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Laura McBain

Resume

Laura L. McBain

Summary of qualifications

2009-current       Bastrop ISD                      Bastrop, Texas

Substitute teacher

2006-20009   Elgin Elementary School       Elgin, Texas

Teacher, 3rd and 4th grades primarily Title I and at-risk

2008-2009-4th grade departmentalized Science/Social Studies and homeroom for Writing. 98% passing rate in TAKS Writing. Volunteered to go into the 4th grade bilingual class for Science once per week to catch them up in Science because their teacher left and they had a long-term substitute. Co-team leader of 4th grade, PBS/ROAR team member and 5th grade UIL.

2007-2008-all content until after Christmas when asked by the principal to departmentalize and teach all of 4th grade Math. Achieved 70% passing rate for TAKS on an unacceptable campus. 

2006-2007-3rd grade and these students looped to 4th.

2004-2006     Manor Middle School             Manor, Texas

Teacher, Language Arts, 7th grade and Writing Elective, 8th grade primarily Title I and at-riskDeveloped and implemented 7th and 8th grade creative and technical writing elective material. Handled added responsibility of 7th grade LA classes after Christmas break because a teacher left. Able to get even the most challenging students such as those released from juvenile facilities and FOCUS students to complete Writing and to work in teams-great rapport. Implemented positive classroom management. TAKS tutor. 

Teacher Strengths-Developing and maintaining a rapport with students and their families. Embrace change and innovation such as “camps” complete with songs at rallies and decorating the classroom as a camp environment to promote learning with fun. Outside of the box thinking educator who uses research and professional developments to guide innovation and best practices. Team player for the campus, district and the community. 

2000-2003  Advan-Tex Photographic & Imaging Dallas, Texas

Sales ManagerAchieved new customer base, increased sales through direct sales, direct mail advertising, and public relations. Designed direct mail advertising and public relations opportunities. Designed business cards for clients.

Education

LeTourneau University            Longview, TX (online) Master’s program for Curriculum and Development 30 hours w/3.93 GPA

Texas A & M University           College Station, TXBachelor of Science, Journalism + (27 hours Literature/English) w/overall 3.18 GPA

Texas State Technical College        Waco, TXAssociate of Applied Science, Audio Visual Production w/3.98 GPA

Objective     My objective is to obtain a  position with a district that has a strong commitment to innovation and growth. I wish to grow as an educator while continuing my studies and provide long-term stability for my campus and students.
Professional Development CHAMPs, PBS (campus committee member), ESL Academy, GT (30 hours), and Differentiation. 

Texas Certifications            

EC-4 Generalist, 4-8 Language Arts and Reading, 8-12 Language Arts and Reading, EC-12 Special Education and EC-12 ESL Supplemental.

Works

Technology and Critical Thinking in Secondary Classrooms

Research Paper

Laura L. McBain

LeTourneau University

     January 11, 2010    

Abstract

Secondary curricula need improvement in the incorporation of technology and the engagement of their students. Students of today display critical thinking skills in their game play of video games. For the secondary curriculum, there is a need to incorporate educational software that patterns itself after video games to fully engage and move students toward critical thinking skills. The purpose of this research is to examine the use of Bloom’s (1956) critical thinking verbs in the educational software, A+ High School Learning System being used at a secondary school. This study found that higher-order, critical thinking verbs were lacking and this shows the need for educational software that models itself on gaming software. This study should provide the impetus for secondary educators to examine their current curricula and for further research.

                  

Incorporating Technology and Critical Thinking

A typical day for today’s secondary student at the middle and high school levels might have them texting, listening to their iPods, and checking the web to download their favorite song. All of these activities are probably hidden under their desks from the teachers’ eyes at middle schools and high schools across America. More than likely there is a school policy banning the use of electronics for the student in the classroom. In class, students are given textbooks or presented a lecture with a new glorified overhead projector that connects to the teacher’s computer, and asked to quietly work. When they return home at the end of the school day, they might receive homework help via the web, and then play whatever the latest video game happens to be. That is until they master it and beat it.

Video games were played alone or with a partner until 2000 (Vinciguerra, 2007), when the Sega Dreamcast allowed mass gamers to go online with their systems and play together. These gamers plan their strategies, locate tools to help them succeed and pit their skills against others online which show critical thinking. Our students are critically thinking and applying these higher order thinking skills but not in classrooms. Jones, Mungai, and Wong (2005) conclude that our children in a year, “ spend over 10,000 hours playing video games, receive and send over 200,000 emails and instant messages, spend over 10,000 hours talking on digital cell phones, and spend over 20,000 hours watching TV (p. 2). If explored as a model, the skills used by today’s digital student are exactly what educators strive to do in their classrooms and hope that students take these skills with them when they graduate.

