Chapter 3 Cells and Tissue

 

Chapter 3 Objectives Part I Cells

Cells (pp. 54-72)

  • Name the four elements that make up the bulk of living matter and list several trace elements.
  • Define cell, organelle, and inclusion.
  • Identify on a cell model or diagram the three major cell regions (nucleus, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane).
  • List the structures of the nucleus and explain the function of chromatin and nucleoli.
  • Identify on a cell model or describe the organelles and discuss the major function of each.
  • Define selective permeability, diffusion (including dialysis and osmosis), active transport, passive transport, solute pumping, exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic.
  • Describe the structure of the plasma membrane, and explain how the various transport processes account for the directional movements of specific substances across the plasma membrane.
  • Describe briefly the process of DNA replication and of mitosis.
  • Explain the importance of mitotic cell division. In relation to protein synthesis, describe the roles of DNA and of the three varieties of RNA.

Chapter 3 - Cells Outline Framework Part 1:

  • Cells (pp. 54-74) OVERVIEW OF THE CELLULAR BASIS OF LIFE (p. 54)
  • ANATOMY OF A GENERALIZED CELL (pp. 54-61)
  • The Nucleus (p. 55)
    • Nuclear Membrane (nuclear envelope)
    • Nucleoli (nucleolus)
    • Chromatin
    • Nuclear Pores
  • The Plasma Membrane (pp. 56-57)
    • Specializations of the Plasma Membrane
  • The Cytoplasm (pp. 57-61)
    • Cytoplasmic Organelles
      • Ribosomes
      • Cytosol
      • Endoplasmic Reticulum
      • Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
      • Golgi Apparatus
      • Lysosomes
      • Peroxisomes
      • Mitochondria
      • Cytoskeleton –(Microtuble, Intermediate filament, Microfilament)
      • Centrioles
      • Microvilli
  • CELL PHYSIOLOGY (pp. 61-74)
  • Membrane Transport (pp. 61-67)
    • Passive Transport Processes:
      • Diffusion
      • Filtration
    • Active Transport Processes
      • Solute Pumping
      • Bulk Transport
      • Exocytosis
      • Endocytosis
  • Cell Division (pp. 67-72)
  • DNA Replication
  • Events of Cell Division  (I Pee on the MAT)
    • Mitosis
      • Interphase
      • Prophase
      • Metaphase
      • Anaphase
      • Telophase
    • Cytokinesis
  • Protein Synthesis (pp. 72-74)
  • Genes: The Blueprint for Protein Structure
    • The Role of RNA
    • Transcription
    • Translation

 

 

 

