaness of the pasturelands and water-meadows
Gaia - mother Earth
Hamadryads - dryad nymphs who preside over different types of trees.
Harmonia - goddess of Harmony and concord. She had a beautiful necklace that brought bad luck to all those who possessed it.
Hecate/Hekate (Trivia) - goddess of magic, witch craft and crossroads. She helped Demeter look for her daughter and then she remained with Persephone as her companion.
Hemera - goddess of the daylight and of the sun.
Hera - (Juno)- the goddess of marriage and women, Zeus' wife... and a very jealous one!
For info about Hera's relationship with Zeus, click here.
Hebe (Juventas) - the goddess of youth, daughter of Zeus and Hera
Herse/Ersa - goddess of the morning dew that nourished plants, a daughter of Zeus and Selene.
Hesperides - nymphs of the evening and of the sunset light, who tended a garden in the west, where the golden apple-trees and other treasures of the gods were kept.
Hestia (Vesta) - the goddess of the hearth and architecture
Horae/Horai - goddesses of the seasons and of the natural portions of time, and, as such, they represent the right moment (in agriculture) and the right order.
Hyades - nymphs who cried so much when there brother Hyas died, that they perished. Zeus transformed them into stars - the Hyades constellation. They are thought to bring rain.
Hybris (Petulantia) - the personification or a spirit of insolence, pride and outrageous behaviour.
Hygieia - the goddess of good health and cleanliness, associated mostly with the prevention of sickness - those ancient Greeks really knew a lot!
Iris - goddess of the rainbow
Lethe - as a goddess, the personification of oblivion
Leto - Titaness of motherhood
Metis - Titaness of wisdom and cunning, the first of Zeus' wives
Mnemosyne - Titaness of the memory and remembrance
Muses - the goddesses of music, song and dance, who inspired the artistic creation
Naiades - nymphs of the fresh waters
Nemesis - the goddess of vengeance
Nephele - a cloud nymph
Nike (Victoria) - the winged personification of the Victory
Nyx (Nox) - the goddess of the night, a primordial deity
Oceanids - the 3,000 daugthers of Oceanus and Thetys, who were nymphs of the fresh waters
Oreads - nymphs of the mountains and valleys, associated with Artemis
Orthosie - one of the Horae, a goddess of prosperity
Panacea - goddess of Healing
Pandia - goddess of the full moon, daughter of Selene
Periboea - a Naiad, mother of Penelope
Persephone - the goddess of the Underworld (Proserpina)
Phoebe - Titaness of the intellect and prophecy
There was no letter Q in the Greek alphabet, so there are no Greek goddesses names that start with a Q.
Rhea - Titaness of motherhood and fertility, mother of Zeus
Thalassa - a primordial goddess of the sea and the personification of the Mediterranea Sea
Theia - Titaness of sight and of the shining light of the sky
Thetis - a Nereid, the mother of the Greek hero Achilles.
For the second part of her story, click here
Themis - Titaness of the divine law and order
Thetys - a Titaness, mother of the rivers, springs and streams