Many school districts mission statements’ goals are that students be able to think critically to prepare them for life after high school. Secondary curriculums must teach how to think versus what to think and including authentic technology that models itself on video games will only heighten the critical thinking skills that our students are already using on a daily basis outside of the classroom. The days of seating students in a classroom with a one dimensional textbook should change for the secondary student. According to Foreman (2003), “Games expose players to deeply engaging, visually dynamic, rapidly paced, and highly gratifying pictorial experiences that make almost any sort of conventional schoolwork (especially when mediated by a lecture or text) seem boring by comparison” (p. 15).

Review of the Literature

Critical thinking has always been a part of a liberal education. Educational buzz words developed and became movements. In the 60s, relevancy was the buzz word movement and in the 70s, competency became the buzz word movement. Upon entering the 80s, the new buzz word of education, critical thinking caught and has held in classrooms today. A critical thinking examination in relation to curriculum is explored by Facione (1990) and a panel composed of American Philosophical Association members included those affiliated with Philosophy (52%), Education (22%), the Social Sciences (20%), or the Physical Sciences (6%). The examination used the “qualitative Delphi method” a group decision-making tool, to provide a summary of critical thinking in educational assessment and instruction (Murry and Hammons, 1995, p. 423).

      Facione and his panel (1990) found:

     Critical thinking to be purposeful, self-regulatory judgment which results in interpretation,     analysis, evaluation, and inference, as well as explanation of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological, or contextual considerations upon which that judgment is based. Critical thinking is essential as a tool of inquiry.

            Critical thinking must be viewed as a teachable skill in the curriculum and the development of human growth. Developmental psychologists, Inhelder and Piaget (1969) recognized the role that thinking and reflection play in the development of a child and Halpren (1993) declared, “The ability to think critically is almost always listed as one of the desirable

outcomes of undergraduate education” (p. 238). Siegel (1988) disagreed with the method in which to teach critical thinking but not the need to do so. The two methods debated are defined by Hatcher (2006) as “integrated or stand-alone” (p. 1). This study used the “integrated” approach as best for teaching critical thinking especially as it relates to educational software and games (Hatcher, 2006, p. 1).

A natural progression of critical thinking in the curriculum to incorporating technology in the middle and high school curriculums is evident with our technologically savvy students. If students are incorporating technology in their daily critical thinking, why would educators not utilize this and expand it into the classroom?  The differences lie in the fact that our students are “digital natives” while we are “digital immigrants” (Prensky, 2001, p. 2). Students simply do not learn as many educators of today learned. Prensky (2001) states, “They have little patience for lectures, step-by-step logic, and ‘-tell-test–‘instruction” (p. 3). Technology, specifically using software that patterns itself after video games should be part of the 21st century middle and high school curriculum.

Rather than a fad or special market, video gaming and the gaming market are here to stay. Video games are being used in various industries from the military to Fortune 500 companies as training vehicles. The Entertainment Software Association (2009) reports, “Computer and video

games are effective tools for raising awareness and generating excitement among young job candidates and current employees” (p. 1). The global economy has recognized the need to capture the gaming generation’s attention but are educators in classrooms across America?  Within our global economy, there is increased recognition that capturing attention of the gaming generation is critical.  Have educators across America come to the same recognition?

Students are critically thinking during game play. Moline (2008) found; “one type of informal learning, digital gaming, involves complex interactive learning experiences that encourage people to learn and to enjoy learning” (p.1217). More research is needed to gauge the effect that incorporating video games into curriculums and this would be possible with the inaugural class of students at Quest to Learn (Q2L) in New York. This first of its kind school’s curriculum promises to, “organize content and standards in 21st century ways” (Quest to Learn, p. 1). Video gamers experience new worlds, challenges that require solutions, and cooperative learning in their virtual worlds. As de Frietas (2006) states, “Exploratory learning is defined here as a mode of learning whereby learning takes place through exploring environments, lived and real experiences, with tutorial or peer support” (p. 344).  Children learn through play by challenging themselves as Vygotsy (1978) states, “The influence of play on a child's development is enormous” (p. 93). In Vygotsy’s (1978) zone of proximal development, the child’s play is without the restraints of his daily world and this is definitely mirrored in video gaming.

