Mod 23-27 Notes

Notes-Module 23 and 24 (Intro and Encoding) Mod 23Memory loss, memory feats, info processing (p. 341-342)1. Learning that persists over time indicates the existence of ________________________ for that learning.2. Memories for surprising, significant moments that are especially clear are called _______________ memories.3. Both human memory and computer memory can be viewed as _________________-_______________ systems that perform three tasks: _____________________, _____________________, and ________________.4. The most influential model of memory in recent years has been Atkinson and Shiffrin’s ____________________-__________________ ________________ model. According  to this model, we first record information as a fleeting ___________ memory, from which it is processed into a ______________-______________ memory, where the information is  ____________________ into a ________________ memory for later retrieval.5. The phenomenon of short-term memory has been clarified by the concept of __________________ memory, which integrates incoming information with the material retrieved from long-term storage. This form of memory has both ____________ and _________________ subsystems.


Mod 24How we encode (p. 344-346)1. A distinction is made between encoding that does not require conscious attention and is therefore ___________________ and that which is __________________.2. With novel information, conscious repetition, or ________________, boosts memory.3. A pioneering researcher in verbal memory was _______________. In one experiment, he found that the longer he studied a list of nonsense syllables, the ____________________ (fewer/greater) the number of repetitions he required to relearn it later. 4. After material has been learned, additional repetitions, or _______________, usually will increase retention.5. When people go around a circle reading words, their poorest memories are for the _____________ (least/most) recent information heard. This phenomenon is called ______________-_______________-____________ effect.6. Memory studies also reveal that distributed rehearsal is more effective for retention; this is called the _______________ __________________. A variation on this technique, called ________________ _______________ ______________, involves gradually increasing that length of time between periods in which new material is rehearsed.7. The tendency to remember the first and last items in a list best is called the _________________ __________________ _________________. Following a delay, first items are remembered ____________ (better/less well) that last items. What we encode (p. 347-351)1. Encoding the meaning of words is referred to as ______________ encoding; encoding by sound is called __________________ encoding; encoding the image of words is ________________ encoding.2. Craik and Tulving’s study comparing visual, acoustic, and semantic coding showed that memory was best with _______________ encoding.3.Our excellent recall of information that relates to ourselves is called the ______________-_________________ effect.4. Memory that consists of mental pictures is based on the use of ______________.5. Your earliest memories are most likely of events that occurred when you were about ____________ years old.6. Concrete, high-imagery words tend to be remembered ___________(better/less well) than abstract, low-imagery words.7. Memory aids are known as _________________ devices. One such device involves forming associations between a familiar series of locations and to-be-remembered words; this technique is called the “______________ ____________ _______________.”8. Using a jingle, such as one that begins “one is a bun,” is an example of the “______________-_____________” system.9. Memory may be aided by grouping information into meaningful units called _________________. An example of this technique involves forming words from the first letters of to-be-remembered words; the resulting word is called an ______________.10. In addition, material may be processed into __________________, which are composed of a few broad concepts divided into lesser concepts, categories, and facts.Notes-Module 25 and 26 Mod 25Sensory Memory (p. 353)1. If you are able to retrieve something from memory, you must have engaged in the passive process of __________________.2. Stimuli from the environment are first recorded in ______________ memory.3. George Sperling found that when people were briefly shown three rows of letters, they could recall ___________ (virtually all/ about half) of them. When Sperling sounded a tone immediately after a row of letters was flashed to indicate which letters were to be recalled, the subjects were much ________ (more/less) accurate. This suggests that people have a brief photographic, or _________________, memory lasting about a few tenths of a second.4. Sensory memory for sounds is called ________________ memory. This memory fades ___________ (more/less) rapidly than photographic memory, lasting for as long as _________. Short-term memory and Long-term memory (p. 354-355)1. Peterson and Peterson found that when ___________________ was prevented by asking subjects to count backward, memory for letters was gone after 12 seconds. Without ______________ processing, short-term memories have a limited life.2. Our short-term memory capacity is about _________________ chunks of information.3. Short-term memory for random _______________ (digits/letters) is slightly better than for random (digits/ letters), and memory for information we hear is somewhat _____________ (better/worse) than that for information we see.4. Both children and adults have short-term recall for roughly as many words as they can speak in ______________ (how many?) seconds.5. In contrast to short-term memory—and contrary to popular belief—the capacity of permanent memory is essentially _________________. Storing Memories in the Brain (p. 355-360)1. Penfield’s electrically stimulated patients _______ (do/do not) provide reliable evidence that our stored memories are precise and durable.2. It is likely that forgetting occurs because new experiences _______________ with our retrieval of old information and the physical memory trace _____________ with the passage of time.3. Lashley attempted to locate memory by cutting out pieces of rats’ ____________ after they had learned a maze. He found that no matter where he cut, the rats ____________ (remembered/forgot) the maze.4. Gerard found that a hamster’s memory remained even after its body temperature was lowered to a point where the brain’s ____________ activity stopped.5. Researchers believe that memory involves a strengthening of certain neural connections, which occurs at the ________________ between neurons.6. Kandel and Schwartz have found that when learning occurs in the sea snail Aplysia, the neurotransmitter _______________ is released in greater amounts, making synapses more efficient.7. After learning has occurred, a sending neuron needs ____________ (more/less) prompting to fire, and the number of ______________ ______________ it stimulates may increase. This phenomenon, called ____________-_____________ _______________, may be the neural basis for learning and memory. Blocking this process with a specific ______________, or by genetic engineering that causes the absence of an _____________, interferes with learning. Rats given a drug that enhances _________________ will learn a maze ________________ (faster/more slowly). 