Era 6: Industrial Development of the United States 1870-19006.1 ID how the effects of 19th century warfare promoted the growth of industrialism

·         Railroads – moving troops and supplies

·         Iron v. Steel – weapons

·         Textiles – cloth for uniforms and blankets

·         Coal – fuel for RRs

·         Rubber – water-proof shoes

·         Processed foods – meals for soldiers

6.2 ID major agricultural post-Civil War geographic areas on a map

·         South

·         Midwest

·         Mid-Atlantic

6.3 ID major urban areas of the U.S. on a map

·         Northeast

·         Upper Midwest

·         Atlantic Coast

·         California

6.4 ID patterns of immigration and the causal factors that led to immigration

·         Crop famines

·         European social and political unrest

·         Religious freedom

6.5 Distinguish between the differences in assimilation of “old” v. “new” immigration






Settlement Patterns

Rural areas







Factory jobs




Nativist Reaction



Geographic Origin

Western Europe

Eastern & Southern Europe

 6.6 Read and interpret a primary source document reflecting the dynamics of the Gilded Age society [APPARTS]

·         BTW’s “Atlanta Compromise”

·         Carnegie’s “Gospel of Wealth”

·         Sojourner Truth’s “Ain’t I a Woman?”

·         Jane Addams’s “Hull House”

·         Jacob Riss’s photographs

6.7 Recognize technological and industrial advancements to the era

·         Mining – high pressure water pumps

·         Farming – steel-tipped plow

·         Ranching – barbed wire

6.8 Match innovators to their contributions

·         Vanderbilt – oil tycoon; monopolies

·         Westinghouse – sending electricity over distances

·         Carnegie – vertical integration; “gospel of wealth”

·         Pullman – sleeper car on trains

·         Bell – telephone

·         Edison – light bulb

·         Rockefeller – horizontal integration; rise of big business

·         Swift –refrigerated RR cars

·         Armour – meat processing (Think Armour meats!)

6.9 Recognize the economic disparity among farmers, wage earners, immigrants, or racial groups when compared to industrial capitalists

·         Industrial capitalists exploited wage earners, immigrants, and racial groups to make huge profits.

·         Farmers experienced falling crop prices and rising business costs.

6.10 Interpret a political cartoon which portrays the controversial aspects of the Gilded Age

·         Populist reaction to politicians and/or tycoons

·         Railroad development

·         Westward expansion

·         Dawes Act

·         Urban development

6.11 Analyze the impact of different forms of corruption and its consequences in American politics during the latter half of the age

·         President Grant(1869-1876)

o   Black Friday – conspiracy to raise price of gold

o   Credit Mobilier – RRs bribe politicians to increase profits

o   Whiskey Ring – politicians take bribes and steal tax $ from whiskey taxes

·         Tammany Hall – corrupt Democrats control NYC

·         Boss System – corrupt politicians controlling city governments

·         Garfield’s assassination – killed by a man who demanded a job because of spoils system

·         Civil Service Reform – set up test for civil service jobs (ended spoils system)

·         Granger laws – to control RR and grain elevator prices for farmers

·         Interstate Commerce Act (ICC) – to stop monopolies and corruption in RRs

6.12 Assess the effect of late 19th century technological innovation on the daily lives of Americans

·         Electricity – extended work and play hours

·         Indoor plumbing – improved sanitation

·         Communication – news spread faster

·         Transportation – expanded industry and westward expansion

Era 7: Emergence of Modern America 1890-19307.1.1 Identify causes of American imperialism (i.e. raw materials, nationalism, missionaries, militarism, Monroe Doctrine)

·         Imperialism is when a powerful country takes a weaker country as a possession and uses it for resources, a market for its exports, labor force, etc.

·         American businesses wanted to use the resources from other places, such as sugar cane from Philippines

·         Americans held the belief that their nation was superior and that it had the right to impose its influence on “inferior” people and nations

·         American missionaries wanted to convert people in other places to Christianity

·         The Monroe Doctrine was a part of U.S. foreign policy that said no other countries were welcome to establish colonies in North or South America.