Often child’s play is imaginary but does simulate some event or theme from the real world just as secondary curricula have traditionally been structured to prepare graduates for either higher education or the workforce but according to The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (2002), a group of major business and education organizations, “There remains, however, a profound gap between the knowledge and skills most students learn in school and the knowledge and skills in typical 21st century communities and workplaces” (p. 5). The gap seems to lie in the secondary curriculum, not in our students who are inadvertently teaching themselves with technology.  Simpson and Clem (2008) reviewed a pilot program conducted by the Albany County School District in Laramie, Wyoming that incorporated video game use with state standards in a middle school classroom. The district found the program so successful that another pilot program was introduced at the high school level and produced similar results. The district then planned summer trainings for teachers to infuse their classrooms with technology.Technology, specifically gaming can be inclusive. Video game playing transcends learning disabilities, physical disabilities, and race. With the need to diversify classrooms and include learners in the least restrictive environment, technology specifically gaming could provide that diversification and inclusion. Simpson (2006) states, “Video games cross all cultural and ethnic boundaries. Not recognizing that these shared experiences exist, public education has failed to provide for the impact of that experience on students learning” (p. 1). Utilizing technology, the gaming environment would enhance the learning experience for all learners but would also provide for new methods to engage and include students in the secondary classroom. The secondary classroom teacher is often belabored at including and diversifying for all students. Mastropieri and Scruggs (2001) describe secondary classrooms as presenting “particular challenges to educational inclusion, including level of content, pace of content, expectations of independent study skills, and, more recently, high stakes testing” (p. 1). Review of the literature has shown the benefits of incorporation of technology in the secondary curriculum to provide a 21st century platform for recapturing the attention of students and allow for the critical thinking that occurs with gamers. There has been some research and a pilot school that reflects upon the hypothesis that technology must be incorporated into the secondary curriculum but also begs for more research and study into utilizing games in the daily classroom. Ary, Jacobs, and Sorenson (2009) state define sampling as, “the small group that is observed” in research study (p. 148). This study is a small population “sampling” using one type of educational software, though it does indicate the level and amount of critical thinking (p. 148). This study provides an impetus for a larger population “sampling” and a longer term study (p. 148).

Methodology and Research Design

 

The purpose of this research was to examine the use of Bloom’s (1956) critical thinking verbs in the educational software, A+ High School Learning System. This software system, published in 2006 by Rocky Mountain Learning Systems, incorporates math, science, literature, chemistry, and history for the high school student. While primarily used at alternative schools, this “sampling” gave an overview of critical thinking in one type of technology, educational software in the secondary curriculum (Ary, Jacobs, and Sorenson, 2009, p. 148).

Research MethodThis study utilized a quantitative research method described by Ary, Jacobs and Sorenson as, “inquiry employing operational definitions to generate numeric data to answer predetermined hypotheses or questions” (p. 648). Researchers Gelo, Braakmann, and Benetka (2008) state, “Psychological research has relied heavily on experimental and correlational techniques to test theory using quantitative data” (p. 1). Therefore, this research method best translates to the quantitative research method. The study explored the direct use of Bloom’s verbs (1956) in A+ High School Learning System. Bloom’s (1956) taxonomy verbs are accepted and valid as a tool for measuring critical thinking and in fact, are utilized in classrooms. By analyzing this educational software across content, the number of Bloom’s (1956) verbs was counted. The study analyzed A+ High School Learning System software that covers the content areas of English IV, Algebra II, Biology, and World Geography. This study best fit with the research proposal by showing the number of critical thinking skills’ verbs in A+ High School Learning System educational software and showed the need for different educational software. Participant

A teacher participant that utilizes A+ High School Learning System for content delivery completed a survey of open-ended questions in the content areas to count the number of different Bloom’s (1956) verbs. The independent variable was the number of critical thinking verbs in A+ High School Learning System educational software. The more verbs displayed in the higher levels of the survey translated to more critical thinking in the classroom. The participant was given one week to complete the survey.

