Completing the Research Notebook for AP Biology Lab #7.....Genetics of Organisms
Resource: Lab Six, Genetics of Organisms
Page 78 in the AP Biology lab Manual
Part 1: Title
Develop a title in the form of a question after completing the pre-lab.
Part 2: Objectives (What are the objectives for this laboratory?)
Part 3: Pre-lab Questions
1. Explain why the fruit fly is an excellent organism for genetics studies (there are about 8 reasons
listed in the introduction).
2. Briefly describe the stages in the life cycle of the fruit fly.
3. What modes of inheritance will be used for this study? Describe three that are listed.
4. Describe the characteristics of the male and female adult “wild” fly.
The adult male fly are usually smaller than females. Males have dark, blunt abdomens and
females have lighter , pointed abdomens. The abdomen of the female has transverse stripes. Only
a male has “sex combs”, or black bristles on the forelegs. Wild male and female flies have red eyes
5. What is a “mutant” fly?
A mutant fly is a fly that has traits that vary from the wild type. For example, a white eyed fly
results from a mutation in the DNA. Short stubby, functionless wings are called “vestigial”. A fly with
either white eyes, vestigial wings, or both are called mutant flies.
6. Statistical Analysis (Page 85) Read and study examples #1 and 2 (pages 85, 86, 87) That’s
read and study. Do the practice problem on pages 88 and 89.
Part 4: Method
a. The instructor will explain and demonstrate how to anesthetize, observe and count the flies. Male
and female wild flies will be observed carefully.
b. The F1 offspring from three purebred crosses (henceforth called Cross #1, Cross #2, and Cross
#3) will be counted . Quantitative data (counts) will be recorded that will include sex and traits
c. F1 flies will be used to set up new cultures. The life cycle of the fruit fly will be observed for about
d. When sufficient F2 flies have emerged, the F2 flies will be counted and quantitative data will be
e. Hypotheses will be made as to the mode of inheritance for each cross.
f. A chi square analysis will be done for each of the three crosses, and the conclusion will support or
reject the “null hypothesis” that was made.
Part 5: Data Table
Construct a data table to show all of the quantitative and descriptive data from the F1 generations for
Cross #1, Cross #2, and Cross #3 (See Table 7.1, page 82)
Construct a data table to show all of the quantitative and descriptive data from the F2 generations for
Cross#1, Cross#2, and Cross #3 (See Table 7.2, page 82)
Part 6: Questions
The analysis section will consist of
Cross 1 do questions 1-7 on pages 82-84
Cross 2 do questions 1-7 on pages 82-84
Cross 3 do questions 1-7 on pages 82-84
Questions 1,2,3 Page 85
Part 7: Graph (none)
Part 8: Theme Correlation
What biological themes are demonstrated in this laboratory. Explain.
Part 9: Conclusion
Explain monohybrid and use data from lab and chi square results to explain.
Explain dihybrid and use data from lab and chi square results to explain.
Explain sex linked and use data from the lab and chi square results to explain.