7.2.1 Identify consequences of American imperialism (i.e. Spanish-American War, expanding trade, extractive economies, Panama Canal, the idea of a superior Anglo-Saxon culture, yellow journalism, military occupation)

·         The Spanish-American War was when the U.S. went to war against Spain to free the people in Spain’s colonies (Cuba, Guam, Philippines) from Spanish rule.

·          American businessmen also wanted to take these colonies for the U.S. so they could ship their goods for sale there, expanding their trade.

·         An extractive economy is when a powerful country uses a smaller one to take its resources, such as tea, rubber, iron, petroleum, etc.

·         The U.S., under Pres. Theodore Roosevelt, built the Panama Canal in Central America so that they could more easily ship goods from other places and also so that they could better defend themselves from attack. The canal linked the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

·         Anglo-Saxon means people descended from England and other western European countries such as France. During this period, many people believed Anglo-Saxons were a superior race and so they had a right, even a duty, to control and influence other people.

·         Yellow journalism was the practice of publishing sensational and exaggerated stories in newspapers. It was used by William Randolph Hearst and others to incite Americans to go to war with Spain.

·         The U.S. got the support of Filipino nationals in the war with Spain by promising them their independence after Spain was defeated. Instead, we left our troops there in a military occupation. The Filipinos then began a fight against the U.S. for their independence.

7.3.1 Recognize the progress of political and social reform in America during this era (i.e. Woman’s Suffrage, regulation of food and drugs, initiative, referendum, and recall, protection of workers’ rights, antitrust, Supreme Court decisions, muckrakers)

·         Women fought for the right to vote during this period. The 19th amendment was passed in 1920 [Remember the movie “Iron-Jawed Angels”)

·         The Progressives passed several laws to protect consumers, such as:

o   Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)

o   Meat Inspection Act (1906)

·         Initiative – people can propose a new law by collecting signatures on a petition

·         Referendum – allows citizens to vote to approve or reject laws passed by the legislature

·         Recall – gives citizens to right to remove an official from office before his/her term ends

·         Progressives got several laws passed to protect workers’ rights, such as shorter work day, outlawing child labor, etc.

·         Antitrust legislation means laws that control big businesses

o   Sherman Antitrust Act – outlawed monopolies and practices like price fixing

o   Clayton Antitrust Act - Strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act by spelling out specific activities businesses could not do

o   Hepburn Act – authorized the government to control regulate RR rates

·         Muckrakers were writers who investigated corruption in business and government and wrote stories to expose them. Examples: Ida Tarbell and Upton Sinclair

7.4.2 Identify the causes of American involvement in WWI (i.e. security concerns, economic benefits, Wilsonian diplomacy, propaganda)

·         German U-boats were sinking unarmed ships, including the Lusitania which carried American passengers. In addition, the Zimmerman note was sent by Germany to Mexico saying that if the U.S. declared war on Germany, Mexico should declare war on the U.S. In return, after the war Germany would give Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona back to Mexico.

·         The British blockade of Germany had reduced American trade.

·         Pres. Wilson tried to keep the U.S. neutral, but German U-boats and the Zimmerman note finally caused him to ask Congress to declare war on Germany.

7.5.2 Recognize the new trends, ideas, and innovations of the 1920s popular culture (i.e. radio, automobile, phonograph, Prohibition, birth control, organized crime, sports)

·         The radio became the centerpiece of most American homes during the 20s.

·         The automobile was made affordable by Henry Ford. It led to the growth of other businesses, such as gas stations, the vacation industry, and the highway system.

·         The phonograph enabled Americans to listen to music anytime and anyplace.

·         Prohibition, the 18th amendment, led to an increase in organized crime as criminal gangs made and sold illegal alcohol.

·         Birth control enabled women to have fewer children and more freedom.

