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Syllabus

Syllabus is currently under construction will be completed:

Northeast High School

Science Department

Advanced Placement Biology

Miss Robin Marsala

Room: 25N


Email: robin.marsala@browardschools.com

Room: 25N

Class time: Block Schedule 2-3 Times a week for 90 minute class period.

After school hours: 7-7:40 am

                                    After school by appointment

Required Textbook:

Campbell, Reece, Jane, et al. (2011) Biology 8th edition Harlow: Pearson Education

Campbell, Reece, Jane, et al. (2011) Biology 7th edition Harlow: Pearson Education

Taggart, Starr, Evers, et al. (2014) Biology 12th edition Brooks/Cole: Cengage Learning


Required Materials:

Materials will be required by the end of the first school week.

-Calculator

-3 ringed binder (dividers optional)

-Sufficient amounts of loose leaf paper

- Graph paper for lab write ups.

-Pens, Pencils, etc.


Grading:

Both students and parents will held accountable for monitoring grades through pinnacle. It is NOT the teacher’s obligation to inform student of their grade for this course.

Class work/Participation                                   10%

Homework/Chapter Outlines                              10%

Quizzes/Free Response Questions                      10%

Labs                                                                 30%

Exams                                                               40%

*For any other questions on grading see the student handbook*


Course Overview:

This AP Biology course is designed to offer students a solid foundation in introductory college-level biology. This done by structuring the course around the Four Big Ideas, enduring understandings, and science practices. I will assist students in developing an appreciation for the study of life, help them in identifying, understanding, as well as unifying principles within a diversified biological world; but also preparing them in the academic skills required at a college level. Most importantly science is a way of knowing; therefore, the process of inquiry and critical thinking skills are detrimental to the success of the student in this course. In completion of this course, students will have an acute awareness of the integration of multiple sciences, be knowledgeable on the evolutionary histology of numerous species, and be responsible citizens in understanding biological issues that could potentially impact their life.


Advance Placement Biology Content:

AP Bio Course is constructed around Four Big Ideas, enduring understandings within the Big Ideas, and the Essential Knowledge within the enduring understandings.

            Big Ideas:

                        Big Idea 1: EVOLUTION (20%): The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life.

Big Idea 2: CELLULAR PROCESS (30%): Biological systems utilize free energy and molecule building blows to grow, reproduces, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.

Big Idea 3: GENETICS & INFORMATION TRANSFER (30%): Living systems store, retrieve, transmit, and respond to information essential to life processes.

Big Idea 4: ECOLOGY (20%): Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties.

            Enduring Understandings: Categorized by Big Ideas

                        -1.A: Change in the genetic makeup of a population over time is evolution.

                        -1.B: Organisms are linked by lines of descent from common ancestry.

                        -1.C: Life continues to evolve within a changing environment.

                        -1.D: The origin of living systems is explain by natural processes.

-2.A: Growth, reproduction, and maintenance of the organization of living systems require free energy and matter.

-2.B: Growth, reproduction, and dynamic homeostasis requires that cells create and maintain internal environments that are different from their external environments.

-2.C: Organisms use feedback mechanisms to regulate growth and reproduction, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.

-2.D: Growth and dynamic homeostasis of a biological system are influences by changes in the system’s environment.

-2.E: Many biological processes involved in growth, reproduction, and dynamic homeostasis include temporal regulation and coordination.

                        -3.A: Heritable information provides for continuity of life.

                        -3.B: Expression of genetic information involves cellular and molecular mechanisms.

                        -3.C: The processing of genetic information is imperfect and is a source of genetic variation.

                        -3.D: Cells communicate by generating, transmitting, and receiving chemical signals.

                        -3.E: Transmission of information results in changes within and between biological systems.

                        -4.A: Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties.

                        -4.B: competition and cooperation are important aspects of biological systems.

-4.C: Naturally occurring diversity among and between components within biological systems affects interactions with the environments.

            Essential Knowledge:

-1.A.1: Natural selection is a major mechanism of evolution.

-1.A.2: Natural selection acts on phenotypic variations in a population.

-1.A.3: Evolutionary change is also driven by random processes.

-1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by scientific evidence from many disciplines.

-1.B.1: Organisms share many conserved core processes and features that evolved and are widely distributed among organisms today.

-1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are graphical representations (models) of evolutionary history that can be tested.

-1.C.1: Speciation and extinction have occurred throughout the Earth’s history.

-1.C.2: Speciation may occurs when two populations become reproductively isolated from each other.

-1.C.3: Populations of organisms continue to evolve.

-1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the natural origin of life on Earth, each with supporting scientific evidence.

-1.D2: Scientific evidence from many different disciplines supports models of the origin of life.

-2.A.1: All living systems require constant input of free energy.

-2.A.2: Organisms capture and store free energy for use in biological processes.

-2.A.3: Organisms must exchange matter with the environment to grow, reproduce, and maintain organization.

-2.B.1: Cell membranes are selectively permeable due to their structure.

-2.B.2: Growth and dynamic homeostasis are maintained by the constant movement of molecules across membranes.

-2.B.3: Eukaryotic cells maintain internal membranes that partition the cell into specialized regions.

