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Ancient Greece: The Rise and Fall of the World’s Greatest Empires

(Color- Revised Parthenon)          

Ancient Greece is known for the Olympics, Wars, Greek Mythology, and its amazing Architectural structures. Located in the southwestern part of the Eurasia continent, has become a flourishing country, with many tourist sites like the Parthenon, the Acropolis, and others..

Olympics: The Game of Sports

The Olympics is basically a tribute to all of the gods’ and goddesses strengths. It all started with an athletic game that was played every two years called the Isthmos, and played in the Isthmos of Corinth.   Then, the Pythian Games were played every four years near a place called Delphi.  Following that, was the most important of all the games, played in Olympia, in honor of Zeus, in about 700 B.C. This also came around every four years like the Pythian Games. Women weren’t even allowed to watch the games, and chosen Greek nationals could be part in the Olympics. The Olympics greatly increased from a one-day wrestling and athletic game, to a five-day multi-challenge game in 472 B.C. The first day of the festival was very religious and was dedicated to sacrifices, along with the Middle Day, which 100 oxen were sacrificed to one of the gods, and athletes also gave small sacrifices. On day two of the games, the main event, called the foot-games, were held in an arena. There were only four types of races; one was the stadion, where runners sprinted for 192 meters, or the length of one stade. The other was a 2-stade race, or a total of 384 meters, the next was a long distance run, which was about 7-24 stades or 1344-4608 meters. The last one was a race that was only 2-4 stades long, and the men had to wear complete armor, kind of like training for military purposes. Any other days would include wrestling, boxing, a mix of the two, called pancratium were involved. Boxing was a little harsher, because the men would wrap straps of soft leather over their fingers as a boost of their hits. Later, the leather got harder, and was also laced with metal, which was even worse. They also had horse-racing, but was a popular attraction, even though it was basically a “rich-man’s” game. The rules consisted of them running around a track 6 times, or for 6 laps. It was so consisted on the wealthy people, that the owner of the horse, and not the rider, would get the olive wreath. Also related to horse-racing, was chariot racing, and had both 2 and 4 horse chariot races. The Pentathlon was a series of sprinting, long-jumping, javelin-hurling, discus-throwing, and wrestling.


Greek Mythology

The Greeks believed in gods and creatures, which lived in Mt. Olympus. Here are all of the gods and goddesses they claimed to have purpose in the earth being how it is now.

Apollo is the god of light, sun, the arts, music, poetry, healing, and medicine and was the head of the Muses, a group of gods and goddesses of the arts, music, and poetry. His twin sister is Artemis.

Ares is known as the god of war.




Atlas - the Titan who held the Heaven on his shoulders

Achelous - god of the river with the same name

Aeolus or Aiolos or Aeolos - god of the Winds. For the other characters named Aeolus, click here.

Anemoi (Venti) - the generic name of the wind gods

Asklepios - god of Medicine

Astraeus - Titan of the dusk

Boreas - god of the Northern Wind

Briareus - a Giant

Caerus/Kairos - the spirit that repesented favourable moments, opportunity, luck

Chaos - the initial Chaos

Charon - a genius of the underworld

Chronos - the god of Time (Saturn)

Crius - the least individualized among the Titans, maybe he was added just to complete the number

Cronus/Kronos - the leader of the Titans

Coeus - Titan of the intellect

Dionysus - the god of wine and agriculture (Bacchus)

Epimetheus - Titan of afterthought

Eros - the god of Love (Cupidon or Cupid)

Glaucus - a sea-god

Hades - the god of the dead (Pluto)

Hephaestus - the god of Fire (Vulcanus)

Helios - a Titan, personification of the sun. He was also called Hyperion

Hermaphroditus - the son of Hermes and Aphrodite

Hermes - the messenger of the gods (Mercury)

Hopladamos - one of the Gigantes, who accompanied Rhea when she was pregnant with Zeus

Hymenaios - was considered the god of the marriage ceremonies, but he was, in fact, a mortal

Hyperion - Titan of the light and of the east

Hypnos (Somnus) - the personification of sleep

Iacchus or Iakkhos - a god related to the Eleusinian mysteries or a personification of Dionysus

Iapetus - the Titan of Mortal Life

Ismenos or Ismenus - the god of the river with the same name, in Boeotia

Istros - the god of the river Danube

Ladon - the god of the river with the same name, in Arcadia

Marsyas - a satyr who loved music... to death

Meander or Maiandros - the god of the river Meander

Morpheus - the god of sleep

Nereus - or The Old Man of the Sea, a Titan who was the father of the Nereids

Nilus - the god of the Egyptian Nile River

Notus - the god of the South wind

Oceanus or Okeanos - a Titan, personification of the river which encircled the world, according to the ancient Greeks and Romans

Oneiroi - the Dreams

Pallas - Titan of warcraft

Pan - the god of the shepherds

Peneus - the god of the river with the same name, in Thessalia

Penthos or Penthus - the spirit of grief, mourning and tears

Perses - Titan of destruction

Pikolous - a giant who was turned into the plant called "moli"

