Mod 28-32 Notes

Notes-Module 28, Thinking Concepts and Solving Problems (p. 386-390)1. Thinking, or _______________, can be defined as _________________________________________________________________. Scientists who study these mental activities are called ______________________.2. People tend to organize specific items into mental groupings called  _________________, and many such groupings often are further organized into ___________________. Animals such as pigeons _____________ (are/are not) capable of forming such groupings.3. Concepts are typically formed through the development of a best example, or ____________________, of a category. For example, people more easily detect ______________ (male/female) prejudice against _____________ (men/women) than vice versa.4. Humans are especially capable of using their reasoning powers for coping with new situations, and thus for ________________ __________________.
5. Finding a problem’s solution by trying each problem’s solution is called ___________________ ________________ _________________.
6. Logical, methodical, step-by-step procedures for solving problems are called ___________________.7. Rule-of-thumb strategies that provide us with problem-solving shortcuts are referred to as ___________________.8. When you suddenly realize a problem’s solution, ________________ has occurred.9. The tendency of people to look for information that verifies their preconceptions is called the ________________ __________________.10. Not being able to take a new perspective when attempting to solve a problem is referred to as _________________. One example of this obstacle to problem solving is the tendency to repeat solutions that have worked previously, this phenomenon is known as the development of a ___________________ ___________.11. When a person is unable to envision using an object in an atypical way, _________________ __________________ is operating. Making Decisions and Forming Judgments and Belief Bias (p. 390-398)1. People judge how well something matches a particular prototype; this is the ___________________ ______________________.2. When we judge the likelihood of something occurring in terms of how readily it comes to mind, we are using the _________________ ___________________.   3. Many people fear ________________ more than _________________, and ____________________ more than __________________, despite the fact that these fears are not supported by death and injury statistics. This type of faulty thinking occurs because we fear:          a. ________________________________________________________          b. ________________________________________________________          c. ________________________________________________________
          d. ________________________________________________________
4. The tendency of people to overestimate the accuracy of their knowledge results in _____________________. Warning people against this tendency _________________ (does/does not) reduce it. Exposing people to others’ differing judgments about events ______________ (does/does not) reduce this tendency.5. Overconfidence has ________________ value because self-confident people tend to live ___________ (more/less) happily and find it _____________ (easier/harder) to make tough decisions. Furthermore, research has shown that when subjects are given feedback on the accuracy of their judgments, such feedback generally __________ (does/does not) help them become more realistic about how much they know.6. Decision making can be significantly affected by the phrasing, or ______________, or an issue.7. The tendency for our beliefs to distort logical reasoning is called ________________ __________________. This phenomenon makes it _____________ (easier/more difficult) for us to see the illogic of conclusions that run counter to our beliefs.8. Research has shown that once we form a belief or concept, it may take more convincing evidence for us to change the concept that it did to create it; this is because of _____________ __________________. Simulating Thinking with Artificial Intelligence (p. 398-400)1. The science involving the development of computers and programs that mimic human thinking is called _______________ _________________. As a theory the science was pioneered by psychologist ___________________.2. Unlike the computer, which processes information ____________ (serially/simultaneously), humans can process many bits of information ______________ (serially/simultaneously). 3. Computer systems that imitate the brain’s neural organization are called _________________ ____________________ _________________. Such systems increase the computer’s capacity for _______________ processing __________ (and so/but do not) enable the computer to “learn” simple concepts.