-2.C1: Organisms use feedback mechanisms to maintain their internal environments and respond to external environmental changes.

-2.C.2: Organisms respond to changes in their external environments.

-2.D.1: All biological systems from cells and organisms to populations, communities, and ecosystems are affected by complex biotic and abiotic interactions involving exchange of matter and free energy.

-2.D.2: Homeostasis mechanisms reflect both common ancestry and divergence due to adaptation in different environments.

-2.D.3: Biological systems are affected by disruptions to their dynamic homeostasis.

-2.D.4: Plants and animals have a variety of chemical defenses against infections that affect dynamic homeostasis.

-2.E.1: Timing and coordination of specific events are necessary for the normal development of an organism, and these vents are regulated a variety of mechanisms.

-2.E.2: Timing and coordination of physiological events are regulated by multiple mechanisms.

-2.E.3: Timing and coordination of behavior are regulated by various mechanisms and are important in natural selection.

-3.A.1: DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the primary source of heritable information.

-3.A.2: In eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle and mitosis or meiosis plus fertilization.

-3.A.3: The chromosomal basis of inheritance provides an understanding of the pattern of passage (transmission) of genes from parent to offspring.

-3.A.4: The inheritance pattern of many traits cannot be explained by simple Mendelian genetics.

-3.B.1: Gene regulation results in differential gene expression, leading to cell specialization.

-3.B.2: A variety of intercellular and intracellular signal transmissions mediate gene expression.

-3.C.1: Changes in genotype can result in changes in phenotype.

-3.C.2: Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation.

-3.C.3: Viral replication results in genetic variation, and viral infection can introduce genetic variation into the hosts.

-3.D.1: Cell communication processes share a common features that reflect a shared evolutionary history.

-3.D.2: Cells communicate with each other through direct contact with other cells or from a distance via chemical signaling.

-3.D.3: signal transduction pathways link signal reception with cellular response.

-3.D.4: changes in signal transduction pathways can alter cellular response.

-3.E.1: Individuals can act on information and communicate it to others.

-3.E.2: Animals have nervous systems that detect external and internal signals, transmit and integrate information, and produce responses.

-4.A.1: The subcomponents of biological molecules and their sequence determine the properties of that molecule.

-4.A.2: The structure and function of subcellular components, and their interactions, provide essential cellular processes.

-4.A.3: Interactions between external stimuli and regulated gene expression result in specialization of cells, tissues, and organs.

-4.A.4: organisms exhibit complex properties due to interactions between their constituent parts.

-4.A.5: Communities are composed of populations of organisms that interact in complex ways.

-4.A.6: Interactions among living systems with their environment result in the movement of matter and energy.

-4.B.1: Interactions between molecules affect their structure and function.

-4.B.2: Cooperative interactions within organisms promote efficiency in the use of energy and matter.

-4.B.3: Interactions between and within populations influence patterns of species distribution and abundance.

-4.B.4: Distribution of local and global ecosystems changes over time.

-4.C.1: Variation in molecular units provides cells with a wider range of functions.

-4.C.2: Environmental factors influence the expression of the genotype in an organism.

-4.C.3: The level of variation in a population affects population dynamics.

-4.C.4: The diversity of species within an ecosystem may influence the stability of the ecosystem.


The Investigative Laboratory Component:

The course is also structure around inquiry in the lab and the use of seven science practices throughout the course. Students are given the opportunity to engage in the student-directed laboratory investigations throughout the course of a minimum of 25% of instructional time. Students will conduct a minimum of eight inquiry based investigations (two per big idea throughout the course). Additional labs will be conducted to deepen students’ conceptual understanding and to reinforce the application of science practices within a hands-on, discovery based environment. All levels of inquiry will be used and all seven science practice skills will be utilized by students on a regular basis in formal labs as well as activities outside of the lab experience.


Science Practices (SP):

  1. The student can use representations and models to communicate scientific phenomena and solve scientific problems.
  2. The student can use mathematics appropriately.
  3. The student can engage in scientific questioning to extend thinking or to guide investigations within the contest of the AP course.
  4. The student can plan and implement data collections strategies appropriate to a particular scientific question.
  5. The student can perform data analysis and evaluation of evidence.
  6. The student can work with scientific explanations and theories.
  7. The student is able to connect and relate knowledge across various scales, concepts, and representations in and across domains.


