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Mod 33-38 Notes

Notes-Mod 33 and 34 Mod 33Intro and 3 Perspectives on Motivation (p. 456-458)1. As a result of Darwin’s influence, many behaviors were classified as rigid, unlearned behavior patterns that are characteristic of a species, called ____________________.2. The idea underlying the theory that _______________________ predispose species-typical behavior remains popular.3. According to another view of motivation, organisms may experience a physiological _______________________, which creates a state of arousal that _____________________ the organism to reduce the need.4. The aim of drive reduction is to maintain a constant internal state, called ___________________. Behavior is often not so much pushed by our drives as it is pulled by _____________________ in the environment. 5. Rather than reduce a physiological need, some motivated behaviors actually ____________________ arousal. This demonstrates that human motives ______________ (do/do not) always satisfy some biological need.  A Hierarchy of Motives (p. 458)1. Starting from the idea that some needs take precedence over others, Maslow constructed a __________________ of needs.2. According to Maslow, the _____________________ needs are the most pressing, whereas the highest order needs relate to ______________________. A criticism of Maslow’s theory is that the sequence is __________________ and not ___________________ experienced.3. Surveys of life satisfaction reveal that ____________________ satisfaction is strongly predictive of subjective well-being in poorer nations, whereas ___________________-______________________ satisfaction matters more in wealthy nations and ____________________ in individualist nations. Mod 34The Physiology of Hunger (p. 460-463)1. Ancel Keys observed that men became preoccupied with thoughts of food when they underwent __________________.2. Cannon and Washburn’s experiment using a balloon indicated that there is an association between hunger and ___________________ __________________. When a portion of an obese person’s stomach is surgically sealed off, the remaining stomach produces ___________ (more/less) of the hunger-arousing hormone ____________________,3. When an animal has had its stomach removed, hunger ____________ (does/does not) continue.4. Increases in the hormone ________________ diminish blood _____________, partly by converting it to stored fat, which causes hunger to ____________________. 5. The brain area that plays a role in hunger and other bodily maintenance functions is the ______________________. Animals will begin eating when the _______________ __________________ is electrically stimulated. When this region is destroyed, hunger _________________ (increases/decreases). Animals will stop eating when the _________________ _________________ is stimulated. When this area is destroyed, animals _____________ (overeat/undereat). 6. When a rat is deprived of food and blood sugar levels wane, the ______________ _________________ churns out the hunger-triggering hormone _________________. Human patients with tumors in the ________________ will eat excessively and become fat. Feedback from this area of the brain is sent to the ____________ ________________, which decide behavior. 7. To estimate body fat, the hypothalamus monitors levels of the protein _____________________. When levels of this protein rise in mice, eating ____________________ (increases/decreases) and activity ______________ (increases/decreases). Levels of this protein in obese humans are ___________ (low/high), so injections of the protein ______________ (produce/do not produce) significant weight loss. Appetite hormones:8. Hunger-triggering hormone: _____________________.9. Hormone secreted by empty stomach: _____________________.10. Hormone secreted by pancreas: _____________________.11. Protein secreted by bloated fat cells: _____________________.12. Digestive tract hormone that signals fullness: __________________. 13. The weight level at which an individual’s body is programmed to stay is referred to as the body’s ____________ ______________. A person whose weight goes beyond this level will tend to feel ____________ (more/less) hungry than usual and expend _____________ (more/less) energy.14. The rate of energy expenditure in maintaining basic functions when the body is at rest is the __________________ ____________________ rate. When food intake is reduced, the body compensates by __________ (raising/lowering) this rate.15. The concept of a precise body set point that drives hunger _____________ (is accepted/is not accepted) by all researchers. Some researchers believe that set point can be altered by _________________________________________________________________. In support of this idea is evidence that when people and other animals are given unlimited access to tasty foods, they tend to _________________ and _________ _________________.16. Research with amnesia patients indicates that part of knowing when to eat is our _________________ of our last meal.17. Carbohydrates boost levels of the neurotransmitter _______________, which ______________ (calms/arouses) the body. The