·         Sports heroes from this period include

o   Babe Ruth – baseball

o   Jack Dempsey – boxing

o   Bobby Jones - golf

7.6.2 Recognize the role of Tennessee in the women’s suffrage movement (i.e. “the perfect 36”, Anne Dallas Dudley, Harry Burn, Governor Albert Roberts)

·         36 states had to ratify the 19th amendment for it to pass, and Tennessee was the 36th state to pass it. It passed In our state legislature by only one vote

·         Anne Dallas Dudley led the campaign for woman’s suffrage in Nashville

·         Harry Burn was a young legislator who changed his vote at the last minute to break the tie and pass the 19th amendment

·         Albert Roberts was governor of Tennessee and encouraged the state legislature to ratify the 19th amendment

7.7.2 Determine the possible factors that led to the economic collapse of 1929 (i.e. over-production of agriculture and industry, expansion of credit, financial speculation, agricultural crop failures, tariff barriers, laissez-faire)

·         Farmers borrowed money & bought equipment to produce more food during WWI, but after the war demand for their crops dropped, prices fell, and they could no longer pay their debts

·         During WWI, factories expanded to produce more goods for the war, but demand for their goods fell after the war and they could no longer pay their debts

·         During the Roaring 20s, many Americans bought goods on credit that they could not really afford to pay for

·         Investors bought stock on margin, meaning they bought stock on credit, then resold it after a few weeks for a higher price. They then could pay for the stock and have a profit. However, when stock prices stopped going up, they were stuck with stock they couldn’t pay for.

·         When the economic downturn began, the federal government passed the Hawley-Smoot Tariff on foreign imports. This was meant to make imports too expensive to compete with U.S. goods. However, the tariff backfired because other countries retaliated by placing tariffs on U.S. goods so that U.S. manufacturers could not sell their goods overseas.

·         Laissez-faire means that the government stays out of the economy and lets it take care of itself. When the economic downturn began, the federal government did little to improve things, so the depression deepened until it was too late to stop it.

7.8.2 Read and interpret primary source documents reflecting the social dynamics of the 1920s (e.g. Harlem Renaissance, Lost Generation, Ida Tarbell, Upton Sinclair, Gifford Pinchot, Theodore Roosevelt)

·         The Harlem Renaissance refers to a rise in African American arts and culture in the Harlem area of New York City. It included

o   Langston Hughes – poet

o   Zora Neale Hurston – novelist

o   Claude McKay – writer

·         The Lost Generation refers to young writers in the 1920s who rejected the strict rules and moral code of the Victorian era and searched for new truths and fresh ways of expressing themselves in their writing. They include F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway.

·         Ida Tarbell was a journalist who wrote about John D. Rockefeller and how he used ruthless and dishonest methods to increase his profits at Standard Oil. Her writing encouraged Congress to pass laws against trusts and monopolies.

·         Upton Sinclair was a novelist who wrote The Jungle, a novel that exposed the unsanitary meat packing plants and poor working conditions for immigrants in Chicago.

·         Gifford Pinchot was an advisor to Theodore Roosevelt who recommended that our forests be protected, not so animals would keep their natural habitats, but so that their lumber could be used to build homes.

·         Theodore Roosevelt – Surely you know who he was!!!!

7.9.3 Compare and contrast the philosophies of DuBois, Washington, and Garvey

·         W.E.B. DuBois believed that African Americans should demand full equality immediately, that young African Americans should be encouraged to attend college, and that they should not have to “earn” rights, such as voting, that were already guaranteed them in the Constitution.

·         Booker T. Washington believed that African Americans could best achieve equality by achieving economic independence. He felt that black people must tolerate discrimination while they proved themselves to white people, then civil rights would come slowly.

·         Marcus Garvey founded the “Back to Africa” movement

7.10.3 Analyze the American isolationist position versus interventionist arguments·         This is referring to the debate we discussed in class about why America should get involved in WWI or why we should stay out of Europe’s problems. We will go over this in class.Era 8: The Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945)8.1.1 Identify the causes of WWII (i.e. Treaty of Versailles, fascism, failure of the League of Nations, Japanese imperialism, economic worldwide difficulties)

·         After WWI, the Treaty of Versailles left a weak German government with many economic and political problems. Hitler took advantage of these problems to gain power.