Unit 1: First Week and Introduction (Review summer assignment, 4 Classes) [CR2]
Big ideas: 1, 2
Connected to enduring understandings:
1.A Change in the genetic makeup of a population over time is evolution.
2.A Growth, reproduction and maintenance of the organization of living
systems require free energy and matter.
Chapters:
1. Introduction: Themes in the Study of Life
2. The Chemical Context of Life
3. Water and the Fitness of the Environment
Unit 1 Overview of Lecture and Discussion Topics:
1.Darwin and the Theory of Natural Selection
2.Inquiry as a way to learn science
3.Structure of Atoms
4.Emergent Properties of Water
Activities:
2. Assignment: Science Project (SP 2, 3, 4, 5)
Open inquiry of a biological topic of choice
Research topic to formulate a question
Hypothesize
Design a controlled experiment to test the hypothesis (multiple trials)
Analyze data and make conclusions
Prepare a folder of the scientific work and prepare for a visual presentation
Unit 2: Biochemistry and Introduction to the Cell (11 Classes) [CR2]
Big ideas: 1, 2, 3, 4
Connected to enduring understandings:
1.D The origin of living systems is explained by natural processes.
2.A Growth, reproduction and maintenance of the organization of living
systems require free energy and matter.
2.B Growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis require that cells
create and maintain internal environments that are different from their
external environments.
AP Biology: Sample Syllabus 1
3
CR2: The course
is structured
around the endur-
ing understand-
ings within the big
ideas as described
in the AP Biology
Curriculum
Framework.
3.A Heritable information provides for continuity of life.
4.A Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties.
4.B Competition and cooperation are important aspects of biological systems.
4.C Naturally occurring diversity among and between components within
biological systems affects interactions with the environment.
Chapters:
4. Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
5. The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules
6. A Tour of the Cell
7. Membrane Structure and Function
Unit 2 Overview of Lecture and Discussion topics:
1.
The impact of carbon as the “backbone of life”
2.
How monomers build polymers, including the roles of nucleic acids
3.
Examples of organelles that are membrane bound to compartmentalize their functions
4.
Membrane structure and function
Activities/Labs:
1. From Practicing Biology, 3rd Edition.
Activity 4.1/5.1 “How can you identify organic macromolecules?”
Activity 4.2/5.2 “What predictions can you make about the behavior of organic macromolecules if you know their structure?”
Activity 4.2/5.2 Test Your Understanding “Explain your reasoning as to the
outcome of experiments whose outcomes depend on the chemical characteristics of the four major types of macromolecules.” [CR3b] & [CR4b]
2. BUILD-A-MEMBRANE: Cut, fold, and paste biological molecules to create a three-dimensional cell membrane with embedded proteins, followed by whole class discussion of membrane structure and function. (SP 1) Students complete animations and activities from Amazing Cells page of this website. [CR3b]
3. Diffusion and Osmosis Lab Inquiry. A demonstration using dialysis tubing (model) will allow students to make observations and to provide evidence for the diffusion of molecules; students set up an experiment regarding osmosis and
concentration gradients after hypothesizing the outcome; data collection,
calculations of percent change, graphing percent change in mass of dialysis bags of varying sucrose molarities placed in water, and analysis of the data will follow. All work will be kept in the laboratory research notebook. (SP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) [CR3b], [CR6] & [CR8]
4. Whole Class Discussion (Campbell, pg 91) Evolution Connection: Would you expect the amino acid sequences of all the proteins of a given set of living species to show the same degree of divergence? Why or why not? (SP 6)
AP Biology: Sample Syllabus 1
4
CR3b: Students
connect the endur-
ing understandings
within Big Idea 2
(biological systems
utilize free energy
and molecular
building blocks to
grow, to reproduce,
and to maintain
dynamic homeo-
stasis to at least one
other big idea.)
CR4b: The course
provides students
with opportunities
outside of the
laboratory investi-
gations to meet the
learning objectives
within Big Idea 2.
CR6: The
student-directed
laboratory
investigations
used throughout
the course allow
students to apply
the seven science
practices defined
in the AP Biology
Curriculum
Framework and
include at least two
lab experiences in
each of the four
big ideas.
Unit 3: Cellular Energy and Related Processes (14 Classes) [CR2]
Big ideas: 1, 2, 4
Connected to enduring understandings:
1.A Change in the genetic makeup of a population over time is evolution.
1.D The origin of living systems is explained by natural processes.
2.B Growth, reproduction and maintenance of the organization of living
systems require free energy and matter.
4.A Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties.
4.B Competition and cooperation are important biological systems.
Chapters:
8. An Introduction to Metabolism
9. Cellular Respiration
10. Photosynthesis
Unit 3 Overview of Lecture and Discussion Topics:
1.
Metabolic pathways
2.
Laws of Energy Transformation
3.
How ATP powers cellular work
4.
Enzyme structure and function
5.
Harvesting chemical energy: glycolysis, citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation
6.
Light reactions and the Calvin cycle
7.
Evolution of alternative mechanism of carbon fixation
Activities:
1. From Practicing Biology, 3rd Edition (SP 1)
Activity 9.1 A Quick Review of Energy Transformations.
Activity 9.2 Modeling cellular respiration: How can cells convert the energy in glucose to ATP.
Activity 10.1 Modeling photosynthesis: How can cells use the sun’s energy to
convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose (10.1 Test Your Understanding)
Activity 10.2 How do C3, C4, and CAM photosynthesis compare? (Connection of big idea #2 to enduring understanding 1.A) [CR3a] & [CR4b]
2. THE EVOLUTION OF THE CELL: The
endosymbiotic theory explains how relatives of ancient bacteria ended up in modern-day cells. A whole class discussion is used to analyze the endosymbiotic theory, encouraging students to question how prokaryotes can carry on energy transfer processes without true membrane bound organelles. Students are given 5 minutes to write a conclusion to the discussion on a post-it note for posting on their way out of class. (SP 3, 6) [CR3b] & [CR4b]
Big idea #2 Laboratory Investigations:
1. Pea Respiration.Using knowledge of the process of cellular respiration and of how to set timed experiments using the Vernier labquest and carbon dioxide
probes, students will engage in the process of inquiry as they conduct an
experiment to measure the rate of cell respiration in germinating peas at room
AP Biology: Sample Syllabus 1
5
CR3a: Students
connect the endur-
ing understandings
within Big Idea 1
(the process of
evolution drives the
diversity and unity
of life) to at least one
other big idea.
CR4b: The course
provides students
with opportunities
outside of the
laboratory investi-
gations to meet the
learning objectives
within Big Idea 2.
CR2: The course
is structured
around the endur-
ing understand-
ings within the big
ideas as described
in the AP Biology
Curriculum
Framework.
temperature. Next, students will design a controlled experiment to answer a
question of their choice that they asked while conducting the experiment at room temperature. Students will collect and determine cellular respiration rates and demonstrate an understanding of concepts involved by preparing a report in their laboratory research. (Supports big idea 2; SP 2, 3, 4, 5) [CR6] & [CR8]
2. Photosynthesis Laboratory: Student-directed and inquiry based investigations about photosynthesis using the floating leaf disc procedure. A write-up of the design and discussion of the outcome will be kept in their laboratory research notebook. (Supports big idea 2; SP 2, 3, 4) [CR6] & [CR8]
3. Laboratory: Students will be allowed to explore with the Vernier labquest system and a gas pressure probe, learning how to set up timed experiment. Concepts
related to enzyme structure and function will have been learned. In this inquiry
based investigation, students will design an experiment to test a variable on the
rate of reaction of catalase with hydrogen peroxide. Appropriate materials will be available to them to test the variable of their choice and to explore to find answers to open ended questions that they have. Posters will be prepared for presentations to the class of the outcome, including rate calculations and meaning of data as it relates to enzyme structure and function. (Supports big idea 2; SP 2, 3, 4, 5) [CR6]
Unit 4: Cell Communication and the Cell Cycle (9 Classes) [CR2]
Big ideas: 1, 2, 3
Connected to enduring understandings:
2.E Many biological processes involved in growth, reproduction and dynamic
homeostasis include temporal regulation and coordination
3.A Heritable information provides for continuity of life
3.B Expression of genetic information involves cellular and molecular
mechanisms.
3.D Cells communicate by generating, transmitting and receiving chemical
signals.
Chapters:
11. Cell Communication
12. The Cell Cycle
Unit 4 Overview of Lecture and Discussion Topics:
1.
Evolution of cell signaling
2.
Reception, transduction, response
3.
Apoptosis
4.
How mitosis produces genetically identical daughter cells
5.
Evolution of Mitosis
6.
How the eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by a molecular control system
7.
Origin of cell communication
AP Biology: Sample Syllabus 1
6
CR8: The course
provides opportuni-
ties for students to
develop and record
evidence of their
verbal, written and
graphic
communication
skills through
laboratory reports,
summaries of
literature or
scientific
investigations, and
oral, written, or
graphic
presentations.
CR6: The
student-directed
laboratory
investigations
used throughout
the course allow
students to apply
the seven science
practices defined
in the AP Biology
Curriculum
Framework and
include at least two
lab experiences in
each of the four
big ideas.
Activities:
1. Pathways with Friends: Directed by
instructional cards, students kinesthetically model cell communication by acting as components in a cell signaling. Whole class discussion follows, assessing student understanding of cell communication. Animations of Cell Communication, An Example of Cell Communication, The Fight or Flight Response, How Cells
Communicate during the Fight or Flight Response (These animations provide students with a model example of the concepts involved in cell signaling). (SP 1) [CR4c]
2. Practicing Biology, 3rd Edition Activity 11.1 How are chemical signals translated into cellular responses? [CR4c]
3. Whole class discussion: How do hormones and other signaling molecules work? (Animals and Plants, Chapters 45 and 39) [CR4c]
4. Modeling the Cell Cycle. Students construct a model of the cell cycle, explain and present the major events in a presentation. (SP 1) [CR4b]
5. Using mitosis cards (such as from Ward’s Natural Science), students estimate the time a cell spends in each of the mitotic stages and develops an appropriate graph to reveal data. (SP 5) [CR4b]
Big idea # 3 Laboratory Investigations:
Cell Division and Mitosis. Student directed and inquiry based laboratory. Onion roots are treated with bean lectin to increase mitotic rate in cells. Students design a controlled experiment to test the effect of treated root squashes and use Chi Square to analyze data. A write-up of the laboratory and outcome, including calculations and analysis of data will be prepared in the laboratory research notebook.
(Supports big idea 3; SP 2, 3, 4, 5) [CR6] & [CR8]
