Class Notes-Module 20-Classical Conditioning Intro and Pavlov (p. 303-311)1. The tendency to _____________________ events that occur in sequence is called _____________________ _______________________.2. The type of learning in which the organism learns to associate two stimuli is __________________________ conditioning. This type of conditioning was first explored by the Russian physiologist ___________________.3. A relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience is called _____________________. Early in the twentieth century, psychologist ___________________ urged psychologists to discard references to mental concepts in favor of studying observable behavior. This view, called ___________________, influenced American psychology during the first half of that century.4. In Pavlov’s classical experiment, a tone, or _______________ ____________________, is sounded just before food, the _______________ _________________.5. An animal will salivate when food is placed in its mouth. This salivation is called the __________________ ________________.6. Eventually, the dogs in Pavlov’s experiment would salivate on hearing the tone. This salivation is called the _________________ _________________.7. The initial learning of a conditioned response is called ________________. For many conditioning situations, the optimal interval between a neutral stimulus and the UCS is _____________________ ___________________.8. When the UCS is presented prior to a neutral stimulus, conditioning ____________ (does/does not) occur. 9. Michael Domjan’s sexual conditioning studies with quail demonstrate that classical conditioning is highly adaptive because it helps animals _______________ and ________________. Associations that are not consciously noticed ___________ (can/cannot) give rise to attitudes.10. If a CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS, _________________ soon occurs; that is the CR diminishes.11. Following a rest, however, the CR reappears in response to the CS; this phenomenon is called ____________________ ___________________.12. Subjects often respond to a similar stimulus as they would to the original CS. This phenomenon is called ____________________. Subjects can, however, also be trained not to respond to these similar stimuli. This learned ability is called _____________________. Updating Pavlov (p. 311-313)1. Experiments by Rescorla and Wagner demonstrate that a CS must reliably __________________ the UCS for an association to develop and, more generally, that _________________ processes play a role in conditioning. It is as if the animal learns to _____________ that the UCS will occur.2. The importance of cognitive processes in human conditioning is demonstrated by the failure of classical conditioning as a treatment for ___________________.3. Garcia discovered that rats would associate ___________________ with taste but not with other stimuli. Garcia found that taste-aversion conditioning ________________ (would/would not) occur when the delay between the CS and the UCS was more than an hour.4. Results such as these demonstrate that the principles of learning are constrained by the __________________ predispositions of each animal species and that they help each species ___________ to its environment. Pavlov’s Legacy (p.314-316)
1. Research studies demonstrate that the body’s immune system _______________ (can/cannot) be classically conditioned.
Notes-Module 21-Operant Conditioning Skinner’s Experiments (p. 318-325)1. Classical conditioning associates ______________________ stimuli with stimuli that elicit responses that are __________________.2. The reflexive responses of classical conditioning involve _________________ behavior. In contrast, another type of _____________________ learning involves behavior that is more spontaneous and that is influenced by its consequences; this is called _________________ behavior.3. Using Thorndike’s ______________ ______________ _______________ as a starting point, Skinner developed a “behavioral technology.” He designed an apparatus, called the _____________ _____________, to investigate learning in animals.4. The procedure in which a person teaches an animal to perform an intricate behavior by building up to it in small steps is called _________________. This method involves reinforcing successive ______________________ of the desired behavior.5. An event that increases the frequency of a preceding response is a ______________________.6. A stimulus that strengthens a response by presenting a typically pleasurable stimulus after a response is a ___________________ ____________________.7. A stimulus that strengthens a response by reducing or removing an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus is a _________________ ____________________.8. Reinforcers, such as food and shock, that are related to basic needs and therefore do not rely on learning are called __________________ ________________. Reinforcers that must be conditioned and therefore derive their power through association are called ________________ _______________.9. Children who are able to delay gratification tend to become ______________ (more/less) socially competent and high achieving as they mature.10. Immediate reinforcement ______________ (is/is not) more effective than its alternative, ___________________ reinforcement. This explains in part the difficulty that ________________ users have in quitting their habits, as well as the tendency of some teens to engage in risky, _________________ ___________________.11. The procedure involving reinforcement of each and every response is called ________________ _________________. Under these conditions, learning is ___________ (rapid/slow). When this type of reinforcement is discontinued, extinction is _________ (rapid/slow).12. The procedure in which responses are reinforced only part of the time is called __________________ reinforcement. Under these conditions, learning is generally _______________ (faster/slower) than it is with continuous reinforcement. Behavior reinforced in this manner is ________________ (very/not very) resistant to extinction.13. When behavior is reinforced after a set number of responses, a _____________-________________ schedule is in effect. 