Mod 39-44 Notes

Notes-Module 39-Stress and Illness Stress and Stressors (p. 532-539)1. Out of every ten people, _____________ (how many?) report experiencing frequent stress. Stress is not merely a __________________ or a ______________. Rather, it is the ____________________ by which we perceive and respond to environmental threats and challenges. This definition highlights the fact that stressors can have ______________________ (only negative/both positive and negative) effects, depending on how they are perceived.2. In the 1920s, physiologist Walter __________________ began studying the effect of stress on the body. He discovered that the hormones ___________________ and _____________________ are released into the bloodstream in response to stress. This and other bodily changes due to stress are mediated by the _____________________ nervous system, thus preparing the body for _________________ ___________ ________________. Another common response to stress among women has been called ___________ __________________ ______________, which refers to the increased tendency to _______________________________________________________.3. Physiologists have discovered that in response to stress the cerebral cortex triggers the outer part of the ____________________ ____________________ to release the hormone _____________________. 4. In studying animals’ reactions to stressors, Seyle repeatedly found three physiological effects: enlargement of the __________________ cortex, shrinkage of the ________________ gland, and the formation of bleeding ____________. He referred to this bodily response to stress as the ___________________ ____________________ ___________________.5. During the first phase of the GAS-the _________________ reaction-the person is in a state of shock due to the sudden arousal of the ___________________ nervous system.6. This is followed by the stage of __________________, in which the body’s resources are mobilized to cope with the stressor. 7. If stress continues, the person enters the stage of __________________. During this stage, a person is ______________ (more/less) vulnerable to disease.8. The subfield of psychology that studies how health and illness are influenced by stress, life-style, and other psychological factors is called ____________________ psychology.9. These psychologists have joined with physicians to create the interdisciplinary field of __________________ _______________.10. In the wake of catastrophic events, such as floods, hurricanes, and fires, there is often and increase in the number of _________________________________________________________________.11. Research studies have found that people who have recently been widowed, fired, or divorced are ___________ (more/no more) vulnerable to illness than other people.12. For most people, the most significant sources of stress are _________________ ___________________. The stresses that accompany poverty and unemployment, for example, often compounded by ___________________, may account for higher rates of ________________ among residents of urban ghettos.13. Negative situations are especially stressful when they are appraised as ____________________. Control may explain why poorer people are more at risk for premature ______________ than those who are more affluent.14. People at every income level tend to die younger in areas where there is greater income ________________. Among developed countries, for example, life expectancies in the ______________ _______________ and ___________ are __________(how much?) lower than those in __________________ and ___________________.15. Recent studies in several countries indicate that ___________________ more than __________ predicts mortality.16. People who have an _____________ attitude are less likely than others to suffer ill health.17. In animals and humans, sudden lack of control is followed by a drop in immune responses and a rise in the levels of _____________ __________________. Stress and the Heart (p. 539-542)1. The leading cause of death in North America is __________________ _______________ _______________. List several risk factors for developing this condition: 1) _____________; 2) _________________; 3) _________________;4) ______________________; 5) _____________________________________.2. Friedman and Rosenman discovered that tax accountants experience an increase in blood ________________ level and blood-__________________ speed during tax season. This showed there was a link between coronary warning indicators and ____________________.3. Type A persons tend to engage in certain behaviors that contribute to risk of coronary disease including ________________, ______________________, _______________________________________________.4. In relaxed situations, Type A persons _________________ (differ/do not differ) from Type B persons in measures of physiological reactivity.5. An experiment by Williams showed that when Type A students were challenged, their output of hormones was _______________ (greater than/the same as) that of their Type B classmates. These hormones may increase the buildup of ________________ in the artery walls. The hardening of the arteries that may result is called _____________________. 6. When a ________________ (Type A/Type B) person is angered, blood flow is diverted away from the internal organs, including the liver, which is responsible for removing _______________ and fat from the blood. Thus, such people have elevated levels of these substances in the blood.7. The Type A characteristic hat is most strongly linked with coronary heart disease is __________________ ____________--especially __________________________________________. Another toxic emotion is ___________________. Researchers have found that __________________ are more than twice as likely to develop heart disease as _____________________.8. Depression __________ (increases/has no effect on) one’s risk of having a heart attack or developing other heart problems. Researchers have defined an at-risk __________________ __________________ personality, which is marked by _______________ __________________ and _________________ _______________. Negative emotions also explain why