Apparatus

The research method required a newly designed “survey instrument” for measuring the number of verbs in A+ High School Learning System educational software (Behling and Law, 2000, p.10). The survey listed 144 Bloom’s (1956) verbs divided into lower and higher levels of thinking. The lower level contained 49 verbs in the categories of knowledge, comprehension, and application and the higher level contained 95 verbs in the categories of analysis, synthesis, evaluation, and analysis. Scoring consisted of counting the verbs in each variable-the more verbs displayed would mean more critical thinking in the classroom which is the independent variable. The dependent variable, manipulation of verbs was tracked for changes in critical thinking.

 

Figure 1

Figure 1: Bloom's (1956) Verbs in A+ High School Learning System. World Geography, Biology, Algebra II, and English IV (2010)Study Assumptions

The assumption will be made that secondary students prefer off-the-shelf video games to the current educational software. It is also assumed that today’s students are more technologically advanced than the students for which A+ High School Learning System educational software might have been originally designed. The researcher also assumes that secondary teachers acknowledge and strive to include Bloom’s (1956) verbs in their content. Engaging students to keep them in the secondary classroom is also the final assumption and that gaming like software will help achieve this.

 Ethical Considerations

Ethical considerations should be given to incorporating games with beyond E ratings, ages 6 and older. The Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) ratings “have two equal parts: rating symbols suggest age appropriateness for the game and content descriptors indicate elements in a game that may have triggered a particular rating” (Entertainment Software Rating Board, 2010, p.1). Care would be given to utilizing T for teen ratings, ages 13 and up if possible and would not include M ratings, for ages 17+. If this is not possible, online educational gaming sites could be utilized for measurement. Permission forms would be provided to all underage participants for guardian consent. Also consideration would be given that teacher’s participation would be strictly voluntary especially if uncomfortable with game or software content.

Biases

Biases from educators might include content objection to off-the-shelf video games and incorporation of the games in the classroom. Another bias might stem from teachers who have seen or used A+ High School Learning System educational software. They might be predisposed in determining the amount of, or lack of Bloom’s (1956) verbs in the software. The last bias might occur with faculty, staff, and administrator’s perceptions of change and research at the campus and district levels.

Findings and ImplicationsToday’s secondary student is different than the design of the current educational system, particularly A+ High School Learning System. As Prensky (2001) states, “today’s students are no longer the people our educational system was designed to teach” (p. 1). The secondary curriculum of today’s middle and high schools is not providing students the critical thinking skills needed upon graduation. Our digital learners acquire their knowledge far differently than the current educational system is prepared to dispense. This study found that higher-order, critical thinking verbs are lacking in A+ High School Learning System’s software and this shows the need for educational software that models itself on gaming software to fully engage students and promote critical thinking.Further StudyThis study will not include analyzing the need for critical thinking in the secondary classroom. This study would be a pilot for the introduction of much needed software improvement to be adopted into the secondary classroom. The pilot study would include an incoming population of grades 9-12 students who would utilize gaming type software and be tracked from entering freshman to graduating seniors. A local school district with a new high school for the 2012-1013 school year would be an ideal population to track changes in critical thinking and engagement of its students using more technology, specifically gaming like software. Quantitative research was used for the initial study (Ary, Jacobs, and Sorenson, 2009, p. 148). A long-term study also utilizing “descriptive data analysis” would next be conducted in secondary classrooms (Trochim and Donnelly, 2007, p. 12).  The revised survey would utilize the same format as the prior one but would be based on Churches’ (2009) digital taxonomy of Bloom’s (1956) verbs. Tracking of subjects with the revised measurement survey would occur for entering freshman and follow them until graduation as they either use new educational software, off-the-shelf video games, or continue with A+ High School Learning System educational software. With grant and district funding, a conceptual school modeled after Quest to Learn in New York would be the end result for true study.  

Conclusion

Today’s secondary student is a “digital native” and often hides the use of technology from the eyes of the “digital immigrant” teacher (Prensky, 2001, p. 2). Students today are texting, listening to music, and surfing the web simultaneously. They also play video games which challenge and engage them. Video game playing students are displaying critical thinking skills that must be reharnessed in the secondary classroom. This study provided a small sampling of the use of technology at the secondary level. The lack of critical thinking Bloom’s (1956) verbs in A+ High School Learning System shows the need for educators to reevaluate the use of technology in the secondary classroom; specifically software must be modeled after off-the-shelf video games to maximize the engagement and critical thinking in each student.

