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Study Guide Period 4: Periodic Table Trends, Isotopes and Ions



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 
A B C D

 1. 

The smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still be the same substance is called a(n)
a.
nucleus.
c.
atom.
b.
electron.
d.
neutron.
 
A B C D

 2. 

What particle did J. J. Thomson discover?
a.
neutron
c.
atom
b.
electron
d.
proton
 
A B C D

 3. 

How would you describe the nucleus?
a.
dense, positively charged
c.
tiny, negatively charged
b.
large, positively charged
d.
dense, negatively charged
 
A B C D

 4. 

Where are electrons likely to be found?
a.
the nucleus
c.
mixed throughout an atom
b.
electron clouds
d.
paths, or energy levels
 
A B C D

 5. 

Dalton believed that
a.
atoms of the same element are exactly alike.
b.
most substances are made of atoms.
c.
atoms of different elements are the same.
d.
atoms can be divided.
 
A B C D

 6. 

In Thomson’s “plum-pudding” model of the atom, the plums represent
a.
atoms.
c.
neutrons.
b.
protons.
d.
electrons.
 
A B C D

 7. 

An atom of gold with 79 protons, 79 electrons, and 118 neutrons would have a mass number of
a.
39.
c.
197.
b.
158.
d.
276.
 
A B C D

 8. 

If an isotope of uranium, uranium-235, has 92 protons, how many protons does uranium-238 have?
a.
92
c.
143
b.
95
d.
146
 
A B C D

 9. 

An atom of carbon with 6 protons, 6 electrons, and 6 neutrons would have a mass number of
a.
6.
c.
12.
b.
18.
d.
15.
 
A B C D

 10. 

If hydrogen-1 has 1 proton, how many protons does hydrogen-2 have?
a.
2
c.
3
b.
1
d.
4
 
A B C D

 11. 

Which was one of Dalton’s ideas?
a.
All substances are made of atoms.
c.
Atoms can be destroyed.
b.
Atoms can be divided.
d.
Most substances are made of atoms.
 
A B C D

 12. 

Which statement about isotopes is true?
a.
They have the same number of protons.
c.
They have a different atomic number.
b.
They have the same number of neutrons.
d.
They have the same mass.
 
A B C D

 13. 

According to Rutherford, what was in the center of an atom?
a.
an electron
c.
a particle
b.
a nucleus
d.
a proton
 
A B C D

 14. 

Each vertical column on the periodic table is called a(n)
a.
period.
c.
element.
b.
group.
d.
property.
 
A B C D

 15. 

The elements to the right of the zigzag line on the periodic table are called
a.
nonmetals.
c.
metalloids.
b.
metals.
d.
conductors.
 
A B C D

 16. 

Most of the elements in the periodic table are
a.
metals.
c.
gases.
b.
metalloids.
d.
nonmetals.
 
A B C D

 17. 

The horizontal row on the periodic table is called a(n)
a.
group.
c.
period.
b.
family.
d.
atomic number.
 
A B C D

 18. 

Which of the following is a property of alkali metals?
a.
They are so hard they cannot be cut.
c.
They are stored in water.
b.
They are very reactive.
d.
They have few uses.
 
   
 
Refer to the figure below to answer the following questions.
nar002-1.jpg
 
A B C D

 19. 

The number beneath carbon indicates the
a.
atomic number.
c.
chemical symbol.
b.
atomic mass.
d.
element name.
 
A B C D

 20. 

The number at the top is the
a.
atomic number.
c.
atomic mass.
b.
element name.
d.
chemical symbol.
 
A B C D

 21. 

What can group numbers on the periodic table help you determine?
a.
the number of valence electrons
c.
the number of protons
b.
the number of electrons
d.
the number of neutrons
 
A B C D

 22. 

What do atoms gain, lose, or share when they bond?
a.
protons
c.
electrons
b.
neutrons
d.
atoms
 
A B C D

 23. 

How many valence electrons does helium need to have a filled outermost energy level?
a.
1
c.
4
b.
2
d.
8
 
A B C D

 24. 

What is a bond that forms when electrons are transferred from one atom to another?
a.
ionic bond
c.
electron bond
b.
crystal bond
d.
atom bond
 
A B C D

 25. 

What is the charge of an aluminum ion that has 13 protons and 10 electrons?
a.
1+
c.
3+
b.
2+
d.
3–
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 
   
 
Use the terms from the following list to complete the sentences below.
atom atomic number
nucleusatomic mass
protonisotope
electronelectron cloud
neutron 
  
 

 26. 

A positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom is called a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 27. 

An atom of an element that has the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons is called a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 28. 

The number of protons in an atom determines its ____________________.
 

 

 29. 

The weighted average of all the naturally occurring isotopes of an element is called the ____________________.
 

 

 30. 

The smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still be the same substance is a(n) ____________________.
 

 

Matching
 
   
 
Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.
atomic number
f.
neutron
b.
nucleus
g.
atom
c.
electron cloud
h.
electron
d.
mass number
i.
atomic mass unit (amu)
e.
isotope
j.
proton
 
A B C D E F G H I J

 31. 

particle than cannot be cut
 
A B C D E F G H I J

 32. 

negatively charged particle discovered by Thomson
 
A B C D E F G H I J

 33. 

central region of the atom
 
A B C D E F G H I J

 34. 

region where electrons are likely to be found
 
A B C D E F G H I J

 35. 

particle in the center of an atom that has no charge
 
A B C D E F G H I J

 36. 

subatomic particle that has a positive charge
 
A B C D E F G H I J

 37. 

a unit of mass that describes the mass of an atom or molecule
 
A B C D E F G H I J

 38. 

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
 
A B C D E F G H I J

 39. 

atom that has the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
 
A B C D E F G H I J

 40. 

the sum of protons and neutrons in an atom
 
   
 
a.
compound
d.
covalent bond
b.
ionic bond
e.
molecule
c.
ion
f.
orbital
 
A B C D E F

 41. 

smallest particle of a substance that has all the properties of that substance
 
A B C D E F

 42. 

a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains an electron to form a negative ion
 
A B C D E F

 43. 

substance made up of molecules that contain more than one kind of atom; two or more elements chemically combined
 
A B C D E F

 44. 

electrically charged particles
 
A B C D E F

 45. 

an energy state in the atomic model which describes where an electron will likely be
 
A B C D E F

 46. 

a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
 

Other
 

 47. 

Sarahonium has two isotopes Sa-13 and Sa-14 with a mass of 13.657.  What are the percent abundances of each isotope?

Sa-13 = ___________
Sa-14 = ___________
 

 48. 

A new element, “Noahium,” found only in schools occurs in the following proportions: 9.750% Nh–750 and 90.25% Nh–752. Find the average atomic masses for both isotopes.

Nh-750: _______________

Nh-752: ______________
 



 
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