Unit 5: Genetic Basis of Life (7 Classes) [CR2]
Big ideas: 1, 3, 4
Connected to enduring understandings:
1.A Change in the genetic makeup of a population over time is evolution.
3.A Heritable information provides for continuity of life.
3.C The processing of genetic information is imperfect and is a source of
genetic variation.
4.C Naturally occurring diversity among and between components within
biological systems affects interactions with the environment.
Chapters:
13. Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles
14. Mendel and the Gene Idea
15. The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
Unit 5 Overview of Lecture and Discussion Topics:
1.
Genes are passed from parents to offspring by the inheritance of chromosomes
AP Biology: Sample Syllabus 1
7
CR4c: The course
provides students
with opportunities
outside of the
laboratory investi-
gations to meet the
learning objectives
within Big Idea 3.
CR4b: The course
provides students
with opportunities
outside of the
laboratory investi-
gations to meet the
learning objectives
within Big Idea 2.
CR2: The course
is structured
around the
enduring under-
standings within
the big ideas as
described in the AP
Biology Curriculum
Framework.
2.
How meiosis reduces the number of chromosomes (diploid to haploid)
3.
Evolutionary significance of genetic variation that results from sexual life cycles
4.
Concepts of Mendelian genetics (laws of probability, inheritance patterns)
5.
Genes are located along chromosomes (concepts of gene linkage, mapping
distance between genes, causes of genetic disorders) [CR5]
Activities:
1. Knowing the % of each color in packages of M&M’s, as published by the
packaging company, students will count the colors in packages and apply the null hypothesis concept and Chi Square calculations on the data. (SP 2) [CR4c]
2. Students will be given data from a Genetics of Drosophila laboratory involving three crosses of the fruit flies. All of the observations will be given to them. They will develop a null hypothesis as to the mode of inheritance based on the data, and they will use the Chi Square statistical analysis to determine whether to accept or reject the hypothesis. (SP 2, 5)
3. Students will use a chromosome bead kit to simulate the process of meiosis and explain when haploidy occurs. (SP 1)
Laboratory Investigation:
Meiosis in Sordaria. Students analyze outcomes of Sordaria crosses, determine
phenotypes due to crossover or non-crossover, and determine percent
recombination and map units. They will compare their observations with the known map distance from gene to centromere. (SP 2, 5)
Unit 6: Gene Activity and Biotechnology (13 Classes) [CR2]
Big ideas: 1, 2, 3, 4
Connected to enduring understandings:
1.A Change in the genetic makeup of a population over time is evolution
2.C Organisms use feedback mechanisms to regulate growth and
reproduction, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.
2.E Many biological processes involved in growth, reproduction and dynamic
homeostasis include temporal regulation and coordination.
3.A Heritable information provides for continuity of life.
3.B Expression of genetic information involves cellular and molecular
mechanisms.
3.C The processing of genetic information is imperfect and is a source of
genetic variation.
4.A Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties.
Chapters:
16. The Molecular Basis of Inheritance
17. From Gene to Protein
18. Regulation of Gene Expression
19. Viruses
20. Biotechnology
21. Genomes and their Evolution
AP Biology: Sample Syllabus 1
8
CR5: The course
provides students
with opportunities
to connect their
biological and
scientific knowledge
to major social
issues (e.g.,
concerns,
technological
advances,
innovations) to help
them become
scientifically literate
citizens.
CR4c: The course
provides students
with opportunities
outside of the
laboratory investi-
gations to meet the
learning objectives
within Big Idea 3.
CR2: The course
is structured
around the
enduring
understandings
within the big
ideas as described
in the AP Biology
Curriculum
Framework.
Unit 6 Overview of Lecture and Discussion Topics:
1.
DNA is the genetic material (historical experiments, DNA structure and
function, DNA replication)
2.
Flow of genetic information (genetic code, role of other polymers,
transcription, translation)
3.
Mutations
4.
Gene expression (operon systems in prokaryotes, eukaryotic gene
expression)
5.
Virus structure and activity
6.
Restriction enzymes, plasmids, transformation
7.
DNA technology (how gel electrophoresis works and applications of this
technology) [CR5]
Activities:
1. Practicing Biology, 3rd Edition.
Activity 16.1 Is the hereditary material DNA or protein?
Activity 16.2 How does DNA replicate? (modeling)
Activity 17.1 Modeling transcription and translation: What processes produce RNA from DNA and protein from MRNA (SP 1, 3, 4, 5, 6) [CR4c]
2. Model of an operon: Following lecture and discussion of structure and function of an operon system, materials are made available for students to create a model of an operon and demonstrate to their classmates. (SP 1, 6)
3. DNA and Histone Model A 3-D cut-and-paste model depicting how histone, acetyl and methyl molecules control access to DNA and affect gene expression. (Connection of big idea 3 to enduring understanding 4.A; SP 1, 6)
Big idea # 3 Laboratory Investigations:
1. Biotechnology Lab 1: Transformation. Students will perform a transformation
experiment in which they transform a bacterial cell to contain a plasmid
containing a gene which can be expressed so as to produce protein products which make the cell “glow”. Students will then study the structure of the plasmid and make predictions regarding growth on various agar plates (LB plates, plates with ampicillin and arabinose added). They will then examine the bacterial growth
afterwards and collect quantitative data. They will calculate transformation