a large proportion of hospital patients suffer ___________________ or ____________________ disorders. Stress and Susceptibility to Disease (p. 542-546)1. In ___________________ illnesses, physical symptoms are produced by psychological causes. Examples of such illnesses are certain forms of ________________ and ________________. Such illnesses appear to be linked to ________________.2. The body’s system of fighting disease is the _________________ system. This system includes two types of white blood cells, called __________________: the _________________, which fight bacterial infections, and the _________________ ________________, which form in the ________________ and attack viruses, cancer cells, and foreign substances. Another immune agent, called the __________________, pursues and ingests foreign substances.3. Responding too strongly, the immune system may attack the body’s tissues and cause __________________ or an __________________ reaction. Or it may ___________________ allowing a dormant virus to erupt or _________________ cells to multiply.4. ____________ (Women/men) are the immunologically stronger gender. This makes them less susceptible to ________________ but more susceptible to __________________ diseases such as _____________________ and ________________ _________________.5. Stress can suppress the lymphocyte cells, resulting in a(n) _______________ (increase/decrease) in disease resistance. Stress diverts energy from the ______________ ________________ to the _____________ and ________________ mobilizing the body for action.6. Worldwide, the fourth leading cause of death is ______________, caused by the ______________, which is spread primarily through the exchange of __________________ and _________________. Stressful life circumstances ________________ (have/have not) been shown to accelerate the progression of this chronic disease.7. Experiments by Ader and Cohen demonstrate that functioning of the body’s immune system ______________ (can/cannot) be affected by conditioning.Notes-Module 40 (pg. 548-557) Coping with Stress 1. Sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness is known as _____________________ exercise. Experiments _____________ (have/have not) been able to demonstrate conclusively that such exercise reduces anxiety and depression and alleviates the effects of stress.2. Exercise increases the body’s production of mood-boosting neurotransmitters such as __________________, ____________________, and the ___________________. By one estimate, moderate exercise adds __________________ (how many?) years to one’s life expectancy. 3. A system for recording a physiological response and providing information concerning it is called _____________________. The instruments used in this system ________________ (provide/do not provide) the individual with a means of controlling physiological responses.4. Lowered blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen consumption have been found to be characteristic of people who regularly practice _______________. The __________________ response accompanies sitting quietly, with closed eyes, while breathing deeply. Brain scans of experienced meditators reveal decreased activity in the ___________________ lobe and increased activity in the ________________ lobe.5. Meyer Friedman found that modifying Type A behavior in a group of heart attack survivors _______________ (reduced/ did not significantly reduce) he rate of recurrence of heart attacks.6. Researchers have found that life events may be less stressful for people who have a good sense of ______________________.7. Another buffer against the effects of stress is ____________________ support. Longitudinal research reveals that a ___________________ ________________ at age 50 predicts healthy aging better than ________________ ________________ at the same age. James Pennebaker has found that emotional ___________________ can adversely affect our physical health, while __________________ suppressed thoughts may promote well-being. 8. Until fairly recently in history, the healing traditions of ______________ and __________________ have worked _______________ (together/separately).9. Polls reveal that most Americans _______________ (believe/do not believe) that religion and spirituality are related to health and healing.10. Several recent studies demonstrate that religious involvement _____________ (predicts/does not predict) health and longevity.     Notes-Mod 40 (p. 557-574) Modifying Illness-Related Behaviors 1. Acupuncture, massage therapy, homeopathy, and similar treatments comprise the growing health care market called _________________ __________________ ________________ _________________. In China, ___________________ therapies have flourished for centuries, as have acupuncture and acupressure therapies that claim to correct imbalances in the flow of the energy called ___________. 2. Critics of alternative medicine point out that such treatments seem especially effective with _________________ diseases such as arthritis and ________________ ___________________, as well as with diseases that disappear naturally—a phenomenon called _______________________ _________________. Critics also argue that the seeming effectiveness of alternative medicine is due to a ________________ effect.3. Advocates of behavioral medicine contend that creating programs to _____________________ disease by promoting healthy lifestyles will result in lower health-care costs than will focusing only on ___________________ existing diseases.4. Smoking usually begins during _________________ _______________ and especially common among those who :            1)            2)            3)            4)According to ____________________-__________________ theory, those who start smoking have friends who model smoking and pressure them to start.5. As with other addictions, smokers become____________________ on nicotine, develop _______________ to its effects, and experience ___________________ symptoms when attempting to quit.6. By terminating an aversive state, smoking provides a person with a powerful ____________________. In addition, nicotine triggers the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine, which increase ______________________, and of neurotransmitters that calm ___________________ and reduce __________________ _________________.7. Twin studies indicate a ________________ percent heritability of smoking addiction. Smokers and nonsmokers also may differ in a ________________ that influences responses to the neurotransmitter ____________________.8. Most programs to help people quit smoking ___________(are/are not) very effective in the long run. The decline in the smoking rate among Americans is most pronounced among ___________ (males/females) and those at ___________ (higher/lower) socioeconomic levels.9. Worldwide, per-person cigarette consumption is near an all-time __________ (low/high). Rates of smoking are increasing most dramatically in _________________ countries where many people are unaware of the dangers of smoking. 