Notes-Module 29-Language and Thought Language Structure and Development (p. 403-410)1. The basic sound units of language are its ___________________. English has approximately ______________ of these units. Considering all languages that have been studied, ______________ (how many?) of these units have been identified. The basic units of sign language are defined by _______________ _________________ and ____________________.2. Phonemes are grouped into units of meaning called ____________________.3. The system of rules that enables us to use our language to speak to and understand others is called ____________________.4. The system by which meaning is derived from morphemes, words, and sentences is the ________________________ of a language.5. The system of rules we use to combine words into grammatically sensible sentences is called _______________________.6. The first stage of language development, in which children spontaneously utter different sounds, is the ________________ stage. This stage typically begins at about __________________ months of age. The sounds children make during this stage ____________ (do/do not) include only the phonemes of the language that they hear.7. Deaf infants ____________ (do/do not) babble. Many natural babbling sounds are ________________-______________ pairs formed by _________________________________________________________.8. At 6 months, infants _______________ (can/cannot) perceive phoneme differences from other languages. By about ______________ months of age, infant babbling begins to resemble the household language. By ___________ months, the ability to perceive phoneme differences is ___________ (lost/acquired).9. During the second stage, called the ______________-_____________ stage, children convey complete thoughts using single words. This stage begins at about ___________ year(s) of age. 10. During the ____________________-__________________ stage children speak in sentences containing mostly nouns and verbs. This type of speech is called ___________________ speech. 11. After this stage, children quickly begin to utter longer phrases that ___________ (do/do not) follow the rules of syntax.12. Skinner believed that language development follows the general principles of learning, including __________________, ____________________, and _________________. When there is minimal reinforcement for speaking, as is the case for children whose parents are ______________________, the learning of spoken language proceeds ___________________ (more slowly/at a normal pace).13. Other theorists believe that humans are biologically predisposed to learn language. One such theorist ____________________, who believes that we all are born with a ____________________ ________________ ________________ in which __________________ switches are thrown as children experience their language.14. With no “inborn” linguistic rules, computer neural networks _____________ (can/are unable to) learn a language’s statistical structure.15. Research by Jenny Saffran has demonstrated that even before ___________ year(s) of age, infants are able to discern _______________ _______________ by analyzing which syllables most often go together.16. Research studies of infants’ knack for soaking up language _______________ (challenges/supports) Chomsky’s concept of an inborn _________________ __________________. On the other hand, a study of twins indicates that genes ______________ (do/do not) play a role in determining how quickly children learn language.17. Those who learn a second language as adults usually speak it with the _____________________ of their first language. Moreover, they typically show __________________ (poorer/better) mastery of the ________________ of the second language.18. The window for learning language gradually begins to close after age ____________________. When a young brain doesn’t learn any language, its language learning capacity ______________ (never/may still) fully develop(s). 19.  Considering the two theories together, we can say that although we are born with a readiness to learn language, __________________ is also important, as shown in linguistically stunted children who have been isolated from language during the ______________ _____________ for its acquisition. Thinking and Language (p. 410-413)1. According to the ___________________ ____________________ hypothesis, language shapes our thinking. The linguist who proposed this hypothesis is _____________________.2. Many people who are bilingual report feeling a different sense of __________________, depending on which language they are using. There are an estimated ___________________ languages in the world today.3. In several studies, researchers have found that using the pronoun “he” (instead of “he or she”) _______________ (does/does not) influence people’s thoughts concerning gender.4. Bilingual children outperform monolinguals on ________________ tests. Bilingual education may also improve the __________________-_________________ of children who are in a linguistic minority.5. It appears that thinking _______________ (can/cannot) occur without the use of language. Athletes often supplement physical with _______________ practice.6. In one study of psychology students preparing for a midterm exam, the greatest benefits were achieved by those who visualized themselves ____________________ (receiving a high grade/studying effectively). Animal Thinking and Language (p. 414-418)1. Recent research has shown that monkeys can learn a simple form of _______________________, in which they touch pictures of objects in ascending __________________ order. Wolfgang Kohler demonstrated that chimpanzees also exhibit the “aha” reaction that characterized reasoning by ____________________.2. Forest-dwelling chimpanzees learn to use branches, stones, and other objects as ___________________. These behaviors, along with behaviors related to grooming and courtship, _________________ (vary/do not vary) from one group to another, suggesting the transmission of ________________ customs.3. Deception and mirror usage by chimpanzees and other apes suggest to some researchers that these animals may possess a rudimentary understanding of mental states called a __________________ ___________________ _________________. Researchers estimate apes’ capacity for reasoning as similar to that of children at age ______________.4. Honeybees communicate by means of a __________________, which researchers _______ (do/do not) consider to have the complexity and flexibility of human language.5. The Gardners attempted to communicate with the chimpanzee Washoe by teaching her _______________ ___________________.6. Human language appears to have evolved from _______________ communications.  