efficiency. Students will then plan a controlled experiment that they think would improve the transformation efficiency. The entire laboratory study will be
documented in the laboratory research notebook. (Supports big idea 3; SP 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) [CR6] & [CR8]
2. Students will use micro-techniques to restrict DNA, and using a marker DNA along with “crime scene” and “suspect” DNA, predict which suspect matches the crime scene. Students will understand the principles of gel electrophoresis.
Students will collect quantitative data by using the marker DNA results to graph data. They will utilize band migration distances and extrapolate band sizes by extrapolating from their graphs. The entire laboratory study will be documented in the laboratory research notebook. (Supports big idea 3; SP 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)
AP Biology: Sample Syllabus 1
9
CR6: The
student-directed
laboratory
investigations
used throughout
the course allow
students to apply
the seven science
practices defined
in the AP Biology
Curriculum
Framework and
include at least two
lab experiences in
each of the four
big ideas.
CR5: The course
provides students
with opportunities
to connect their
biological and
scientific knowledge
to major social
issues (e.g.,
concerns,
technological
advances,
innovations) to help
them become
scientifically literate
citizens.
CR4c: The course
provides students
with opportunities
outside of the
laboratory investi-
gations to meet the
learning objectives
within Big Idea 3.
Unit 7: Evolution and Phylogeny (19 Classes) [CR2]
Big ideas: 1, 3, 4
Connected to enduring understandings:
1.A Change in the genetic makeup of a population over time is evolution.
1.B Organisms are linked by lines of descent from common ancestry.
1.C Life continues to evolve within a changing environment.
1.D The origin of living systems is explained by natural processes.
3.A Heritable information provides for continuity of life.
3.C The processing of genetic information is imperfect and is a source of
genetic variation.
4.C Naturally occurring diversity among and between components within
biological systems affects interactions with the environment.
Chapters:
22. Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life
23. The Evolution of Populations
24. The Origin of Species
25. The History of Life on Earth
26. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
27. Bacteria and Archae
Unit 7 Overview of Lecture and Discussion Topics:
1.
How natural selection serves as a mechanism for evolution
2.
Scientific evidence supporting evolution
3.
Hardy-Weinberg concept
4.
How allele frequencies can be altered in a population
5.
Concepts of speciation
6.
Origin of Life; Fossil Records
7.
Events in the “history of life” (origin of single-celled and multicellular
organisms; mass extinctions; adaptive radiations)
Big idea # 1 Laboratory Investigations:
1. After learning about and discussing experiments by Oparin, Miller and Urey, and others, students are guided through an inquiry in which they form coacervates by combining carbohydrate molecules with protein molecules as they vary pH. They observe the coacervates and collect quantitative data. Students then develop a question they would like to answer through experimentation about coacervate formation, and materials are made available as students design experiments to test the hypotheses they have made. The entire laboratory study will be documented in a laboratory research notebook. In addition, students will post outcomes on Moodle, and students will be required to comment on the findings of the various student groups. (SP 1, 3, 4, 5) [CR6] & [CR8]
2. Students will learn how to analyze cladograms and understand evolutionary relationships using the Basic Local Alignment Sequencing Tool. Students will analyze morphological details about a newly discovered fossil, hypothesize as to the position of the fossil in a pre-constructed cladogram, then test the hypothesis using BLAST. Once students become comfortable, they will use the tool to answer questions of their choice regarding gene sequences. Alternatively, students can
AP Biology: Sample Syllabus 1
10
CR8: The course
provides opportuni-
ties for students to
develop and record
evidence of their
verbal, written and
graphic
communication
skills through
laboratory reports,
summaries of
literature or
scientific
investigations, and
oral, written, or
graphic
presentations.
CR2: The course
is structured
around the endur-
ing understand-
ings within the big
ideas as described
in the AP Biology
Curriculum
Framework.
CR6: The
student-directed
laboratory
investigations
used throughout
the course allow
students to apply
the seven science
practices defined
in the AP Biology
Curriculum
Framework and
include at least two
lab experiences in
each of the four
big ideas.
explore and discover using Cold Spring Harbor DNA Learning Lab: DNA Subway. (Supports big idea 1; SP1, 3, 4, 5) [CR6] & [CR8]
Activities:
1. NOVA; PBS video: “What Darwin Never Knew.” This video will be utilized in conjunction with whole class discussions to take a look at Charles Darwin’s
observations and conclusions and how modern day molecular biology is
confirming what Darwin documented. (Connects big idea 1 to enduring
understanding 3.C) [CR3c], [CR4a] & [CR5]
2. Constructing a Phylogenetic Tree Using DNA Sequence Data Simulation: Students exchange the “ancestral DNA” with random mutations over time and make divergences into different
evolutionary lines. A phylogenetic tree is constructed. Then, in a second part,
students construct a phylogenetic tree of another group based strictly on
nucleotide sequences of present-day organisms. (SP 1, 4, 5) [CR4a]
3. Evolutionary Time: The Geologic Time String The Time String involves the use of a string. The string is 4.6 meters long, and each millimeter on the string represents 1 million years. Knots tied at distinct locations along the string represent extinctions, beginning of Eras, and so forth, in the geologic time table. (SP 7) [CR4a]