10. A study found that 13-year-olds who were taught to cope with peer pressure and advertisements for smoking were ____________ (more/less) likely to begin smoking than were students in a control group. 11. Certain foods may affect mood and behavior by influencing the formation of specific _____________________.12. A relaxed state may be facilitated by eating foods high in __________________, which increase the amount of tryptophan that the brain receives and can thus be used for synthesizing the neurotransmitter _________________. Concentration and alertness, in contrast, may be improved by meals that have a high ________________ content.13. Hypertensive people tend to have a higher-than-normal intake of ______________ but a lower-than-normal intake of ___________________.14. In developing societies where people face _________________, obesity is considered a sign of ___________________ and __________________ _____________________.15. Eating disorders are rare in countries that do not have a _____________
16. People who are overweight at age 40 die _______________ (how many?) years earlier than hose who are not.17. In one experiment, job applicants were rated as less worthy of hiring when they were made to appear _______________.18. The energy equivalent of a pound of fat is approximately _______ calories. The immediate determinant of body fat is the size and number of _________ ___________ one has. This number is, in turn, determined by several factors, including: 1) _________________________; 2) ______________________; and 3) _______________________.19. The size of fat cells ____________ (can/cannot) be decreased by dieting; the number of fat cells ______________ (can/cannot) be decreased by dieting.20. Fat tissue has a _____________ (higher/lower) metabolic rate than lean tissue. The result is that fat tissue requires _____________ (more/less) food energy to be maintained.21. The body weight “thermostat” of obese people _____ (is/is not) set to maintain a higher-than-average weight. When weight drops below this setting, __________________ increases and _________________ decreases. 22. Studies of adoptees and twins ___________ (do/do not) provide evidence of a genetic influence on obesity.23. Recent experiments reveal that obese mice have a defective _____________ for producing the protein ______________. When obese mice are given injections of this protein, they become __________ (more/less) active and ___________ (gain/lose) weight. 24. Obesity is ______________ (more/less) common among lower-class than upper-class women and __________ (does/does not) vary from culture to culture.25. Most obese persons who lose weight _____________ (gain/do not gain) it back. Notes-Module 41-Psychoanalysis and Humanism Intro and Psychoanalytic Perspective (p.577-588)1. The psychoanalytic perspective on personality was proposed by _________________ _________________. A second, historically significant perspective was the ________________ approach, which focused on people’s capacities for ___________________ and __________________-_______________.2. At first, Freud thought ________________ would unlock the door to the unconscious. The technique later used by Freud, in which the patient relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, is called _______________ ________________.3. Freud called his theory and associated techniques, whereby painful unconscious memories are exposed, ___________________.4. According to this theory, the mind is like an iceberg in that many of a person’s thoughts, wishes, and feelings are hidden in a large ____________ region. Some of the thoughts in this region can be retrieved at will into consciousness; these thoughts are said to be _______________. Many of the memories of this region, however, are blocked, or ______________________, from consciousness.5. Freud believed that a person’s ________________ wished are often reflected in his or her dreams and ___________ of the tongue or pen. Freud called the remembered content of dreams the ______________ ________________, which he believed to be a censored version of the dream’s true _______________ __________________.6. Freud believed that all facets of personality arise from conflict between our _________________ impulses and the _________________ restraints against them.7. According to Freud, personality consists of three interacting structures: the _____________________, the ___________________, and the _______________.8. The id is a reservoir of energy that is primarily _______________ (conscious/unconscious) and operates according to the ________________ principle.9. The ego develops __________________ (before/after) the id and consists of perceptions, thoughts, and memories that are mostly ______________ (conscious/unconscious). The ego operates according to the _______________ principle.10. The personality structure that reflects moral values is the ____________, which Freud believed began emerging at about age ________________.11. A person with a ________________ (strong/weak) superego may be self-indulgent; one with an unusually ______________ (strong/weak) superego may be continually guilt-ridden.12. According to Freud, personality is formed as the child passes through a series of ________________ stages.13. The first stage is the ______________ stage, which takes place