·         Fascism was a form of totalitarian government. During the worldwide depression, dictators were able to take advantage of people’s fears and come to power. Example: Benito Mussolini in Italy

·         After WWI, Pres. Wilson established the League of Nations to prevent future wars, but the U.S. congress refused to allow the U.S. to join. Because of this and other reasons, the League of Nations was too weak to deal with Hitler and other problems that led to WWII.

·         Japan wanted to expand its economy during the Depression, so they invaded China and other Asian lands to build their empire.

8.2.1 Recognize the negative patterns of an economic cycle (i.e. increase of unemployment, decrease of price level, excess inventory, decrease of production, repossession, increase of business failure, bankruptcy)

·         See Cause and Effect: The Great Depression on p.390

8.3.1 Recognize the definitions of totalitarianism, fascism, communism, nationalism, and anti-Semitism

·         Totalitarianism – a  government in which a single party or leader controls the economic, social, and cultural lives of its people

·         Fascism – a type of totalitarian government in Italy under Benito Mussolini during WWII

·         Communism – a form of totalitarian government in which the government owns all property and controls the economy, denies freedom of speech and religion

·         Nationalism – devotion to and pride in one’s nation

·         Anti-Semitism – hatred of Jewish people

8.4.1 Identify the changes in social and cultural life caused by the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl (i.e. Hoovervilles, Bonus Army, migrations, worldwide economic depression, Democrat victory in 1932, widespread poverty, unemployment, religious revivalism)

·         Hoovervilles were communities of temporary houses built by homeless families during the Depression

·         The Bonus Army was a group of WWI veterans who marched to Washington during the Depression to get a bonus promised them by the government. See p.387

·         Migrations & the Dust Bowl – See p.378

·         Worldwide economic depression – See diagram on p.372

·         Democrat victory in 1932 – FDR was elected because Republican presidents Coolidge and Hoover had failed to improve the economy

·         Because time were so hard, many people turned to religion

8.5.2 Interpret a timeline of major events from WWII

·         See pp. 504-505

8.6.2 Identify the New Deal Programs/Initiatives (i.e. Social Security, WPA, TBA, Indian Reorganization Act, FDIC, CCC, Wagner/Fair Labor Standards Act)

·         Social Security – pension system for the elderly & retirees, unemployment insurance, insurance for victims of job-related accidents

·         WPA – Works Progress Administration oversaw program to create new jobs. See p.418-419

·         TBA –

·         Indian Reorganization Act – gave Indians economic assistance and more control over their own affairs

·         FDIC – Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, see p.428

·         CCC – Civilian Conservation Corps, see p.428

·         Wagner/Fair Labor Standards Act – see chart on p.409

8.7.2 Recognize WWII alliances

Allied Powers

Axis Powers

United States






Soviet Union



 8.8.2 Analyze how WWII affected the American economy (i.e. women in the workforce, movement to urban centers, minority employment, postwar G.I. Bill, rationing, childcare)

·         See World War II Home Front on p.504

·         See Experience the World War II Home Front on pp.480-481

8.9.2 Recognize the effect of the New Deal and WWII on Tennessee (i.e. creation of Fort Campbell/Clarksville Base, Tennessee Valley Authority, Secretary of State Cordell Hull, Oak Ridge)·          8.10.3 Evaluate the impact of the Manhattan Project (i.e. the creation of Oak Ridge Tennessee, nuclear proliferation, espionage, ethical debate, medical experimentation, Nagasaki, Hiroshima)

·         The Manhattan Project was the work of scientists who developed the atomic bomb.

·         The A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki & Hiroshima to end the war with Japan (WWII).

·         Nuclear proliferation means a drastic increase in the number of nuclear weapons built during the Cold War

·         Espionage – spying, which was done by many agents of the U.S. and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Remember Ethyl and Julius Rosenberg?

