Unit Two Study Guide

Chapter 7
  • Know the basic appearance and function of all parts of the cell we have discussed especially nucleus, ER, golgi, ribosomes, lysosomes, chloroplasts and mitochondria.
  • Know the basic structures of the cytoskeleton and their functions
  • Know the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and organisms
  • Know the differences between plant and animal cells
  • Know the basic functions of centrioles, flagella and cilia as well as basic microtubule arrangement
  • Know the basics of the cell wall in plants and the extracellular matrix in animals
  • Know how cells are connected to each other
 Chapter 8
  • Know the structure of cell membranes (the fluid mosaic model)
  • Know the structure of a phospholipids and the definition of hydrophilic and hydrophobic
  • Know what factors affect membrane fluidity
  • Know the 2 categories of proteins (integral and peripheral)
  • Know the functions of proteins in the membranes
  • Know what will effect the speed of molecules passing through a membrane (or if they will)
  • Know that membranes differ based on what organelle they are a part of and which side of the membrane they are on (based on their proteins/glycoproteins)
  • Know the similarities and differences between passive transport (simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion) and active transport
  • Understand osmosis, including the terms hypotonic and hypertonic
  • Understand the basics of the sodium-potassium pump and membrane potential
  • Understand the concept of electrochemical gradient and co-transport
  • Know the basics of endo and exocytosis
 Chapter 11
  • Know the 3 stages of cell signaling
  • Know the 3 main types of membrane-receptors (G-protein, Tyrosine-Kinase and Ion-Channel receptors) and how they operate
  • Know what a kinase and a phosphatase are and their importance in signal transduction
  • Know the 2nd messengers cAMP and DAG/IP3/Ca++
  • Know the importance of the multi-step pathway (signal amplification and opportunity for regulation)
  • Know the possible cellular responses
  • Know the cellular signaling evolved early and is crucial to our existence!