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Chapter 10 Lecture Notes

Chapter 10-1

 Cell Growth, Division & Reproduction

Define Vocabulary

 Cell division

Asexual reproduction

Sexual Reproduction

Read “Think about it on page 274”

What are some difficulties a cell faces as it increases in size?

Limits to Cell Size

 

The larger a cells becomes, the more demands the cell places on its DNA. In addition, a larger cell is less efficient in moving nutrient and waste materials across the cell membrane.

Example: Think of one person managing and caring for a house or a 20 bedroom mansion…

 

Two reasons why Cells limit their growth

 The larger a cells becomes, the more demands the cell places on its DNA. In addition, a larger cell is less efficient in moving nutrient and waste materials across the cell membrane.

Example: Think of one person managing and caring for a house or a 20 bedroom mansion…

 

Cell Devision & Replication

 Before a cell becomes to large it will form two “daughter cells” by a process called Cell division.

What do you think has to happen inside of the cell before Cell division takes place?

 Before the cell divides, it must replicate (make a copy of ) its DNA.

Cell Division solves two problems:

Information overload

The cell growing too big.

Two types of Reproduction

 Sexual Reproduction: Requires two parents and the combining of the genetic material from each parent.

  ( Humans, Dog, Dolphins)

Asexual Reproduction: Requires only one parent organism and always produces an identical offspring because there is no mixing of genetics material from different parents. (Bacteria)

 

Advantages & Disadvantages of Sexual & Asexual Reproduction

 Advantage of Sexual Rep.= More Genetic variation (variety).

Disadvantage of Sexual Rep.= Always requires 2 parents (male & female), occurs more slowly= slower population growth

Advantage of Asexual Rep.=Only requires one parent, occurs faster for quicker population growth

Disadvantage of Asexual Rep.= No genetic variations (more likely to pass on harmful mutations)

Assessment

 Complete 10. Assessment on page 278

Answer questions 1-2 All in complete sentences

We will go over answers together in class.

 

Chapter 10.2 The Process of Cell Division

 

Define Vocabulary

Chromosome

Chromatin

Cell Cycle

Interphase

Mitosis

 Cytokinesis

Prophase

Centromere

Chromatid

Centriole

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

Chromosomes

 Read “Chromosomes” on page 279

What is the role of chromosomes in cell division?

 

                   

Prokaryotic Chromosomes   

 Eukaryotic Chromosomes

Lack Nuclei (DNA is in the cytoplasm)

Most Prokaryotes have a single circular DNA that contains nearly all the cells genetic information.

See Figure 10-4

 Have more DNA than Prokaryotes

DNA is in the Nucleus

Contain multiple chromosomes.

Chromosomes in Eukaryotes are arranged for maximum space.

 

 

 

 Chromosomes make it possible to separate DNA precisely during cell division.

See Figure 10-5

 

The Cell Cycle

 During the Cell Cycle, a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form two new daughter cells.

Each new daughter cell moves into a new cell cycle itself (activity, growth & division).

 

The Cell Cycle in Prokaryotes

 A prokaryotic cell begins to grow, once it reaches a certain size and DNA replication is complete,  the cell begins to divide.

The process of cell division in prokaryotes is called Binary Fission. See Figure 10-6

 

The Cell Cycle in Eukaryotes

 Consists of 4 phases: G1, S, G2 and M. (Fig. 10-7)

G1 Phase: Cell Growth (“G” stands for Gap)

S Phase: DNA replication (“S” stands for synthesis)

G2 Phase: Preparation for Mitosis

M Phase: Cell division which consists of Mitosis & Cytokinesis.

An easy way to remember the steps of Mitosis in correct order is to think of "P.M.A.T." Which stands for the first letter of Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase.

Cytokinesis completes the cell process of cell division and the one cell now splits into two.

Cytokinesis is different in Plant and Animal Cells. Read Cytokinesis of Plant and Animal cells on page 284.

See Figure 10-13 on page 285

 

Assessment

 Complete 10-2 Assessment Questions 1-4 all

Answer in complete sentences

We will go over the answers in class together.

 Complete Mitosis worksheet

Complete DNA Worksheet and color

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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