Chapter 3 Part I  Lecture Notes pages 72-83

Cell Physiology

  • Cell’s Organelles perform specific functions
  • Metabolize (build new cell material, break down substances, & make ATP)
  • Digest Foods
  • Dispose of Waste
  • Reproduce
  • Grow
  • Move
  • Irritability (respond to stimuli) 
  • Cellular Physiology: Membrane Transport
  • Membrane Transport – movement of substance into and out of the cell
  • Transport is by two basic methods
  • Passive transport
  • No energy is required
  • Active transport
  • The cell must provide metabolic energy
  • Solutions and Transport
  • Solution – homogeneous mixture of two or more components (ex. Air, seawater, rubbing alcohol)
  • Solvent – dissolving medium (largest amount) WATER!!!
  • Solutes – components in smaller quantities within a solution
  • Intracellular fluid – nucleoplasm (nucleus)and cytosol (cell) contain (gases, O2, CO2, salts, & nutrients
  • Interstitial fluid – fluid on the exterior of the cell “soup” which includes 1000’s of ingredients such as:
  •  nutrients (amino acids, sugars, fatty acids vitamins)
  • Hormones
  • Neurotransmitters,
  • Salts, and waste products
  • *Each cell must extract the exact & reject the right amounts at specific times!
  • Selective Permeability
  • The plasma membrane allows some materials to pass while excluding others
  • This permeability includes movement into and out of the cell
  • ** Note Homeostatic Imbalance p73
  • Passive Transport Processes
  • Diffusion
  • Particles tend to distribute themselves evenly within a solution
  • Movement is from high concentration to low concentration, or down a concentration gradient
  • Types of diffusion
  • Simple diffusion
  • Unassisted process  (substances move down their concentration gradient via kinetic energy)
  • Solutes are lipid-soluble materials (fats, fat-soluble vitamins, O2, & CO2,) or small substances (small ions  Na+ or Cl-) enough to pass through membrane pores
  • Osmosis – simple diffusion of water through a membrane.
  • Highly polar water easily crosses the plasma membrane by aquaporins (“water pores”) created by proteins in the membrane.
  • Facilitated diffusion
  • Substances require a protein carrier or channel protein for passive transport
  • Glucose because it is lipid insoluble and too large to pass through membrane pores
  • Water or ions are lipid insoluble
  • Water, Glucose, and oxygen continually move into the cells where they are in lower concentration  b/c the cell keeps using them up!
  • CO2 a waste product of cellular activity moves out of the cells into the blood where it is in lower concentration.
  • Filtration
  • Water and solutes are forced through a membrane by fluid, or hydrostatic pressure
  • A pressure gradient must exist
  • Solute-containing fluid is pushed from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area
  • Ex.  In the kidneys, water and small solutes filter out of the capillaries into the kidney tubules  because the blood pressure in the capillaries is greater than the fluid pressure in the tubules. Part of the filtrate becomes urine.
  • Active Transport Processes
  • Transport substances that are unable to pass by diffusion and use ATP to move substances b/c
  • They may be too large
  • They may not be able to dissolve in the fat core of the membrane
  • They may have to move against a concentration gradient 
  • Two common forms of active transport
  • Solute pumping
  • Bulk transport 
  • Solute pumping
  • Amino acids, some sugars and ions are transported by solute pumps
  • ATP energizes protein carriers, and in most cases, moves substances against concentration or electrical gradients 
  • SODIUM POTASSIUM PUMP
  • Carries Na+ out and K+ into the cell for normal transmission of impulses by nerve cells.
  • Na+ are moved out of cells by solute pumps because there are more Na+ outside the cells than inside.
  • There are more K+ inside the cells than in the interstitial (extracellular fluid)
  • No pump no transport 
  • Bulk transport
  • Exocytosis
  • Moves materials out of the cell
  • Material is carried in a membranous vesicle
  • Vesicle migrates to plasma membrane
  • Vesicle combines with plasma membrane
  • Material is emptied to the outside
  • Endocytosis
  • Extracellular substances are engulfed by being enclosed in a membranous vesicles
  • Types of endocytosis
  • Phagocytosis – cell eating ex. WBC protect body by ingesting bacteria, foreign debris, and dead body cells. Protective Mechanism.
  • Pinocytosis – cell drinking (liquid) Important in cells that function for absorption. ex. small intestines or kidney tubules.

Cell Life Cycle

  • Cells have two major periods
  • Interphase
  • Cell grows
  • Cell carries on metabolic processes
  • Cell division
  • Cell replicates itself
  • Function is to produce more cells for growth and repair processes
  • DNA Replication
  • Genetic material duplicated and readies a cell for division into two cells
  • Occurs toward the end of interphase
  • DNA uncoils and each side serves as a template
  • Events of Cell Division
  • Mitosis
  • Division of the nucleus
  • Results in the formation of two daughter nuclei
  • Cytokinesis
  • Division of the cytoplasm
  • Begins when mitosis is near completion
  • Results in the formation of two daughter cells
  •  
  • Stages of Mitosis
  • Interphase
  • No cell division occurs
  • The cell carries out normal metabolic activity and growth
  • DNA Replication
  • Prophase
  • First part of cell division
  • Chromatin condense to form chromosomes
  • Centrioles migrate to the poles
  • Nuclear membrane disappears
  • Metaphase
  • Spindle from centrioles are attached to the centromere of the chromosomes that are aligned in the center of the cell
  • Anaphase
  • Daughter chromosomes are pulled toward the poles
  • The cell begins to elongate
  •  
  • Telophase “Prophase in reverse”
  • Daughter nuclei begin forming
  • A cleavage furrow (for cell division) begins to form
  • Produce two daughter cells

 

Protein Synthesis

  • Gene – DNA segment that carries a blueprint for building one protein
  • Proteins have many functions
  • Building materials for cells ex. Fibrous or (structural) proteins
  • Act as enzymes (biological catalysts) – globular (functional) proteins
  • Each sequence of 3 bases (a triplet) calls for a particular amino acid ex. CCT glycine.
  • Role of RNA
  • RNA (ribonucleic acid) is essential for protein synthesis “soldier for DNA”
  • Transfer RNA (tRNA) Transfers appropriate amino acids to the ribosome for building the protein
  • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Helps form the ribosomes where proteins are built
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) Carries the instructions for building a protein from the nucleus to the ribosome
  •  Transcription and Translation
  • Protein Synthesis involves two major phases
  • Transcription
  • Transfer of information from DNA’s base sequence to the complimentary base sequence of mRNA
  • Translation
  • Base sequence of nucleic acid is translated to an amino acid sequence
  • Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins Protein Synthesis

Chapter 3 Objectives Part II  and Part II BodyTissues and Development Aspects of Cells and Tissues

Body Tissues (pp. 74-86)

  • Name the four major tissue types and their chief subcategories.
  • Explain how the four major tissue types differ structurally and functionally.
  • Give the chief locations of the various tissue types in the body.
  • Describe the process of tissue repair (wound healing).

