Review Notes Neoclassicism

Review Notes, 2-column



      19th century (1800s)

      Church lost its grip

      Kings overthrown

      Scientific progress



      One of 3 art movements in 1st half of century (others--Romanticism, Realism) 

      A revival of Greco-Roman ideals



      A reaction against ornate Rococo style; reason and logic ruled

      “Politically  correct” art; illustrated tales from ancient history & mythology;  balanced compositions

      Moral message;  Noble gestures (courage, sacrifice, love of country)

Primitifs David followers who took the Greek way, literally
Apprentice Working under a master while learning a trade
Salon Yearly art exhibitions by the Academies of Art
PompeiiMt. Vesuvius
 Destroyed August 24, 79AD  
 Pliny the Younger (written account)  
 “Rediscovered “ 1738 (Herculanium) and 1748 (Pompeii)  
pyroclastic lava flow  describes sedimentary rock that is composed of fragments of volcanic rock produced by the explosion of a volcanic eruption  
“Oath of the Horatii” (David)Commissioned by Louis 16th  
 True story (David saw the play)  
 3 Roman brothers take an oath to fightVS. 3 Curatii brothers To settle city dispute (fight)  
 Meaning: patriotic duty above personal interests (even family)  
 One daughter betrothed to Curatii brotherDaughter-in-law IS Curatii (someone will lose a person they love)
“Death of Marat” (David)  Marat—close friend of DavidHad been responsible for prison riot  
 Charlotte Corday d’Armont decided Marat should die 
 Marat took medicated baths due to skin conditionCharlotte killed him after posing as informant  
 Jacobin party commissioned David to capture his storyShown as a “Jesus” figure  
 Box, towel, knife worshiped by public as holy relics  
“Napoleon Crossing the Saint-Bernard,”  (David) 1801 Military successes as commander of French forces in ItalySat for portrait but left after 3 hours  
 Commemorated Napolean’s return to Italy after he was declared  dictator  
 Showed uneventful trip as a thrilling ideal manner  
 Rocks incised with his name & names of other “heroes” (Hannibal, Charlemagne) 
 Napolean towers over other figures even though he was small
American NeoclassicismFounding of American coincided w/Neoclassical period  
 Roman symbols/words adopted (Capitol, Senate) 
Thomas JeffersonPatterned home as Neoclassic structureBuilt Univ. of Virginia as Classic learning lab
Gilbert StuartAmerica’s “great” painterHe was the equivalent of court painter in America  
“George Washington” 1796Most famous American portrait of all time
 Kept duplicating it, but never finished it 
 Called it his “100 dollar bill”  
 Family owners sold it to Smithsonian in 1990s