8. Although researchers may someday discover drugs or nutrients that boost memory by signaling brain cells to produce new __________________, the herb _________________ ______________ only modestly improves memory.9. A blow or an electric shock to the brain _____________ (will/will not) disrupt old memories and __________ (will/will not) wipe out recent experiences.10. Hormones released when we are excited or under stress often ______________ (facilitate/impair) learning and memory. Drugs that block the effects of stress hormones _______________ (facilitate/ disrupt) memories of emotional events. Stress that is prolonged, however, may cause an area of the brain that is vital for laying down memories to ________________. 11. The loss of memory is called _______________. Studies of people who have lost their memory suggest that there ________ (is/is not) a single unified system of memory.12. Although amnesia victims typically _______________ (have/have not) lost their capacity for learning, which is called _______________ memory, they (are/ are not) able to declare their memory, suggesting a deficit in their _____________ memory systems.13. Amnesia patients typically have suffered damage to the __________________ of their limbic system. This brain structure is important in the processing and storage of __________________ memories. Damage on the left side of this structure impairs _________________ memory for _______________________ designs and locations.14. The hippocampus seems to function as a zone where the brain ________________ (temporarily/ permanently) store the elements of memory. However, memories ___________ (do/do not) migrate for storage elsewhere. Recalling past experiences activates various parts of the ___________________ and ____________________ lobes.15. The cerebellum is important in the processing of ________________ memories. Humans and laboratory animals with a damaged cerebellum are incapable of simple _________________-____________________ conditioning. Those with damage to the _____________ are incapable of _________________ conditioning, indicating that this brain region is important in the formation of ________________ memories.16. The dual explicit-implicit memory system helps explain _________________ amnesia. We do not have explicit memories of our first three years because the _______________ is one of the last brain structures to mature. Mod 26Retrieval Cues, Context Effects, and Moods and Memories (p. 362-365)1. The ability to retrieve information not in conscious awareness is called _________________.2. Bahrick found that 25 years after graduation, people were not able to ____________ (recall/recognize) the names of their classmates but were able to _____________ recall/recognize) 90 percent of their names and yearbook pictures.3. If you have learned something and then forgotten it, you will probably be able to ___________ it ____________ (more/less) quickly than you did originally.4. The process by which associations can lead to retrieval is called ______________. The best retrieval cues come from the associations formed at the time we ______________ a memory.5. Studies have shown that retention is best when learning and testing are done in _______________ (the same/different) contexts.6. The type of memory in which emotions serve as retrieval cues is referred to as ____________-_____________ memory.7. People who are currently depressed may recall their parents as _____________________________________________. People who have recovered from depression typically recall their parents about the same as do people who ___________________________________________________________.Notes-Mod 27 Forgetting (p. 366-371)1. Memory researcher Daniel Schacter has identified the seven sins of memory, divided into three categories that identify the ways in which our memory can fail: the three sins of _________________; the three sins of _________________; and the one sin of _______________.2. The first category of sins refers to forgetting caused by ________________ failure; ____________ _____________ and _______________ ____________. The second category has to do with memory __________________, and the third category deals with __________________ memories.3. Encoding failure occurs because some of the information that we sense __________________________. One reason for age-related memory decline is that the brain areas responsible for ________________ new information are ______________ (more/less) responsive in older adults.4. Studies by Ebbinghaus and by Bahrick indicate that most forgetting occurs ___________________ (soon/a long time) after the material is learned. This type of forgetting is known as ____________________ _________________.5. When information that is stored in memory temporarily cannot be found, __________________ failure has occurred.6. Research suggests that memories are also lost as a result of _______________, which is especially possible if we simultaneously learn similar, new material.7. The disruptive effect of previous learning on current learning is called ______________ _______________. The disruptive effect of learning new material on efforts to recall material previously learned is called ______________ __________________.8. Jenkins and Dallenbach found that if subjects went to sleep after learning, their memory for a list of nonsense syllables was _____________ (better/worse) than it was if they stayed awake.9. In some cases, old information facilitates our learning of new information. This is called ________________ _____________.10. Freud proposed that motivated forgetting, or __________________, may protect a person from painful memories. Increasing numbers of memory researchers think that motivated forgetting is ____________ (less/more) common than Freud believed.        Memory Construction (p. 372-381)1. Research has shown that recall of an event is often influenced by past experiences and present assumptions. The workings of these influences illustrate the process of memory ___________________.2. When witnesses to an event receive misleading information about it, they may experience a ______________ _______________ and misremember the event. A number of experiments have demonstrated that false memories __________ (can/cannot) be created when people are induced to imagine nonexistent events. People who believe they have recovered memories of alien abduction and child sex abuse then to have _________________ ________________.3. At the heart of many false memories is ____________ ____________, which occurs when we ________________ an event to the wrong source. Researchers compare memories to _______________, noting that people’s initial _______________ of events influence their memories.4. The persistence of a memory _____________ (does/does not) reveal whether or not it derives from an actual experience. Whereas real memories have more _____________, gist memories are more ______________.5. PET scans comparing brain activity when a subject is truly or falsely recalling a word reveal different activity patterns in an area of the _____________ _______________ ____________, but not in the ______________.6. Eyewitnesses’ confidence in their memories ____________ (is/is not) related to the accuracy of those memories.7. Memory construction explains why memories “refreshed” under _____________ are often inaccurate.8. Research studies of children’s eyewitness recall reveal that preschoolers _____________ (are/are not) more suggestible than older children or adults. For this reason, whether a child produces and accurate eyewitness memory depends heavily on how he or she is _______________.9. A person whose identity centers around a false but strongly believed traumatic memory is said to be suffering from the _____________ __________________ _________________.10. Memories of events that happened before age _______ are unreliable. This phenomenon is called ______________ ________________.