Plutus - the personification of wealth

Pontus or Pontos - a sea god

Poseidon - the god of the sea (Neptune)

Priapus - a fertility god

Prometheus - the Titan of forethought, who gave man the fire

Proteus - an Old Man of the Sea, a sea god who could change shape

Thanatos - the personification of death

Uranus - the personification of the sky/heavens

Zephyrus - the god of the West wind

Zeus - the ruler of all the gods (Jupiter)


Aglaia - one of the three Graces

Aletheia - the personification of Truth

Amphitrite - goddess of the Sea

Aphrodite - the goddess of love (Venus)

Artemis - the goddess of Hunt (Diana)

Athena - the goddess of Wisdom (Minerva)

Aura - a Titaness, the personification of the morning breeze. The Roman counterpart had the same name, Aura.

Bia - the personification of force and violence

Britomartis - a Cretan goddess who used to hunt with Artemis. Some say she invented the fishing nets.

Brizo - a goddess who protected the sailors

Calliope - muse of the epic poetry

Callirrhoe - the name of several characters, one of the is an Oceanid, the others are daughters of several river-gods

Callisto - one of the nymphs of Artemis, who was transformed into a bear

Calypso - a nymph who held Odysseus on the island of Ogygia, because she wanted to make him her immortal husband

Chloris - the nympf of spring and flowers

Clio - one of the muses

Clymene - the name of several Oceanids and of one Nereid

Creusa - a Naiad

Cybele - the goddess of Nature

Demeter - the goddess of the earth and agriculture (Ceres)

Dia - a nymph or just another name for Hebe or Hera

Dike - the personification of Justice

Dione - a Titaness, in one version she is said to be Aphrodite's mother

Dryope - a Pleiad

Eirene (Pax) - the goddess of Peace

Eos - the goddess of Dawn (Aurora)

Eris - the goddess of Discord

Eurynome - a Titaness of the pasturelands and water-meadows

Gaia - mother Earth

Hamadryads - dryad nymphs who preside over different types of trees.

Harmonia - goddess of Harmony and concord. She had a beautiful necklace that brought bad luck to all those who possessed it.

Hecate/Hekate (Trivia) - goddess of magic, witch craft and crossroads. She helped Demeter look for her daughter and then she remained with Persephone as her companion.

Hemera - goddess of the daylight and of the sun.

Hera - (Juno)- the goddess of marriage and women, Zeus' wife... and a very jealous one!
For info about Hera's relationship with Zeus, click here.

Hebe (Juventas) - the goddess of youth, daughter of Zeus and Hera

Herse/Ersa - goddess of the morning dew that nourished plants, a daughter of Zeus and Selene.

Hesperides - nymphs of the evening and of the sunset light, who tended a garden in the west, where the golden apple-trees and other treasures of the gods were kept.

Hestia (Vesta) - the goddess of the hearth and architecture

Horae/Horai - goddesses of the seasons and of the natural portions of time, and, as such, they represent the right moment (in agriculture) and the right order.

Hyades - nymphs who cried so much when there brother Hyas died, that they perished. Zeus transformed them into stars - the Hyades constellation. They are thought to bring rain.

Hybris (Petulantia) - the personification or a spirit of insolence, pride and outrageous behaviour.

Hygieia - the goddess of good health and cleanliness, associated mostly with the prevention of sickness - those ancient Greeks really knew a lot!

Iris - goddess of the rainbow

Lethe - as a goddess, the personification of oblivion

Leto - Titaness of motherhood

Metis - Titaness of wisdom and cunning, the first of Zeus' wives

Mnemosyne - Titaness of the memory and remembrance

Muses - the goddesses of music, song and dance, who inspired the artistic creation

Naiades - nymphs of the fresh waters

Nemesis - the goddess of vengeance

Nephele - a cloud nymph

Nike (Victoria) - the winged personification of the Victory

Nyx (Nox) - the goddess of the night, a primordial deity

Oceanids - the 3,000 daugthers of Oceanus and Thetys, who were nymphs of the fresh waters

Oreads - nymphs of the mountains and valleys, associated with Artemis

Orthosie - one of the Horae, a goddess of prosperity

Panacea - goddess of Healing

Pandia - goddess of the full moon, daughter of Selene

Periboea - a Naiad, mother of Penelope

Persephone - the goddess of the Underworld (Proserpina)

Phoebe - Titaness of the intellect and prophecy

There was no letter Q in the Greek alphabet, so there are no Greek goddesses names that start with a Q.

Rhea - Titaness of motherhood and fertility, mother of Zeus

Selene (Luna) - the goddess of the moon

Styx - the goddess of the underworld river with the same name, on which oaths were sworn

Thalassa - a primordial goddess of the sea and the personification of the Mediterranea Sea

Theia - Titaness of sight and of the shining light of the sky

Thetis - a Nereid, the mother of the Greek hero Achilles.
For the second part of her story, click here

Themis - Titaness of the divine law and order

Thetys - a Titaness, mother of the rivers, springs and streams