·         The U.S. government performed experiments to determine the medical effects of the radiation from A-bombs on people

8.11.3 Interpret a political cartoon involving the New Deal

·         See p.401, p.410

Era 9: Post World War II Era (1945-1970s)Chapters 16 - 219.1.1 Recognize differences among the victorious Allied Powers after WWII (i.e. capitalist, communist, military structure, individual differences)

·         U.S. & other allies – democracy; capitalist; respect for individual differences

·         Soviet Union – communist, government-controlled economy; no allowances for differences

·         This is what created the Cold War

9.2.1 Distinguish between social inequities in America in the post-WWII era

·         Racial segregation

·         Generation Conflict – see p.684

·         Gender equality – see p.689 “Comparing Viewpoints”

·         Ethnic identification – see p.694 “Migrant Workers”

9.3.1 Locate and label countries, using a map, dominated or threatened by Communism

·         See map on p.513

9.4.1 Recognize the impact of technological and cultural changes on American society

·         Space Race – competition between U.S. and Soviet Union to place a man on the moon, see p.626

·         Hollywood - movies

·         Communication networks

·         Mass media – television, radio, etc.

·         Medical advances

·         Interstate Highway System

9.5.2 Identify areas associated with American containment policies (i.e. Korea, Vietnam, Cuba, East and West Germany)

·         Korea – U.S. sent troops to help South Koreans resist communist army from North Korea

·         Vietnam – U.S. sent troops to help South Vietnamese resist communism from Vietcong & North Vietnam

·         Cuba – Bay of Pigs and Cuban Missile Crisis

·         Germany – after WWII, was divided into two countries: East Germany was communist and West Germany was non-communist and backed by U.S.

9.6.2 Recognize the domestic impact of the Cold War on American society

·         McCarthyism – Joseph McCarthy led Senate investigations into accused communist spies; used bullying tactics, half-truths, and intimidation

·         Fear – see “Red Scare Culture” on p.534-535

·         Conformity – many Americans criticized the emphasis on conformity (fitting in and being the same as everyone else) of the 1950s

·         Counterculture – movement in the 1950s and 1960s that rejected the rules and values of the older generation

·         Generation gap – see p.684

·         Highway system

·         Consumerism

9.7.2 Determine the effects of the Supreme Court’s decision on Civil Rights (i.e. Plessy v. Ferguson, Brown v. Board, Miranda v. Arizona, Gideon v. Wainwright)

·         Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) established “separate but equal” was legal

·         Brown v. Board (1954) said segregation was unconstitutional – overturned Plessy

·         Miranda v. Arizona (1966) ruled that police had to advise a person of his/her rights when placing them under arrest

·         Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) ruled that if a defendant could not afford an attorney, the court must provide one for him/her

9.8.2 Identify significant events in the struggle for Civil Rights

·         Integration of Clinton, TN, High School – 1956

·         Little Rock Central High School – “Little Rock Nine” – 1957

·         Montgomery Bus Boycott – 1955 – Rosa Parks

·         Freedom Riders – 1961 – see map on p.591

·         Birmingham bombings –

·         Nashville lunch counter sit-ins – students sat at lunch counters and refused to move to protest the refusal of many restaurants to serve African Americans – Diane Nash led the movement

·         James Meredith – African American student who integrated University of Mississippi (Ole Miss) see picture on p.592

·         March on Washington – see p.594-595

·         Civil Rights Act of 1964 – See p.610 “Civil Rights Legislation”

9.9.2 Recognize the altered American approach to foreign policy (i.e. Bay of Pigs, Brinkmanship, Cuban Missile Crisis, peaceful coexistence)

·         Bay of Pigs – failed attempt to use Cuban exiles to overthrow Castro in Cuba

·         Brinkmanship – Cold War approach by Sec. of State Dulles; stated that to prevent war, you had to prove that you would go to the brink or edge of war

·         Cuban Missile Crisis – see p.621

·         Peaceful coexistence – policy introduced by Pres. Nixon that the U.S. and communist countries could coexist without fighting