                       

APPENDIX A

 

Letter of Permission to the Principal of Gladewater High School

 

Letterhead

February 18, 2010

Suzanne Lambert

Gladewater High School

2201 West Gay Avenue

Gladewater, TX 75647-4355 

Dear Ms. Lambert,

I respectfully request your permission to collect data for my M. Ed from sources in and related to Gladewater High School. Currently, I am a master’s student at LeTourneau University. The title of my study is “Technology and Critical Thinking in Secondary Classrooms.”

 

The purpose of this study is to investigate the number of Bloom’s verbs in educational software, A+ High School Learning System to show the level of critical thinking that is being shown and the need for educational software that incorporates video game concepts and practices which should reflect increased critical thinking.

 

A simple survey for your teaching staff per content area to use will be provided and the survey forms can all be filled out and returned to me via email.

 

The results of this study will provide greater insight as to the need for technology, specifically gaming like educational software to meet the needs of our secondary students.

 

If you have any questions or concerns, please contact me at 512-332-2156 or my professor, Dr. Q. Woods at 903-987-9960.Your earnest consideration of this request is very much appreciated. I look forward to your positive response.

 

Sincerely,

Laura McBain

        Participant Consent Form 

I understand the purpose of the study, and I agree for this study to be conducted at Gladewater High School. I also agree to participate as needed by the discretion of the researcher. I agree to the collection of data based on willing participants of Gladewater High School. I understand that neither my name, the campus name, the district name, nor any name of any participant will be used in the final report.

 

Suzanne Lambert                                            Date: 02/19/2010

Electronic Signature of Principal of Gladewater High School

 

Laura McBain                                                 Date: 02/19/2010

Electronic Signature of Researcher

   

Laura McBain

479 Pershing Blvd.

Bastrop, Texas 78602

                     


 

APPENDIX B

 

Letter of Permission to the Teacher

 

Letterhead

 

February 11, 2009

 

Gladewater High School

 

Dear Teacher,

 

I respectfully request your permission to participate in my study as part of my studies in pursuit of my M. Ed surrounding your experiences with the educational software you are currently using. Currently, I am a master’s student at LeTourneau University. The title of my study is “Technology and Critical Thinking in Secondary Classrooms.” Your participation is strictly voluntary and will include one survey form per content area.

 

The purpose of this study is to investigate the number of Bloom’s verbs in educational software to show the level of critical thinking that is being shown and the need for educational software that incorporates video game concepts and practices which should reflect increased critical thinking.

           

The results of this study will provide greater insight as to the need for technology, specifically gaming like educational software to meet the needs of our secondary students.

 

If you have any questions or concerns, please contact me at 512-332-2156 or my professor, Dr. Q. Woods at 903-987-9960.Your earnest consideration of this request is very much appreciated. I look forward to your positive response.

 

Sincerely,

Laura McBain

       Participant Consent Form 

I understand the purpose of the study, and I agree to participate in this study as related to Gladewater High School. I understand that neither my name, the campus name, the district name, nor any name of any participant will be used in the final report. I also understand I may withdraw from the study at any time I so choose.

 

Kelly Cook                                                     Date: 02/11/2010

Electronic Signature of Teacher

 

Laura McBain                                                Date: 02/11/2010

Electronic Signature of Researcher

 

Laura McBain

479 Pershing Blvd.

Bastrop, Texas 78602

  

                                   

                         

APPENDIX C

 

Survey of Bloom’s Verbs (1956) in software

Level

Type of Activity
or Question
Verbs Used for ObjectivesTotal number of verbs
Lowest levelsKnowledgedefine, memorize, repeat, match, record, list, recall, name, relate, collect, label, specify, cite, enumerate, recite, tell, recount 
 Comprehensionrestate, summarize, differentiate, discuss, describe, recognize, explain, express, identify, locate, report, retell, review, translate, paraphrase  
 Applicationexhibit, solve, manipulate, interview, simulate, apply, employ, use, demonstrate, dramatize, practice, illustrate, operate, calculate, show, experiment 
Higher levelsAnalysisinterpret, classify, analyze, arrange, differentiate, group, compare, organize, contrast, examine, scrutinize, survey, categorize, dissect, probe, create an inventory, investigate, question, discover, inquire, distinguish, detect, diagram, chart, inspect 
 Synthesiscompose, set up, plan, prepare, propose, imagine, produce, hypothesize, invent, incorporate, develop, generalize, design, originate, formulate, predict, arrange, assemble, construct, create 
 Evaluationjudge, assess, decide, measure, appraise, estimate, evaluate, rate, deduce, compare, score, value, predict, revise, choose, conclude, recommend, determine, criticize, test  
Higher levelsAnalysisinterpret, classify, analyze, arrange, differentiate, group, compare, organize, contrast, examine, scrutinize, survey, categorize, dissect, probe, create an inventory, investigate, question, discover, inquire, distinguish, detect, diagram, chart, inspect 

References

Ary, D., Jacobs, L., & Sorenson, C. (2009). Introduction to Research in Education.CA: Wadsworth. pp. 1-696.Behling, Orlando and Kenneth S. Law (2000). Translating Questionnaires and Other Research

Instruments: Problems and solutions.

