Completing the Research Notebook for AP Biology Lab #8.....Population Genetics and Evolution
Resource: Lab Eight, Population Genetics and Evolution
Page 90 in the AP Biology Lab Manual
Part 1: Title
Develop a title in the form of a question after completing the pre-lab.
Part 2: Objectives (What are the objectives for this laboratory?)
Part 3: Prelab Questions
a. Copy and Fill In: In 1908 Hardy and Weinberg independently suggested a scheme whereby evolution could be
viewed as ___________________________________.
b. Copy and Fill In: If ____ and ____ are alleles for a particular gene locus and each diploid individual has two
such loci, then ____ can be designated as the frequency of the A allele, and _____ as the frequency of the a allele.
c. p + q = _____
d. Copy and Fill In: The frequency of the diploid combinations of these alleles (AA, Aa, aa) is expressed as
______________________ = 1.
e. If five conditions are met, the population’s allele and genotype frequencies will remain constant from generation
to generation. These conditions are
(list them neatly as shown in the lab book)
f. Do problem #4 on page 97 of lab pages showing your work neatly.
g. Do problem #5 on page 97 of lab pages showing your work neatly.
h. Do problem #6 on page 97 of lab pages showing your work neatly.
Part 4: Method:
Allele frequencies for being able to taste PTC within a sample population will be estimated. Individuals will be
considered “tasters” if a bitter taste is detected when holding PTC paper to the tongue.
Case 1: Case Study of an Ideal Hardy Weinberg Population.
Assuming that gender and genotype are irrelevant to mate selection, the class will simulate a population of randomly
mating heterozygous individuals. The initial “A” frequency is 0.5 and the initial “a” frequency will also be 0.5. The
initial genotype frequencies will be 0.25AA, .50Aa, and .25 aa. Each person will assume the “Aa” genotype and
obtain four cards: A , a, A, a to simulate the products of meiosis.
Without looking at the cards, first person draws a card from his/her pile and the partner does the same from his/her
pile. This is your F1 offspring, generation 1. Reshuffle the cards, and the process repeated for the partner.
Record your own offspring genotype in the data table. Next round, assume the genotype of your offspring.
Randomly seek out another partner for mating. The process will be repeated for 5 generations.
The following exercises will be case studies following the same mating procedures and recordings as done in
Case II: In this simulation, homozygous recessive individuals never survive (as in sickle cell anemia--selection against
a genotype). The parents must continue trying until they produce two surviving offspring.
Case III: Heterozygote Advantage: there will be a slight selection against homozygous dominant individuals as
compared to heterozygotes.
Case IV: The case of genetic drift: small populations that have been isolated by chance.
Part 5: Data Tables
Table 8.1 page 91 for Exercise 8A (title the table)
Page 98: copy the table for each case and label the title of the case.
Page 93: copy the plan to calculate allele frequency for Case #1.
Part 6: Questions
page 92 #1,2; page 93 # 1,2,3; page 94 #1,2,3,4 page 95 #1,2,3; page 96 #1,2
Part 7: Graph (None)
Part 8: Theme Correlation
Discuss how the outcomes explain evolution; continuity and change
Part 9: Conclusion
USE DATA from the lab to discuss: Ideal Hardy Weinberg population, what happens (and why) to allele frequencies
in selection, heterozygous advantage, genetic drift. Explain these phenomenon in terms of evolution.