9.10.2 Match leading figures of the Civil Rights era with their respective groups and goals

·         Strom Thurmond – gov. & senator from South Carolina who opposed integration

·         Eugene “Bull” Conner – Birmingham’s Commissioner of Public Safety who used dogs and fire hoses against African American protesters

·         George Wallace – Alabama governor who fought against integration, see picture on p.589

·         Diane Nash – led lunch counter sit-in movement in Nashville

·         Betty Friedan – spoke out for equal rights for women, see p.687

·         Martin Luther King, Jr. – Surely you know this one!!!

·         Malcolm X – leader of Nation of Islam; disagreed with King about strategies

·         Stokely Carmichael – leader of “Black Power” movement

·         Albert Gore, Sr. – senator from Tennessee who supported civil rights

9.11.2 Read and interpret Cold War documents (e.g. Truman’s announcement of the dropping of atomic bombs, the contrast between Eisenhower’s farewell speech and Kennedy’s inaugural speech, Goldwater’s 1964 party nomination acceptance speech, Johnson’s Gulf of Tonkin declaration)

9.12.2 Identify the changes in the music industry brought about by Tennessee’s influence       

·         Grand Ole Opry – country music show in Nashville that helped make country music famous

·         WSM – country music radio station in Nashville

·         Nashville music publishing – published a lot of hit songs by country music artists

·         Memphis Sun Studio – recorded records for rock and roll hits like Johnny Cash, Elvis Presley, etc.

·         Elvis Presley – The King! (and you thought it was Jerry Lawler) see p.566

9.13.3 Evaluate socio-economic impact of the post-WWII Baby Boomer generation

·         Media – see “A New Entertainment” on p.564

·         Entertainment – see “Baby-Boom Kids” on p.563

·         Suburbia – See “The New Suburban Lifestyle” on p.554-555

·         Education – many new schools had to be built; education became more “democratized” (more accessible to all)

·         Counterculture – see p.682-683

Era 10: The Contemporary United States 1968 – PresentChapters 22-2410.1 Match innovators or entrepreneurs in the “new economy”

·         Sam Walton – founder of Wal-Mart

·         Michael Dell – founder of Dell Computers

·         Ray Kroc – franchised McDonald’s restaurants and started fast food industry

·         Lee Iococca – president of Chrysler

·         Donald Trump

·         Bill Gates – founder of Microsoft

·         Steve Jobs – founder of Apple computers

·         Jeff Bezos – founded Amazon.com

10.2 Recognize the roles of the key figures of Watergate

·         Administration

·         Investigators                      See “Watergate Forces Nixon from Office”, p.714-715

·         Media                                     and “Watergate in Review”, p.732

10.3 Use a timeline to identify America’s interest and participation in Southeast Asia since WWII

·         See Timeline on p.732-733 and “International Relations in the 1970s” on p.732

10.4 Compare and contrast the Reagan and George H.W. Bush administrations with the Clinton administration and the nature of their respective political opposition



Supported tax cuts to stimulate economy


Fought war on drugs

Health Care Reform package failed; signed bill to reform welfare


Increased defense spending (military)

Foreign Policy

Pressured Soviet Union by building up U.S. military; sent peacekeeping forces to other countries and humanitarian aid to Somalia and other countries; fought Persian Gulf War

Sent troops to Haiti and Bosnia; led Israeli-Palestinian peace talks at Camp David


Impeached but cleared of charges

Generational Values

Related more to older generation of WWII veterans

Related to younger Baby Boomer generation

 10.5 Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of increased global trade and competition on the U.S. economy

·         NAFTA treaty – North American Free Trade Agreement: allows free trade among the U.S., Mexico, and Canada

o   Advantages: has reduced prices; increased exports; promoted economic growth

o   Disadvantages: many jobs have been lost to Mexico where wages are much cheapter

·         Import quotas – see p.824-825

·         Free trade agreements – see p.824-825

 Era 9-10 Study Guide.docx