Developmental Aspects of Cells and Tissues (pp. 86-87)

  • Define neoplasm, and distinguish between benign and malignant neoplasms.
  • Explain the significance of the fact that some tissue types (muscle and nerve) are amitotic after the growth stages are over.

 

 

 http://www.quia.com/quiz/1930814.html?AP_rand=1673629958

 

CHAPTER 3 PART II BODY TISSUES Lecture Notes

  • Body Tissues
  • Cells are specialized for particular functions
  •  
  • Tissues
  • Groups of cells with similar structure and function
  •  
  • Four primary types
  • Epithelium –covering
  • Connective tissue- support
  • Nervous tissue-control
  • Muscle-movement
  •  
  • Epithelial Tissues
  • Found in different areas
  • Body coverings-skin
  • Body linings-stomach and small intestine
  • Glandular tissue-glands
  •  
  • Functions
  • Protection
  • Absorption
  • Filtration
  • Secretion
  •  
  • Epithelium Characteristics
  • Cells fit closely together- by membrane junctions (desosomes and tight junctions)
  • Tissue layer always has one free surface- (apical surface)
  • The lower surface is bound by a basement membrane
  • Avascular (have no blood supply)- (Depend on diffusion from capillaries)
  • Regenerate easily if well nourished
  •  
  • Classification of Epithelium
  • Number of cell layers
  • ·         Simple – one layer
  • ·         Stratified – more than one layer
  •  
  • Classification of Epithelium
  • Shape of cells
  • ·         Squamous – flattened
  • ·         Cuboidal – cube-shaped
  • ·         Columnar – column-like
  •  
  • Simple Epithelium
  •  
  • 1.      Simple squamous
  • ·         Single layer of flat cells
  • ·         Usually forms membranes
  • ·         Lines body cavities
  • ·         Lines lungs and capillaries
  •  
  • 2.      Simple cuboidal
  • ·         Single layer of cube-like cells
  • ·         Common in glands and their ducts
  • ·         Forms walls of kidney tubules
  • ·         Covers the ovaries
  •  
  • 3.      Simple columnar
  • ·         Single layer of tall cells
  • ·         Often includes goblet cells, which produce mucus
  • ·         Lines digestive tract
  •  
  • 4.      Pseudostratified
  • Single layer, but some cells are shorter than others
  • Often looks like a double cell layer
  • Sometimes ciliated, such as in the respiratory tract
  • May function in absorption or secretion
  •  
  • Stratified Epithelium
  •  
  • 1.      Stratified squamous
  • ·         Cells at the free edge are flattened
  • ·         Found as a protective covering where friction is common
  • ·         Locations
  • ·         Skin
  • ·         Mouth
  • ·         Esophagus
  •  
  • 2.      Stratified cuboidal
  • Two layers of cuboidal cells
  •  
  • 3.      Stratified columnar
  • Surface cells are columnar, cells underneath vary in size and shape
  •  
  • ·         Stratified cuboidal and columnar
  • ·         Rare in human body
  • ·         Found mainly in ducts of large glands
  •  
  • 4.      Transitional epithelium
  • ·         Shape of cells depends upon the amount of stretching
  • ·         Lines organs of the urinary system
  •  
  • 5.      Glandular Epithelium
  • ·         Gland – one or more cells that secretes a particular product
  • Two major gland types
  • ·         Endocrine gland
  • ·         Ductless
  • ·         Secretions are hormones
  • ·         Exocrine gland
  • ·         Empty through ducts to the epithelial surface
  • ·         Include sweat and oil glands
  •  
  • Connective Tissue
  • ·         Found everywhere in the body
  • ·         Includes the most abundant and widely distributed tissues
  • ·         Functions
  • ·         Binds body tissues together
  • ·         Supports the body
  • ·         Provides protection
  •  
  • Connective Tissue Characteristics
  • ·         Variations in blood supply
  • ·         Some tissue types are well vascularized
  • ·         Some have poor blood supply or are avascular
  • Extracellular matrix
  • Non-living material that surrounds living cells
  • Two main elements
  • ·         Ground substance – mostly water along with adhesion proteins and polysaccharide molecules
  • ·         Fibers
  • ·         Produced by the cells
  • ·         Three types
  • ·         Collagen fibers
