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Global History Resources

 

GOVERNMENTS

 

Type of Government

Definition

How Leader Obtains Power

Examples

MONARCHY

·    A central figure exercises power and authority- king, queen, emperor

·    Autocratic form of government- one person in power

·    Have been common since ancient times, only a few still exist today

·    Theory if “Divine right”- power to rule comes from a higher authority

·    Power is usually hereditary- passed down from generation to generation

·    Absolute monarch- absolute power and authority reside in the hands of one ruler- Louis XIV of France

·    Constitutional monarch- power of the monarch is restricted/ controlled by a constitution or an elected body- Great Britain, Japan

FEUDALISM

·    Decentralized political system, based on land ownership and loyalty

·    Declined with the growth of nation states and increased central authority

·    Power was based on land ownership and loyalty.

·    Landowners demanded a fee or military service form those living on their land

·    Most prominent in medieval Europe and in Japan from the 1600s to the mid 1800s.

·    No examples of feudalism today

 

DEMOCRACY

·    A system in which the power to rule is held by the people-either directly or through elected representatives

·    Power originates with people.  Leaders are put into power through fair and open elections

·    Contains a constitution- the highest law in the land

 

·    Democracy began in ancient Greece, especially associated with Athens

·    Primary political system in the countries of the West today

TOTALITARIANISM

·    A one party dictatorship regulates every aspect of its citizens lives

·    Power is generally achieved through military force

·    The Soviet Union under Stalin

·    Iraq under Saddam Hussein

MILITARISM

·    A small group of military leaders seize control of the country

·    Fear and intimidation help centralize power- usually military leaders assume control

·    Japan during World War II

FASCISM

·    All political opposition is eliminated, resulting in a one- party dictatorship

·    Violence against minority groups is advocated

·    Rooted in extreme nationalism and loyalty to the state

·    Fear and intimidation help centralize power- usually military leaders assume control

·    Italy under Mussolini

·    German under Hitler is a type fascism

COMMUNISM

·    The government owns the land, natural resource, industry, banks, and transportation facitlites

·    Government also controls all communication

·    Limited economic and political freedom, no chance to influence the government

·    Power lies in the hands of a small;; group, or one individual

·    Through support of the military, although elections can be held

·    The Soviet Union

·    Cuba, under Castro

·    China

·    North Korea

·    Vietnam

THEOCRACY

·    Religious leader is also the political leader

·    Generally through a revolution, although it could also be a hereditary position

·    Iran under the Ayatollah

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------35                                      Global Studies – 10 Day Competency Review

 

Essay

 

Less developed nations face many economic problems.

 

Problems

Large debts

Lack of capital

Overpopulation

Inadequate housing

Lack of trained workers

 

Part A

 

Select one problem from the list above. _______________________________________

Describe one way this hurts a less developed nation. [1]

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Describe one possible solution for this problem. [1]

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Select another  problem from the list above.____________________________________

Describe one way this hurts a less developed nation. [1]

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Describe one possible solution for this problem. [1]

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Part B

You should use Part A information in your Part B answer.  However, you may include different or additional information in your Part B answer. [6]

 

Write an essay explaining how less developed nations can solve their economic problems.

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......................................................................................................................................................................................................

 

 

 

 Name ________________________      Date ________________


Political Systems and Citizenship

1.  

Apartheid laws enacted by the Republic of South Africa in 1948 led to (1 point)

 

international support for the government's racial policies

high levels of poverty among whites

equal educational opportunities

segregation and inequality for blacks

2.  

John Locke, Thomas Jefferson, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau believed in (1 point)

 

land ownership by the government

imperialism and colonialism

government by the people

the divine right of kings

3.  

"Berlin Wall Falls!" (1989)
"Lithuania Declares Independence" (1990)
"Boris Yeltsin Elected President of Russian Republic" (1991)

These headlines suggest that events in Russia and Eastern Europe were the direct result of (1 point)

 

the decline of communism

Soviet isolationism

United Nations actions

German militarism

4.  

A strong tradition of democracy evolved in England partly because (1 point)

 

the Magna Carta and the Parliament limited royal power

the Catholic Church chose the rulers of England

English kings did not want absolute power

Vikings invaded Englnad and established free elections

5.  

In a feudal society, wealth was based mainly on (1 point)

 

owning land

conducting foreign trade

collecting raw material

investing in businesses

6.  

Which statement is most accurate about Latin America today? (1 point)

 

Latin America continues to be the most populous region in the world.

Many Latin American governments have changed from military dictatorships to democracies.

Latin American countries do no export many natural resources.

Multinational corporations have been banned from most countries in Latin America.

7.  

Which statement is accurate about the history and traditions of Latin America from the 1800's until the late 1900's? (1 point)

 

Military dictatorships were common.

The region was unified under a central government.

There was little difference between the lives of the rich and the poor.

Most of the land was owned by peasants.

8.  

Which groups have traditionally held political power in Latin America? (1 point)

 

factory workers and factory supervisors

landowners and military leaders

scientist and city dwellers

peasant farmers and union leaders

9.  

The hacienda system in Latin America and the control exercised by the wealthy landlords in traditional China had the greatest power over the lives of the (1 point)

 

miners

city workers

merchants

farmworkers

10.  

The ideas of citizenship and justice are included most often in a study of (1 point)

 

economic systems

political systems

language

foreign trade

11.  

Which person is correctly paired with the political system he supported? (1 point)

 

Benito Mussolini- fascism

Winston Churchill- communism

Mao Zedong- democracy

Joseph Stalin- monarchy

12.  

Base your answer to this question on the information below and on your knowledge of social studies:
- John Locke stated that rulers should stay in power only with the consent of the people.
- The Baron de Montesquieu proposed a separation of powers among three branches of government.
- Jean-Jacques Rousseau put forth the idea that all men are created equal and that government should represent the will of the majority. These philosophers are associated with which historical period? (1 point)

 

Enlightenment

Commercial Revolution

Dark Ages

Meiji Restoration

13.  

In India, the caste system has influenced traditional lifestyles by (1 point)

 

controlling the daily activities of Hindus

ensuring political rights for Muslims

encouraging marriages between classes

promoting freedom of speech

14.  

A major principle of democracy is (1 point)

 

required military service

a rigid class structure

a one-party political system

free expression of ideas

15.  

The political ideas of Ho Chi Minh and Mao Zedong were strongly influenced by the writings of (1 point)

 

Mohandas Gandhi

Winston Churchill

Karl Marx

Adam Smith

 

 

 

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