~ Competency 2A ~

Competency 2: The student will become familiar with the basic principles of matter and energy, and understand how they relate to living organisms.

Upon successful completion of this course, the student will demonstrate knowledge of the nature of matter and energy and how they relate to living organisms by:

  • Defining energy and matter, and their laws, and explaining how they are used in biological systems.
  • Explaining the basic structure of atoms and molecules and recognizing examples of covalent, hydrogen, and ionic bonding.
  • Explaining the importance of water to life and the concept of acidity as well as its expression as pH.
  • Identifying the four major groups of organic compounds (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) and understanding their functions in living systems.


OpenStax Biology Textbook ~ Ch.2

OpenStax Biology Textbook ~ Ch.3


Lecture Notes ~ Ch.2

Lecture Notes ~ Ch.3


To take the test ....