4. Practicing Biology, 3rd Edition. Activity 23.1 A Quick Review of Hardy-
Weinberg Population Genetics. Alternatively, present students with Hardy-
Weinberg problems from a variety of resources. Students apply the Hardy-
Weinberg equation to determine frequencies of phenotypes and alleles. (SP 2) [CR4a]
5. HHMI video: “Evolution” Students will view the lecture on artificial selection and a class discussion will follow.
Unit 8 Diversity in the Biological World: Organism Form and Function
(22 Classes) [CR2]
Big ideas: 1, 2, 3, 4
Connected to enduring understandings:
1.A Change in the genetic makeup of a population over time is evolution.
1.B Organisms are linked by lines of descent from common ancestry.
2.A Growth, reproduction and maintenance of the organization of living
systems require free energy and matter.
2.C Organisms use feedback mechanisms to regulate growth and
reproduction, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.
2.D Growth and dynamic homeostasis of a biological system are influenced
by changes in the system’s environment.
2.E Many biological processes involved in growth, reproduction and dynamic
homeostasis include temporal regulation and coordination.
3.E Transmission of information results in changes within and between
biological systems.
AP Biology: Sample Syllabus 1
11
CR4a: The course
provides students
with opportunities
outside of the
laboratory investi-
gations to meet the
learning objectives
within Big Idea 1.
CR3c: Students
connect the endur-
ing understandings
within Big Idea 3
(living systems store,
retrieve, transmit,
and respond to
information
essential to life
processes) to at least
one other big idea.
CR5: The course
provides students
with opportunities
to connect their
biological and
scientific knowledge
to major social
issues (e.g.,
concerns,
technological
advances, innova-
tions) to help them
become
scientifically literate
citizens.
4.A Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties.
4.B Competition and cooperation are important aspects of biological systems.
Chapters:
40. Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function
43. The Immune System
48. Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling
49.2 The Vertebrate Brain
(Chapters 28-49 will be utilized to provide students with resources for the
enduring understandings in this unit)
Unit 8 Overview of Lecture and Discussion Topics: This section covers a broad survey of the diversity of life; specific topics will connect big ideas and enduring understandings.
1.
Evolutionary trends (endosymbiosis, adaptations that allowed plants to
move from water to land, reproductive adaptations of angiosperms,
environmental roles of fungi, animal body plans, progressively complex
derived characters in animal groups)
2.
Unique features of the angiosperm life cycles
3.
Signal transduction pathways (plant and animal hormones)
4.
Photoperiodism in plants
5.
Feedback control loops in animals
6.
Thermoregulation in animals
7.
Energy allocation and use in animals
8.
Examples of functioning units in mammal systems (alveoli in lungs, villi of
small intestines, nephrons in kidneys)
9.
Structure and function in immune systems
10.
Structure and function in nervous systems (neurons, resting potential,
action potential, synapses)
11.
Structure and function of the human brain
Activities:
1. Working with cladograms and phylogenetic trees: given groups of organisms and some of their distinguishing characteristics, students will construct a
cladogram and properly interpret and analyze it in terms of how it shows common ancestry. (SP 1 ,3, 5) [CR4a] & [CR4d]
2. Practicing Biology, 3rd Edition.
Activity 29.3 How are the events in plant evolution related?
Activity 34.1 What can we learn about the evolution of chordates by
examining modern chordates?
Activity 36.1 How are water and food transported in plants?
Activity 40.1 How does an organism’s structure help it maintain homeostasis?
Activity 43.1 How does the immune system keep the body free of pathogens?
Activity 48.2 How do neurons function to transmit information?
3. Jumpin’ the Gap: Students act out
communication at the neural level by behaving as vesicles, neurotransmitters,
receptors, secondary messengers and transporters. (SP 1, 7) [CR4d]
AP Biology: Sample Syllabus 1
12
CR4d: The course
provides students
with opportunities
outside of the
laboratory investi-
gations to meet the
learning objectives
within Big Idea 4.
CR4a: The course
provides students
with opportunities
outside of the
laboratory investi-
gations to meet the
learning objectives
within Big Idea 1.
4. What affects urine production? , Chapter 44. Through animation, students explore the role of a solute gradient on maximum urine production. Next, they explore the effect of hormones on urine production. Animated experiments are run and data is collected. Students analyze the
outcomes of the experiments. (SP 1, 5, 7) [CR4a]
5. Research: Can stem cell-based therapy be used in brain and spinal cord injuries? Students will prepare presentations of their findings and responses to questions such as: Should embryonic stem cell research continue to be permitted? Should it be supported by government funding? Do the origins of embryonic stem cell lines make a difference? (SP 3) [CR4c] & [CR5]
Unit 9: Ecology (17 Classes) [CR2]
Big ideas: 1, 2, 3, 4
Connected to enduring understandings:
1.A Change in the genetic makeup of a population over time is evolution.
1.C Life continues to evolve within a changing environment.
2.A Growth, reproduction and maintenance of the organization of living
systems require free energy and matter.
2.C Organisms use feedback mechanisms to regulate growth, reproduction
and dynamic homeostasis.
2.D Growth and dynamic homeostasis of a biological system are influenced by
changes in the system’s environment.
2.E Many biological processes involved in growth, reproduction and dynamic