Notes-Module 30Is Intelligence one General Ability of Several Specific Abilities? (p. 420-425)1. Tests that assess a person’s mental capacities and compare them to those of others, using numerical scores, are called _________________ tests.2. To regard an abstract concept as a concrete entity is to commit the error known as ______________________.3. Intelligence is a ____________________ constructed concept.4. In any context, intelligence can be defined as _________________________________________________________________________________________.5. One controversy regarding the nature of intelligence centers on whether intelligence is one ________________ ability of several ________________ abilities.6. The statistical procedure used to identify groups of items that appear to measure a common ability is called __________________ _______________. Charles Spearman, one of the developers of this technique, believed that a factor called g, or ___________________ __________________, runs through the more specific aspects of intelligence.7. Opposing Spearman, _____________________ identifies eight clusters of __________________ _________________ ________________. 8. People with ________________ __________________ score at the low end of intelligence tests but possess extraordinary specific skills.9. Howard Gardner proposes that there are ________________ _______________, each independent of the others. However, critics point out that the world is not so just: People with mental disadvantages often have lesser _________________ abilities as well, and that some abilities, such as _________________ and __________________ skills, are more crucial than others. General intelligence scores __________ (do/do not) predict performance on complex tasks and in various jobs.10. Sternberg and Wagner distinguish three types of intelligence: ________________ intelligence, _________________ intelligence, and ___________________ intelligence. Similarly, Cantor and Kihlstrom distinguish between ________________ intelligence and _________________ intelligence. Support for this distinction comes from evidence that college grades ______________ (accurately/only modestly/do not) predict later work achievement.11. A critical part of social intelligence is _____________________ _________________--the ability to ________________, __________________, __________________, and ________________ emotions.12. One research study found that 5-year-olds who could most accurately recognize and label __________________ _______________ later more easily made friends and effectively managed their emotions.13. The new test that measures overall emotional intelligence is the _________________ __________________ ________________ ______________. This test measures the test taker’s ability to _______________, ___________________, and ___________________ emotions.14. Some scholars believe that the recent concepts of ___________________ intelligence and __________________ intelligence are stretching the idea of multiple intelligences too far.  Intelligence and Creativity (p. 425-426)1. Although general intelligence is most important in occupations that are mentally demanding, successful people usually have other traits as well, such as _____________________ and being well connected and extremely energetic.2. The ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable is called _________________. The relationship between intelligence and creativity holds only up to a certain point—an intelligence score of about _______________.3. Teresa Amibile’s research demonstrates that people are more creative when they are unconcerned about __________________ _____________________. Is Intelligence Neurologically Measurable? (p. 427-428)1. Some experts predict that ultimately there will be _________________ tests of intelligence.2. The phrenologist __________________ attempted to link intelligence to _________________ _____________________.3. Modern studies reveal a _____________ (small/large) __________________ (positive/negative) correlation between head size (relative to body size) and intelligence score. Newer studies measure brain ____________________ using ______________________ scans reveal a _____________ (more/less) significant correlation between brain size (adjusted for body size) and intelligence score. Autopsies reveal that the brains of highly educated people have more __________________ than do those of people with less education. Other evidence suggests that highly intelligent people differ in their neural ___________________.4. As adults age, brain size and ____________________ intelligence scores decrease together. A recent study of Einstein’s brain revealed that it was 15 percent larger in the lower __________________ lobe—known to be an important neural center of processing ___________________ and ________________________ information.5. When people ponder intelligence test questions, an area in the brain’s ________________ __________________ becomes especially active for verbal questions.6. Studies looking at a range of tasks have found that people with high intelligence scores tend to process and retrieve information ________________ (faster/more slowly) than people with low intelligence scores.7. Other studies have found that the brain waves of highly intelligent people register stimuli more _____________ and with greater ________________.Notes-Module 31 The Origins of Intelligence Testing (p. 430-432)1. The early Greek philosopher __________________ concluded that individuals differed in their natural endowments.2. The French psychologist who devised a test to predict the success of children in school was ___________________. Predictions were made by comparing children’s chronological ages with their _________________ ages, which were determined by the test. This test ____________ (was/was not) designed to measure inborn intelligence.3. Lewis Terman’s revision of Binet’s test is referred to as the __________________-________________.This test enables one to derive a(n) ____________________ ______________ for an individual.4. Today’s tests compute ________________ (IQ/a mental ability score) by comparing the individual’s performance to the average performance of people of __________________ (the same/different) age(s). These tests are designed so that a score of __________ is considered average.5. When given intelligence tests in the early 1900s, immigrants arriving in the United States often scored ____________ (above/below) average. This is because the tests were based on a particular ______________ background. Modern Tests of Mental Abilities and Principles of Test Construction (p. 432-436)1. Tests designed to predict your ability to learn something new are called __________________ tests. Tests designed to measure what you already have learned are called ___________________ tests. 