Psychology of Hunger (p. 463-467)1. Taste preferences for sweet and salty are __________________ (genetic/learned). Other influences on taste include _________________ and _________________. We have a natural dislike of many foods that are _____________; this ___________________was probably adaptive for our ancestors, and protected them from toxic substances.2. The disorder in which a person becomes significantly underweight and yet feels fat is known as _________________ ________________. In terms of sex and age, this disorder tends to develop in ________________ who are in their __________________.3. A more common disorder is _________________ _______________, which is characterized by repeated __________________-__________________ episodes and by feelings of depression of anxiety.4. The families of bulimia patients have a high incidence of __________________, ________________, and _________________. The families of anorexia patients tend to be ______________, _____________-________________, and __________________. Eating disorders ________________ (provide/do not provide) a telltale sign of childhood sexual abuse.5. Anorexia always begins as a _________________-______________ _______________, and bulimia nearly always begins after ____________________________________________________________.6. Genetic factors ______________ (may/do not) influence susceptibility to eating disorders. People with eating disorders may also have abnormal supplies of certain ________________ that put them at risk for ________________ or __________________.7. Vulnerability to eating disorders _________________ (increases/does not increase) with greater body dissatisfaction.8. Fallon and Rozin found a discrepancy between ______________ (men’s/women’s) ideal body weight and the actual weight preferred by members of the opposite sex. Other researchers have found that men prefer a body depicted with more ____________ than their own.9. Stice and Shaw found that when young women were shown pictures of unnaturally thin models, they felt more __________________, _________________, and _________________ with their own bodies. 10. Women with low ____________________ are especially vulnerable to eating disorders.

11. Women students in ______________ rate their actual shapes as closer to the cultural ideal. In ___________________ cultures, however, the rise in eating disorders has coincided with an increasing number of women having a poor _________________ _______________.

Notes-Module 35-Sexual Motivation Describing Sexual Motivation (p.468-469)1. In the 1940s and 1950s, a biologist named ______________ surveyed the sexual practices of thousands of men and women. One of his major findings was that there __________________ (was/was not) great diversity in “normal” sexual behavior.2. Many popular sexual surveys cannot be taken seriously because they are based on _________________ samples of respondents. Recent surveys indicate that marital infidelity is ______________ (more/less) common than indicated by earlier surveys. The Physiology of Sex and the Psychology of Sex (p. 469-472)1. The two researchers who identified a four-stage sexual response cycle are __________________ and ______________________. In order, the stages of the cycle are the ______________ phase, the ________________ phase, _____________________, and the _________________ phase.2. During resolution, males experience a ____________________ ______________________ during which they are incapable of another orgasm.3. Problems that consistently impair sexual functioning are called ___________________ __________________. Examples of such problems include _________________________ ____________________, ___________________ _______________________, and ____________________ _____________________. Personality disorders ______________ (have/have not) been linked with most of the problems impairing sexual functioning. The most effective therapies for sexual problems are _______________ oriented.4. In most mammals, females are sexually receptive only during ovulation, when the hormone __________________ has peaked.5. The importance of the hormone _______________________ to male sexual arousal is confirmed by the fact that sexual interest declines in animals if their ____________________ are removed. In women, low levels of the hormone ___________________ may cause a waning of sexual interest.6. Normal hormonal fluctuations in humans have _________________ (little/significant) effect on sexual motivation. In later life, frequency of intercourse ________________ (increases/decreases) as sex hormone levels ______________ (increase/decline).7. The region of the brain through which hormones help trigger sexual arousal is the _____________________.8. Studies by Heiman have shown that erotic stimuli ________________ (are/are not) as arousing for women as for men.9. The importance of the brain in sexual motivation is indicated by the fact that people who, because of injury, have no genital sensation, ___________ (do/do not) feel sexual desire.10.Most women and men _________________ (have/do not have) sexual fantasies. Compared to women’s fantasies, men’s sexual fantasies are more _____________________________________________________________. Sexual fantasies do not indicate sexual __________________ or _____________________. Adolescent Sexuality (p. 472-475)1. Attitudes toward premarital sex vary widely from one ______________________ to another and with the passage of __________________. Rates of teen intercourse in the United States and ___________________ _________________ are much higher than those in __________________ and ____________________ countries.2. Unprotected sex has led to an increase in adolescent __________________ and rates of ___________________ __________________ ______________. Sexual Orientation (p. 475-481)1. A person’s sexual attraction toward members of a particular gender is referred to as ____________________ _____________________.2. Historically, _______________ (all/ a slight majority) of the world’s cultures have been predominantly heterosexual. Most homosexuals begin thinking of themselves as gay or lesbian around age ______________.3. Studies in Europe and the United States indicate that approximately ________ percent of men and _________ percent of women are exclusively homosexual. This finding suggests that popular estimates of the rate of homosexuality are __________ (high/low/accurate).4. A person’s sexual orientation _____________ (does/does not) appear to be voluntarily chosen. Several recent research studies reveal that sexual orientation among ______________ (women/men) tends to be less strongly felt and potentially more changeable than among the other gender.5. Most gays and lesbians ____________ (suffer/do not suffer) from some form of psychological disorder and __________________ (accept/do not accept) their orientation. 6. Childhood events and family relationships ___________ (are/are not) important factors in determining a person’s sexual orientation.7. Homosexuality ____________ (does/does not) involve a fear of the other gender that leads people to direct their sexual desires toward members of their own gender.8. Sex hormone levels ___________ (do/do not) predict sexual orientation.9. As children, most homosexuals _____________ (were/were not) sexually victimized.10. Homosexual people appear more often in certain populations, including men who live in ___________ ________________, _________________, ________________ _______________, _________________ and __________________; and men who have older ________________.11. One theory proposes that people develop a homosexual orientation if they are segregated with _____________ (their own/the other) gender at the time their sex drive matures. The fact that early homosexual behavior __________ (does/does not) make people homosexual _____________ (supports/conflicts with) this theory.12. Researcher Simon LeVay discovered a cluster of cells in the ___________ that is larger in _____________ men than in all others. Other studies have found a section of the brain’s __________________ ____________________ that is one-third larger in homosexual men than in heterosexual men.13. Studies of twins suggests that genes probably _____ (do/do not) play a role in homosexuality.14. In animals and some rare human cases, sexual orientation has been altered by abnormal _______________ conditions during prenatal development. In humans, prenatal exposure to hormone levels typical of _________________, particularly between ______________ and _____________ months after conception, may predispose attraction to males.15. Gay males and lesbians may have certain physical traits more typical of those of the other gender, including ________________ patterns, greater odds of being __________ (right/left)-handed, and anatomical traits of the _______________ within the hearing system.16. Most psychiatrists now believe that _______________ (nature/nurture) plays the larger role in predisposing sexual orientation. Those who believe that sexual orientation is determined by __________________ express more accepting attitudes toward homosexual persons.17. Recent public opinion surveys reveal a _________ (more/less) accepting attitude toward homosexuality among Americans ___________ (and/but not a liberalization of) all sex-related attitudes. The Need to Belong (p. 482-483)1. From an evolutionary standpoint, social bonds in humans boosted our ancestors’ _________________ rates. If those who felt this need to __________ survived and reproduced more successfully, their _____________ would in time predominate.2. When asked what makes life meaningful, most people mention ­­­­­­_____________________________________________________________________________.3. Feeling accepted and loved by others boosts our _____________________.4. Much of our _____________ behavior aims to increase our belonging. For most people, familiarity leads to ______________ (liking/disliking).5. Researchers have found that people who are rejected are more likely to engage in _____________________ behaviors and may exhibit more __________________ behavior, such as _________________.6. People who perceive strong social support from others live with better ______________ than those who lack social support. They also have a lower risk of _________________ disorder and premature ____________________. 