homeostasis include temporal regulation and coordination.
3.E Transmission of information results in changes within and between
biological systems.
4.A Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties.
4.B Competition and cooperation are important aspects of biological systems.
4.C Naturally occurring diversity among and between components within
biological systems affects interactions with the environment.
Chapters:
51. Animal Behavior
52.2. Interactions between organisms and the environment limit the distribution
of species.
53. Population Ecology
54. Community Ecology
55. Ecosystems
56. Conservation Biology and Global Change
Unit 9 Overview of Lecture and Discussion Topics:
1.
Aspects of animal behavior
2.
Aspects of biomes
3.
Models describing population growth
4.
Regulation of population growth
5.
Community interactions
6.
Species diversity and composition
AP Biology: Sample Syllabus 1
13
CR2: The course
is structured
around the
enduring under
standings within
the big ideas as
described in the AP
Biology Curriculum
Framework.
CR4a: The course
provides students
with opportunities
outside of the
laboratory investi-
gations to meet the
learning objectives
within Big Idea 1.
CR4c: The course
provides students
with opportunities
outside of the
laboratory investi-
gations to meet the
learning objectives
within Big Idea 3.
CR5: The course
provides students
with opportunities
to connect their
biological and
scientific knowledge
to major social
issues (e.g.,
concerns,
technological
advances,
innovations) to help
them become
scientifically literate
citizens.
7.
Community biodiversity
8.
Energy flow and chemical cycling in ecosystems
9.
Primary productivity
10.
Energy transfer between trophic levels
11.
Human activities that threaten biodiversity
Big idea #4 Laboratory Investigations:
1. Fruit Fly Behavior Lab. Students design their own controlled experiments to investigate a question they have about animal behavior (kinesis and taxis in
isopods, fruit fly behavior with respect to selected stimuli). The entire laboratory and experimental design and analysis will be written in the laboratory research notebook. (Supports big idea 4; SP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) [CR6] & [CR8]
2. Dissolved Oxygen and Primary Productivity. Through guided inquiry, students will investigate how to measure dissolved oxygen using the Winkler method
(ex: How does temperature affect the dissolved oxygen concentration in samples of water?) Continuing, students will explore respiration and photosynthesis processes in samples of a Chlorella culture as they study gross and net primary productivity. Students will then be challenged to write and conduct a controlled experiment to test the effect of a variable on primary productivity. The study will involve
hypothesizing, designing the experiment, data collection of dissolved oxygen
concentrations, calculations of primary productivity, graphing and making a conclusion. The entire laboratory investigation will be written in the laboratory research notebook. (Supports big idea 4; SP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) [CR6]
Activities:
1. Students will design a model of a biome that demonstrates knowledge of
biological processes and concepts across scales. Class presentations will
demonstrate their knowledge of understanding. (Connects big idea 4 to enduring understanding 2.A; SP 7) [CR3d] & [CR4d]
2. Community Project: A science center in the school district is working with an adjacent state park to collect water quality data (i.e.: nitrates, phosphates, and
temperature ) from storm water ditches after heavy rains. Baseline data is
available. Data is uploaded on a web-based database. Students will analyze the data and participate in the study to find any effects of water run-off on water quality in the state park. (SP 4, 5) [CR4d]
3. Provide students with a copy of an article entitled “Invasive Plant Suppresses the Growth of Native Tree Seedlings by Disrupting Belowground Mutualisms”, by Kristina Stinson and others. Students will explore the research based study and analyze the data presented for its meaning. (SP 5) [CR4d] & [CR5]
4. Pose the following question to students: In order to improve species richness, you decide to add phosphate to a pond. How might you determine how much phosphate to add in order to avoid eutrophication? Students will prepare a visual on whiteboards and present their thinking to the class. (SP 3, 4) [CR4d] & [CR5]
14
AP Biology: Sample Syllabus 1
CR3d: Students
connect the
enduring
understandings
within Big Idea 4
(biological systems
interact and these
systems and their
interactions possess
complex properties)
to at least one other
big idea.
CR5: The course
provides students
with opportunities
to connect their
biological and
scientific knowledge
to major social
issues (e.g.,
concerns, techno-
logical advances,
innovations) to help
them become
scientifically literate
citizens.
CR6: The
student-directed
laboratory
investigations
used throughout
the course allow
students to apply
the seven science
practices defined
in the AP Biology
Curriculum
Framework and
include at least two
lab experiences in
each of the four
big ideas.
5. Animated investigation: How Does the Fungus Pilobolus Succeed as a
Decomposer? From: , Chapter 31. Students
investigate this fungus as a decomposer, hypothesizing and collecting data in this animated investigation; they will study the adaptiveness of certain spore dispersal methods. (Connects big idea 4 to enduring understanding 1.A; SP 5, 6, 7) [CR4d]
6. Animated Investigation: How do Abiotic Factors Affect Distribution of
Organisms? From: , Chapter 52. Students will use a simple model for observing ecological impact that occurs when single abiotic
factors are changes. By changing abiotic factors, data can be collected and
analyzed. (Connection of big idea 2 to enduring understanding 4.A) [CR4d]
15

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