  • ·         Elastic fibers
  • ·         Reticular fibers
  •  
  • 1.      Bone (osseous tissue)
  • Composed of:
  • ·         Bone cells in lacunae (cavities)
  • ·         Hard matrix of calcium salts
  • ·         Large numbers of collagen fibers
  • ·         Used to protect and support the body
  •  
  • 2.      Hyaline cartilage
  • ·         Most common cartilage
  • ·         Composed of:
  • ·         Abundant collagen fibers
  • ·         Rubbery matrix
  • ·         Entire fetal skeleton is hyaline cartilage
  • 3.      Elastic cartilage
  • ·         Provides elasticity
  • ·         Example: supports the external ear
  • 4.      Fibrocartilage
  • ·         Highly compressible
  • ·         Example: forms cushion-like discs between vertebrae
  • 5.      Dense connective tissue
  • ·         Main matrix element is collagen fibers
  • ·         Cells are fibroblasts
  • ·         Examples
  • ·         Tendon – attach muscle to bone
  • ·         Ligaments – attach bone to bone
  • 6.      Areolar connective tissue
  • ·         Most widely distributed
    connective tissue
  • ·         Soft, pliable tissue
  • ·         Contains all fiber types
  • ·         Can soak up excess fluid
  • 7.      Adipose tissue
  • ·         Matrix is an areolar tissue in which fat globules predominate
  • ·         Many cells contain
    large lipid deposits
  • ·         Functions
  • ·         Insulates the body
  • ·         Protects some organs
  • ·         Serves as a site of
    fuel storage
  •  
  • 8.      Reticular connective tissue
  • ·         Delicate network of interwoven fibers
  • ·         Forms stroma (internal supporting network) of
    lymphoid organs
  • ·         Lymph nodes
  • ·         Spleen   
  • ·         Bone marrow
  •  
  • 9.      Blood
  • ·         Blood cells surrounded by fluid matrix
  • ·         Fibers are visible during clotting
  • ·         Functions as the transport vehicle for materials
  •  
  • Muscle Tissue
  • ·         Function is to produce movement
  • ·         Three types
  • ·         Skeletal muscle
  • ·         Cardiac muscle
  • ·         Smooth muscle
  • 1.      Skeletal muscle
  • ·         Can be controlled voluntarily
  • ·         Cells attach to connective tissue
  • ·         Cells are striated
  • ·         Cells have more than one nucleus
  •  
  • 2.      Cardiac muscle
  • ·         Found only in the heart
  • ·         Function is to pump blood (involuntary)
  • ·         Cells attached to other cardiac muscle cells at intercalated disks
  • ·         Cells are striated
  • ·         One nucleus per cell
  •  
  • 3.      Smooth muscle
  • ·         Involuntary muscle
  • ·         Surrounds hollow organs
  • ·         Attached to other smooth muscle cells
  • ·         No visible striations
  • ·         One nucleus per cell
  •  
  • Nervous Tissue
  • ·         Neurons and nerve support cells
  • ·         Function is to send impulses to other areas of the body
  • ·         Irritability
  • ·         Conductivity
  •  
  • Tissue Repair
  • ·         Regeneration
  • ·         Replacement of destroyed tissue by the same kind of cells
  •  
  •  
  • Fibrosis
  • ·         Repair by dense fibrous connective tissue (formation of scar tissue)
  • ·         Determination of method
  • ·         Type of tissue damaged
  • ·         Severity of the injury
  •  
  • Events in Tissue Repair
  • 1.       Capillaries become very permeable
  • 2.       Introduce clotting proteins
  • 3.       Wall off injured area
  • 4.       Formation of granulation tissue
  • 5.       Regeneration of surface epithelium
  •  
  • Tissues that regenerate easily
  • ·         Epithelial tissue
  • ·         Fibrous connective tissue and bone
  •  
  • Tissues that regenerate poorly
  • ·         Skeletal muscle
  • ·         Tissues that are replaced largely with scar tissue
  • ·         Cardiac muscle
  • ·         Nervous tissue within the brain and spinal cord
  •  
  • Developmental Aspects of Tissue
  • ·         Epithelial tissue arises from all three primary germ layers
  • ·         Muscle and connective tissue arise from the mesoderm
  • ·         Nervous tissue arises from the ectoderm
  • ·         With old age there is a decrease in mass and viability in most tissues
  •