 

Notes-Module 36Introduction (p. 486-487)1. According to Freud, the healthy life is filled with __________________ and _____________________.2. Most people ____________ (have/do not have) a predictable career path, which is one reason that many colleges focus less on _________________________ and more on ________________________.3. People who are unemployed __________________ (report/do not report) lower well-being. People who view their work as a _____________________ report the greatest satistfaction.4.Psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi formulated the concept of ___________________, which is defined as a state of focused ________________ and diminished awareness of ____________________. People who experience this state also experience increased feelings of _____________, _____________________, and __________________.5. The nature of work has changed, from ___________________ to ____________ to ____________________ ____________________. 6. The field of ____________-________________ psychology applies psychology’s principles to the workplace. The subfield of ___________________ _________________ focuses on employee recruitment, training, and development. Another subfield, ____________________ ________________, examines how work environments and ___________________ styles influence worker motivation. A third subfield, ____________________ _________________ __________________, focuses on the design of appliances, machines, and work environments. Personnel Psychology (p. 487-492)1. Personnel psychologists have found that the corporate world is generally quite ____________ (good/bad) at capitalizing on the strengths of workers. One remedy to this is instituting a ________________ selection system which matches strengths to work.2. Satisfied and successful people devote less time to __________________ ______________ than to __________________ ___________________.3. Within a matter of seconds, interviewers from impressions of applicants’ ___________________________________________________________.These impressions tend to be highly ___________________ (accurate/error-prone). 4. Interviewers tend to ______________ (over/under) estimate their interviewing skills and intuition—a phenomenon labeled the _________________ ____________________. 5. A more disciplined method of collecting information from job applicants is the _______________ __________________, which asks the same questions of all applicants. This method enhances the _____________________ and ____________________ of the interview process. 6. Performance appraisal has several purposes, including helping organizations decide________________________, how to appropriately ____________________________________, and how to better harness employees’ _________________. Performance appraisal methods include _________________, ________________ __________________ scales, and ________________ _______________ scales. 7. One form of bias in performance appraisal is the __________________ ______________, which occurs when one ____________________ biases ratings of other work-related behaviors. Another is the ______________________ error, which occurs when raters focus on easily remembered behavior. Two others are the _____________ and ___________________ errors, in which an evaluator tends to be either too easy or too harsh on everyone. Organizational Psychology: Motivating Achievement (p.492-496)1. Psychologists refer to the desire for significant accomplishments, mastering skills, and attaining a high standard as ______________ ________________. People who achieve high scores on tests that measure this form of motivation ____________ (do/do not) achieve more.2. Positive moods at work contribute to worker __________________, ________________, and ________________. Researchers have also found a positive correlation between measures of organizational success and employee _________________, or the extent of workers’ involvement, satisfaction, and enthusiasm.3. Managers who are directive, set clear standards, organize work, and focus attention on specific goals are said to employ _______________ __________. More democratic managers who aim to build teamwork and mediate conflicts in the work force employ _______________ __________________.4. The most effective style of leadership________________ (varies/does not vary) with the situation and/or person.5. Effective managers _______________ (rarely/often) exhibit a high degree of both task and social leadership.6. McGregor refers to managers who assume that workers are basically lazy and motivated only by money as _________________ managers. Managers who assume that people are intrinsically motivated in their work are referred to as __________________ managers. Notes-Module 37Introducing Emotion (p. 500)Three components of emotion:          1)          2)          3) James-Lange and Cannon-Bard Theories and Cognition and Emotion(p. 500-504)1. According to the James-Lange theory, emotional states ____________ (precede/follow) body arousal.           2 problems of theory according to Cannon:          1)          2)2. Cannon proposed that emotional stimuli in the environment are routed simultaneously to the ______________, which results in the awareness of the emotion, and to the ____________ nervous system, which causes the body’s reaction. Because another scientist concurrently proposed similar ideas, this theory has come to be known as the ______________-______________ theory.3. For victims of spinal cord injuries who have lost all feeling below the neck, the intensity of emotion tends to ___________. This result supports the ______________-_____________ theory of emotion. 