CA: Sage Publications. Series: Quantitative applications in the social sciences No. 133.

pp.1-80.

Bloom B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The cognitive domain. NY: McKay Co. Inc. pp.1-197. Churches, A. (2009). Edorigami, Bloom’s Taxonomy and Digital Approaches. Retrieved from: http://edorigami.wikispaces.com/Bloom%27s+and+ICT+tools De Frietas, S. (2006). Using Games and Simulations for Supporting Learning.             Learning, Media and Technology, 31, (4). pp.343-358. Entertainment Software Association. (2004). Essential Facts about the Computer and Video  Game Industry.  Retrieved from: http://www.theesa.com/gamesindailylife/workplace.asp  Entertainment Software Rating Board (2010). Game Ratings & Descriptor Guide.

           

Retrieved from: http://www.esrb.org/ratings/ratings_guide.jsp

 Facione, P & The American Philosophical Association. (1990). Critical Thinking: A statement of  expert consensus for purposes of educational assessment and instruction, "The Delphi  Report”). CA: California Academic Press. pp.1-20.   

Foreman, J. (2003). Next-Generation Educational Technology Versus The Lecture.

Educause Review, 38, (4). pp. 13–22.Gelo, O., Braakmann, D., & Benetka, G. (2008). Quantitative and Qualitative Research: Beyond the debate. Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 42, (3). pp. 266-290. Halpern, D. (2003). Thought and Knowledge: An introduction to critical thinking. 

NJ: Erlbaum. pp. 1-472

 Hatcher, D. (2006). Stand-Alone Versus Integrated Critical Thinking Courses.The Journal of General Education, 3-4, (55). pp.1-27. Inhelder, B. & Piaget, J. (1969). The Psychology of the Child.            NY: Basic Books. pp.1-192.Jones, D., Mungai, D., & Wong, L. (2005). Games to Teach By.Paper presented at the 18th Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning, Madison, WI. 

Mastropieri, M., Scruggs, T. (2001). Promoting Inclusion in Secondary Classrooms.

 Learning Disability Quarterly, 24, (4). pp.265-275. 

Melville Jones, H. & Haynes, B. (1999). Teaching thinking skills: Mapping the arguments for

 

curriculum choices revisited. Paper presented at the 8th

 

International Conference on Thinking, Edmonton, Canada.

 

Moline, T. (2008). "I Get Competent Pretty Quickly": How adolescents play their way to

cognitive self-efficacy. In K. McFerrin et al. (Eds.). Proceedings of Society for

Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference. pp. 1217-1219.

Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2002). Learning for the 21st Century.

            Retrieved from: www. 21stcenturyskills.org. pp.1-36.

 Prensky, M. (2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. On the Horizon, 9, (5). pp.1-16.  Quest to Learn. (2010). Curriculum and Assessment.  Retrieved from: http://q2l.org/node/14 Rocky Mountain Learning Systems. (2006) A+ High School Learning System. Retrieved from: http://www.rmlearning.com/34605.htm.       Siegel, H. (1988). Educating Reason: Rationality, Critical Thinking, and Education NY: Routledge. pp.1-192. 

Simpson, E. (2006). What Teachers Need to Know About the Video Game Generation.

TechTrends, 49, (5). pp.17-22.Simpson, E., Clem, F. (2008). Video Games in the Middle School Classroom.Middle School Journal, 39, (4). pp.4-11.Trochim, W., Donnelly, J. (2007). The Research Methods Knowledge Base, 3e.

OH: Atomic Dog Publishing. pp.1-361.

Vinciguerra, R.  A Complete History of Online Console Gaming in the United States (2007).The Rev. Rob Times: http://www.revrob.com/content/view/38/52/Vygotsky, L. (1978). The Role of Play in Development in Mind in Society. (Trans. M. Cole).MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 92-104. 

 

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