14. Three-year-old Johnny knows that if he cries when he wants a treat, his mother will sometimes give in. When, as in this case, reinforcement occurs after an unpredictable number of responses, a _________________-_______________ schedule is being used. 15. Reinforcement of the first response after a set interval of time defines the ______________-_________________ schedule. An example of this schedule is ________________________________________________.16. When the first response after varying amounts of time is reinforced, a ______________-_________________ schedule is in effect. 17. An aversive consequence that decreases the likelihood of behavior that preceded it is called _________________. Updating Skinner’s Understanding(p. 325-327)1. Skinner and other behaviorists resisted the growing belief that expectations, perceptions, and other ________________ processes have a valid place in the science of psychology. 2. When a well-learned route in a maze is blocked, rats sometimes choose an alternative route, acting as if they were consulting a ____________ ____________.3. Animals may learn from experience even when reinforcement is not available. When learning is not apparent until reinforcement has been provided, ________________ _________________ is said to have occurred.4. When people are rewarded for doing what they already enjoy, their intrinsic motivation may be undermined; this is the _______________ _______________. Excessive rewards may undermine ________________ _________________, which is the desire to perform a behavior for its own sake. The motivation to seek external rewards and avoid punishment is called __________________ __________________.5. Operant conditioning ___________ (is/is not) constrained by an animal’s biological predispositions. Skinner’s Legacy (p. 328-330)1. The use of teaching machines and programmed textbooks was an early application of the operant conditioning procedure of _____________ to education. Online ______________ systems and software that is ___________________ are newer examples of this application of operant principles. Reinforcement principles can also be used to enhance ___________ abilities by shaping successive approximations of new skills.2. In boosting productivity in the workplace, positive reinforcement is __________ (more/less) effective when applied to specific behaviors than when given to reward general merit and when desired performance is _________________. For such behaviors, immediate reinforcement is _______________ (more/no more) effective than delayed reinforcement.3. In using operant conditioning to change your own behavior, you would follow these four steps: 1) __________________________________________________________ 2) __________________________________________________________ 3) __________________________________________________________ 4) __________________________________________________________
Notes-Learning by Observation-Module 22 Bandura’s experiments and practical application (p.333-337)1. Learning by observing and imitating others is called __________________, or _______________ _______________. This form of learning ____________ (occurs/does not occur) in species other than our own.2. Neuroscientists have found _________________ neurons in the brain’s _____________ lobe that provide a neural basis for ______________ learning. These neurons have been observed to fire when monkeys perform a simple task and when they _____________________. This type of neuron _____________ (has/has not) been found in human brains.3. By age ___________, infants will imitate acts modeled on television.4. The psychologist best known for research on observational learning is _______________. In one experiment, the child who viewed an adult punch an inflatable doll played ____________ (more/less) aggressively than the child who had not observed the adult. 5. Children will also model positive, or __________________, behaviors.6. Models are most effective when their words and actions are ______________ and when they are perceived as ___________________, ____________________, or _____________________.7. Children in developed countries spend more time ____________ ___________ than they spend in school.8. Compared to real-world crimes, television depicts a much higher percentage of crimes as being _______________ in nature.9. Correlational studies _____________ (link/do not link) watching television violence with violent behavior.10. The more hours children spend watching violent programs, the more at risk they are for _______________ and _________________ as teens and adults.11. Correlation does not prove ____________________. Most researchers believe that violence on television ______________ (does/does not) lead to aggressive behavior.12. The violence effect stems from several factors, including__________________ of observed aggression and the tendency of prolonged exposure to violence to ___________________ viewers.