4. Most researchers _____________ (agree/disagree) with Cannon and Bard’s position that emotions involve ________________ as well as arousal.5. The two-factor theory of emotion proposes that emotion has two components: ____________________ arousal and a ________________ label. This theory was proposed by ___________________.6. Schacter and Singer found that physically aroused subjects told that an injection would cause arousal _____________ (did/did not) become emotional in response to an accomplice’s aroused behavior. Physically aroused subjects not expecting arousal _______________ (did/did not) become emotional in response to an accomplice’s behavior.7. Robert Zajonc believes that the feeling of emotion ___________ (can/cannot) precede cognitive labeling of that emotion. Two pieces of evidence to support:          1)          2)8. A pathway from the ______________________ via the _______________ to the _____________ enables us to experience emotion before ________________.9. The researcher who disagrees with Zajonc and argues that most emotions require cognitive processing is ________________. According to this view, emotions arise when we ________________ an event as beneficial or harmful to our well-being. Notes-Module 38, pg. 506-516Embodied Emotion (p.506-510)1. Describe the major physiological changes that each of the following undergoes during emotional arousal:            1) heart:            2) muscles:            3) liver:            4) breathing:                 5) digestion:            6) pupils:            7) blood:            8) skin:2. The responses of arousal are activated by the ________________ nervous system. In response to its signal, the __________ glands release the hormones _____________ and _______________, which increase heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar.3. When the need for arousal has passed, the body is calmed through the activation of the _______________ nervous system.4. The various emotions are associated with ________________ (similar/different) forms of physiological arousal.5. The emotions ____________________ and _________________ are accompanied by differing _____________ temperatures and ______________ secretions.6. The brain circuits underlying different emotions_______________(are/are not) different. For example, seeing a fearful face elicits greater activity in the ____________ than seeing a(n) ________________ face. People who have generally negative personalities, and those who are prone to ______________, show more activity in the ____________________ _________________ ________________ of the brain.7. Individuals with more active _______________ (right/left) ________________ lobes tend to be more cheerful than those in whom this pattern of brain activity is reversed. This may be due to the rich supply of ____________ receptors in this area of the brain.8. The physical accompaniments of emotion _____________ (are/are not) innate and universal.9. The technical name for the “lie detector” is the ______________________.10. How well the lie detector works depends on whether a person exhibits _____________ while lying.11. Those who criticize lie detectors feel that the tests are particularly likely to err in the case of the ____________ (innocent/guilty), because different ______________________ all register as _______________.12. By and large, experts ______________ (agree/do not agree)that lie detector tests are highly accurate.13.  A test that assesses a suspect’s knowledge of details of a crime that only the guilty person should know is the ________________ _________________ _________________. Expressed Emotion (p. 510-516)1. Researchers have found that people who _______________ (suppress/express) their emotions while watching a distressing film showed impaired _________________ for details in the film. Emotions may be communicated in words and/or through body expressions, referred to as __________________ communication.2. Most people are especially good at interpreting nonverbal ____________________. We read fear and _________________ mostly from the __________________, and happiness from the _____________________.3. Introverts are ________________ (better/worse) at reading others’ emotions, whereas extraverts are themselves ________________ (easier/harder) to read. 4. Experience can __________________ people to particular emotions, as revealed by the fact that children who have been physically abused are quicker than others at perceiving __________________.5. Women are generally ________________ (better/worse) than men at detecting nonverbal signs of emotion and in spotting ______________. Women possess greater emotional __________________than men, as revealed by the tendency of men to describe their emotions in _________________ terms. This gender difference may be a by-product of traditional _______________ __________________ and may contribute a women’s greater emotional ____________________.6. Although women are _______________ (more/less) likely than men to describe themselves as empathic, physiological measures reveal a much ______________ (smaller/larger) gender difference. Women are ______________ (more/less) likely than men to express empathy.7. Women are also better at conveying _______________ (which emotion?), whereas men surpass women in conveying their ___________________.8. Various emotions may be linked with hard-to-control _____________________ ___________________. Most people ____________ (are/are not) very accurate at detecting lying. Accuracy varies, however, with a person’s ____________________ and training. For example, ____________________________ (people in which professions?) seem to be especially good at detecting lying.9. The absence of nonverbal cues to emotion is one reason that communications sent as _____________ are easy to misread. 10. Gestures have _____________ (the same/different) meanings in different cultures.11. Studies of adults indicate that in different cultures facial expressions have ____________ (the same/different) meanings. Studies of children indicate that the meaning of their facial expressions ________________ (varies/does not vary) across cultures. The emotional facial expressions of blind children _____________ (are/are not) the same as those of sighted children.12. According to _________________, human emotional expressions evolved because they helped our ancestors communicate before language developed. It has also been adaptive for us to _________________ faces in particular __________________.13. In cultures that encourage ____________________, emotional expressions are often intense and prolonged. In cultures that emphasize __________________, emotions such as ____________________, __________________, and ___________________ are more common than in the ___________ (East/West). 14. Darwin believed that when an emotion is accompanied by an outward facial expression, the emotion is _______________ (intensified/diminished).15. In one study, students who were induced to smile ______________ (found/did not find) cartoons more humorous.16. Studies have found that imitating another person’s facial expressions ______________ (leads/does not lead) to greater empathy with that person’s feelings.