2. The most widely used intelligence test is the ___________________ _________________ _________________ _______________. Consisting of 11 subtests, it provides not only a general intelligence score but also ______________ and ______________  intelligence scores.3. Three requirements of a good test are _________________, ________________, and ________________.4. The process of defining meaningful scores relative to a pretested comparison group is called ___________________.5. When scores on a test are compiled, they generally result in a bell-shaped pattern, or _________________ distribution.6. The Stanford-Binet and the Wechsler scales  ____________ (are/are not) periodically restandardized, thereby keeping the average score near ___________.7. During the 1960s and 1970s, college entrance aptitude scores showed a steady ______________ (increase/decline). At the same time, intelligence test performance ____________ (improved/decreased). This phenomenon is called the _______________ _____________.8. The recent performance gains on the WAIS are greatest on ____________ (verbal/nonverbal) test, which improved schooling should ___________ (most/least) affect.9. If a test yields consistent results, it is said to be _______________.10. When a test is administered more than once to the same people, the psychologist is determining its ________________-_______________ reliability.11. When a person’s scores for the odd- and even-numbered questions on a test are compared, _______________-________________ reliability is being assessed.12. The Stanford-Binet, WAIS, and WISC have reliabilities about _____________.13. The degree to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to is referred to as the test’s ___________________.14. The degree to which a test measures the behavior it was designed to measure is referred to as the test’s __________________ ___________________.15. The degree to which a test predicts future performance of a particular behavior, called the test’s ___________________, is referred to as the test’s ____________________ ___________________.16. Generally speaking, the predictive validity of general aptitude tests ________ (is/is not) as high as their reliability. The predictive validity of these tests ________________ (increases/diminishes) as individuals move up the educational ladder. The Dynamics of Intelligence (p. 436-440)1. Two- to seven-month-old infants who quickly become bored when looking at a picture score ___________ (higher/lower) on tests of brain speed and intelligence up to 11 years later.2. Traditional intelligence tests before age ____________ generally do not predict future scores.3. During childhood, the stability of intelligence scores are ______________ (increases/decreases) with age. By late adolescence, intelligence scores are _____________ (extremely/not very) stable. A long-term study of mental ability in Scottish children revealed that this ____________ (holds/does not hold) through late adulthood.4. Individuals whose intelligence scores fall below 70 and who have difficulty adapting to life may be labeled __________________ __________________. This label applies to approximately _______________ percent of the population.5. Mental retardation sometimes has a physical basis, such as _____________ __________________, a genetic disorder caused by an extra chromosome.  Notes-Module 32 Genetic Influences (p. 442-444)1. The position that both heredity and environment exert some influence on intelligence is ______________ (controversial/generally accepted) among psychologists.2. The intelligence scores of identical twins raised together are _________ (more/no more) similar than those of fraternal twins. Brain scans also reveal that identical twins have similar volume to their brain’s _____________ ___________________, and those areas associated with ____________ and _________________ intelligence.3. A gene located on chromosome number ________________ may occur more often in children with very high intelligence scores than those with average scores.4. By inserting an extra gene that engineers a neural receptor involved in __________________ into fertilized mouse eggs, researchers have created smarter mice. 5. The intelligence test scores of fraternal twins are _______________________ (more alike/no more alike) than the intelligence test scores of other siblings. This provides evidence of a(n) ___________________ (genetic/environmental) effect because fraternal twins, being the same _________________, are treated more alike.6. Studies of adopted children and their adoptive and biological families demonstrate that with age, genetic influences on intelligence become _______________ (more/less) apparent. Thus, children’s intelligence scores are more like those of their _________________ (biological/adoptive) parents than their ________________ (biological/adoptive) parents.7. The amount of variation in a trait within a group that is attributed to genetic factors is called its ________________. For intelligence, this has been estimated at _______ percent.8. If we know a trait has perfect heritability, this knowledge _____________ (does/does not) enable us to rule out environmental factors in explaining differences between groups.  Environmental Influences (p. 444-446)1. Studies indicate that neglected children _____________ (do/do not) show signs of recovery in intelligence and behavior when placed in more nurturing environments.2. High-quality programs for disadvantaged children, such as the government-funded ___________________ ___________________ program, increase children’s school readiness.3. Intelligence scores _______________ (rise/fall/remain stable) during the school year and ______________ (rise/fall/remain stable) over the summer. The Flynn effect of rising IQ scores is partly due to the increasing years of ____________ over the last fifty years.  Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores (p. 446-450)1. Research evidence suggests that group differences in intelligence may be entirely _____________ (genetic/environmental).2. Group differences in intelligence scores _________ (do/do not) provide an accurate basis for judging individuals. Individual differences within a race are _______ (greater than/less than) between-race differences. Furthermore, race _________ (is/is not) a neatly defined biological category.3. Although Asian students on the average score __________ (higher/lower) than North American students on math tests, this difference may be due to the fact that __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. On an infant intelligence measure (preference for looking at novel stimuli), black infants score __________________ (lower than/higher than/as well as) white infants.5. Gender similarities in math and verbal ability are ________________ (smaller/greater) than gender differences. Girls tend to outscore boys on _________________ tests and are more ___________________ fluent. Although girls have an edge in math ____________________, boys score higher in math _________________ __________________. Boys tend to outscore girls on tests of __________________ ____________________.6. Working from an ____________________ perspective, some theorists speculate that these gender differences in spatial manipulation helped our ancestors survive.7. There is evidence that spatial abilities are enhanced by high levels of _____________________ _________________ ____________________ during prenatal development.8. The gender gap in math is ____________________ (increasing/decreasing/remaining steady), perhaps because __________________ expectations for boys and girls are changing. The Question of Bias (p. 450-452)1. In the sense that they detect differences caused by cultural experiences, intelligence tests probably _____________ (are/are not) biased.2. Most psychologists agree that, in terms of predictive validity, the major aptitude tests ______________ (are/are not) racially biased.3. When women and members of ethnic minorities are led to expect that they won’t do well on a test, a ___________________ ___________________ may result, and their scores may actually be lower.