# Data Collection

Make data collection easy by...creating a folder for each student, gather all probes (or other methods of measure) for each week, and date each probe from beginning of the year to the end of the year.  I typically do data probes on Fridays, pass out folders, have students look at their graphs/goals, then assess students.   This keeps me sane!

Progress Monitoring Presentation

Data Collection System - Essential Elements

The Service Provider reviews the IEP annual goals to identify target behavior to be measured, circumstances in which to teach and assess the skill/behavior target (criterion), method of measurement and frequency of data collection using the following steps:

1. Transfer information from the IEP Goals to the monitoring system:
2. Draw an aim line from the baseline to the criterion
3. Collect the data using the identified method of measurement and intervals of data collection
4. Analyze the data
5. Make data-driven instructional adjustments, as needed

Methods of Measurement for Progress Monitoring

Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) is an approach using probes to measure the growth of student proficiency. Probes are brief time samples made up of academic skills taken from the general curriculum.  CBM is standardized to provide valid and reliable indications of student progress.  Examples of Classroom Based Measures include:

• Oral Reading Fluency Probes – measurement of the student’s rate, accuracy, phrasing and intonation
• Math Computation Probe  - measurement of math computation skills (e.g., accuracy toward completion of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers, fractions, and decimals)
• Math Concepts and Applications Probe  - measurement of math reasoning skills (e.g., accuracy toward performance of place value, time, money, charts, graphs, and problem solving)

Direct Measures involves direct observation of performance and repeated recordings of student response (CEC Jan/Feb 2006).  Examples of Direct Measures include:

• Frequency Count/Event Recording - number of times a behavior occurs during a specific, consistent time period
• Time Sampling/Interval Recording - number of intervals in which a behavior occurs
• Duration Recording - measurement of how long the behavior occurs between initiation of response to conclusion
• Latency Recording - measurement of time between a prompt and start of the task
• Scatterplot - a chart used to determine patterns of targeted behavior(s) related to a specific class or school activities across time (e.g. schedule divided into15 minute increments during a two week period for charting occurrence of the target behavior)
• ABC Recording (Analysis)  - Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence
• Anecdotal Recording - narrative recording of events occurring during a specific time or setting; must be paired with another Method of Measurement.
• Checklist - a list of specific behaviors used to measure consistency and completeness in carrying out a task (can be observed therefore a Direct Measure)
• Running Record  - tool used to measure oral reading decoding skills

Indirect Measures involve using scoring criteria to review student performance (CEC Jan/Feb, 2006).  In other words, indirect measures are methods used for scoring the student performance observed through direct measures.  Examples of Indirect Measurements include:

• Rubric – a scoring guide that describes performance on a scale from desired performance to undesired performance using both qualitative and quantitative descriptions either analytically by assessing components of a finished product or holistically by assessing student’s work as a whole
• Goal Attainment Scaling – a scoring guide to rate student performance on a point scale from least to most favorable
• Teacher Interview  - summary of teacher input toward student performance on a given behavior in a structured format to be included with additional methods of measurement
• Checklist  - list of specific behaviors used to measure consistency and completeness in carrying out a task (can be applied to permanent product such as work sample, therefore an Indirect Measure)
• Scoring Guide (e.g. point value to determine percent correct from selected responses and short answers)
• Permanent Product – actual products of a target skill/behavior (e.g. point value to determine percent correct within selected responses and short answers)
• Teacher Made Tests – tests and other measures that are planned, assembled, written, or otherwise prepared by teachers for use for particular groups of students

Authentic Assessment measures a student’s performance in tasks and situations that resemble real-life tasks and situations (adapted from Assessing One and All, CEC 2001 and Jan/Feb 2006).  Examples of Authentic Assessment include:

• Student Interview/conference– student input on his/her performance toward a targeted skill/behavior
• Oral interview – a structured format through development of key questions to assess student’s attainment of skills and to identify misconceptions
• Portfolio – documentation of student performance through a collection of work samples demonstrating specific outcomes
• Work samples - evidence of student performance through actual student work (e.g. writing entries, math computations, projects, audio recordings of student reading, responses to questions)
• Annotation – a statement included within a student work sample that indicates student
• performance toward a targeted skill