 

 

Notes-Mod 38 (cont.-p. 517-527) Experienced Emotion1. Izard believes that there are ___________________ basic emotions, most of which __________ (are/are not) present in infancy.2. Fear can by and large be seen as a(n)_________________ (adaptive/maladaptive) response.3. Most human fears are acquired through _________________. In addition, some fears are acquired by ______________ parents and friends.4. A key to fear learning lies in the _________________, a neural center in the ______________ system. Following damage to this area, humans who have been conditioned to fear a loud noise will ________________ the conditioning but show no _________________ effect of it.5. Conversely, people who have suffered damage to the __________________ will show the ___________________ ___________________ but _____________ (will/will not) be able to remember why.6. Patients who have lost use of the __________________ are unusually trusting of scary-looking people.7. Fears that fall outside the average range are called _____________. Fearfulness is shaped by both our ______________ and our _______________.8. Averill has found that most people become angry several times per __________. 9. The belief that expressing pent-up emotion is adaptive is most commonly found in cultures that emphasize _________________. This is the _____________ hypothesis. In cultures that emphasize __________________, such as those of ___________________ or ___________________, expressions of anger are less common.10. Psychologists have found that when anger has been provoked, retaliation may have a calming effect under certain circumstances. List the circumstances.          a.          b.          c. 11. List two suggestions offered by experts for handling anger.          a.                 b. 12. Researchers have found that students who mentally rehearsed times they _________________ someone who had hurt them had lower bodily arousal than when they thought of times when they did not.13. Happy people tend to perceive the world as _____________________. They are also ______________ (more/less) willing to help others. This is called the _______________-_________________, ____________________-_____________ phenomenon. An individual’s self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life is called his or her ____________________ _______________.14. Positive emotions __________________ (rise/fall) early in the day and _____________ (rise/fall) during the later hours.15. Most people tend to ____________ (underestimate/overestimate) the long-term emotional consequences of very bad news. After experiencing tragedy or dramatically positive events, people generally ____________(regain/do not regain) their previous degree of happiness.16. Researchers have found that levels of happiness __________ (do/do not) mirror differences in standards of living. During the last four decades, spendable income in the United States has more than doubled; personal happiness has _________________ (increased/decreased/remained almost unchanged).17. Recent studies demonstrate that people generally experience a higher quality of life and greater well-being when they strive for _________________________________________________________________________________________ than when they strive for ___________________.18. The idea that happiness is relative to one’s recent experience is stated by the _____________________-______________________ phenomenon.19. The principle that one feels worse off than others is known as ________________ _________________.20. List six factors that have been shown to be positively correlated with feelings of happiness.           1)          2)          3)          4)          5)          6)21. List five factors that are evidently unrelated to happiness.          1)          2)          3)          4)          5)22. Research studies of identical and fraternal twins have led to the estimate that ___________________ percent of the variation in people’ s happiness ratings is heritable.

 

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