during the first 18 months of life. During this stage, the id’s energies are focused on behaviors such as __________________.14. The second stage is the _______________ stage, which lasts from about age ___________ months to ____________ months.15. The third stage is the ___________ stage, which lasts roughly from ages _____________ to ________________. During this stage the id’s energies are focused on the ________________. Freud also believed that during this stage children develop sexual desires for the _________ (same/opposite)-sex parent. Freud referred to these feelings as the _______________ _______________ in boys. Some psychologists believe girls experience a parallel ______________ ________________.16. Freud believed that ________________ with the same-sex parent is the basis for ___________ __________________.17. During the next stage, sexual feelings are repressed: this phase is called the _____________ stage and lasts until adolescence.18. The final stage of development is called the ______________ stage.19. According to Freud, it is possible for a person’s development to become blocked in any of the stages; in such an instance, the person is said to be _____________. People who are messy and disorganized, or highly controlled and compulsively neat, were said to be anal ________________ and anal _____________, respectively.20. The ego attempts to protect itself against anxiety through the use of ___________ _______________. The process underlying each of these mechanisms is ________________. 21. Dealing with anxiety by returning to an earlier stage of development is called __________________.22. When a person reacts in a manner opposite that of his or her true feelings, ______________ _________________ is said to have occurred.23. When a person attributes his or her own feelings to another person, _____________ has occurred.24. When a person offers a false, self-justifying explanation for his or her actions, __________________ has occurred.25. When impulses are directed toward an object other than the one that caused arousal, _______________ has occurred.26. Defense mechanisms are ______________ (conscious/unconscious) processes.27. Tests that provide subjects with ambiguous stimuli or interpretation are called _______________ tests.28. Henry Murray introduced the personality assessment technique called the _______________ ______________ Test.29. The most widely used projective test is the ______________, in which subjects are shown a series of __________________. Generally, these tests appear to have _____________ (little/significant) validity and reliability.30. The theorists who established their own, modified versions of psychoanalytic theory are called _________________-________________. These theorists typically place ___________ (more/less) emphasis on the conscious mind than Freud did and ___________ (more/less) emphasis on sex and aggression.Differences from Freud:          a) Adler           b) Horney           c) Jung 31. Today’s psychologists ______________ (accept/reject) the idea that people inherit a common reservoir of experiences, which _______________ (what theorist?) called a _______________ __________________. 32. More recently, some of Freud’s ideas have been incorporated into _____________ theory. Unlike Freud, the theorists advocating this perspective do not believe that _________________ is the basis of personality. They do agree, however, that much of mental life is ______________, that ______________ shapes personality, and that we often struggle with ______________ ________________.33. Contrary to Freud’s theory, research indicates that human development is ________________ (fixed in childhood/life-long), children gain their gender-identity at a(n) _______________ (earlier/later) age, and the presence of a same-sex parent ____________ (is/is not) necessary for the child to become strongly masculine or feminine.34. Recent research also disputes Freud’s belief that dreams disguise ________________, and that defense mechanisms disguise ______________ and ________________ impulses. Another Freudian idea that is no longer widely accepted is that psychological disorders are caused by _______________ __________________.35. Psychoanalytic theory rests on the assumption that the human mind often _______________ painful experiences. Many of today’s researchers think that this process is much _____________ (more common/rarer) than Freud believed. They also believe that when it does occur, it is a reaction to terrible ___________.36. Criticism of psychoanalysis as a scientific theory centers on the fact that is provides _____________-_______________-________________ explanations and does not offer __________________ ______________.  The Humanistic Perspective (p. 588-591) 1. Two influential theories of humanistic psychology were proposed by ____________________ and _____________________.2. According to Maslow, humans are motivated by needs that are organized into a __________________. Maslow refers to the process of fulfilling one’s potential as _______________________.3. According to Rogers, a person nurtures growth in a relationship by being _________________, _____________________, and ___________________. People who are accepting of others offer them ____________________________________________________
4. For both Maslow and Rogers, an important feature of personality is how an individual perceives himself or herself; this is the person’s ___________________. Humanistic psychologists have influenced such diverse areas as ____________________, ___________________, ______________________, and ____________________. They also had a major impact on today’s __________________ psychology, perhaps because the emphasis on the individual self strongly reflects ______________________ cultural values.5. Research has shown that most people tend to have __________________ (low/high) self-esteem. Notes-Module 42 Introduction and Exploring Traits (p. 594-596) 1. Gordon Allport developed trait theory, which defines personality in terms of people’s characteristic _________________ and conscious _______________. He was generally less interested in ________________ individual traits then in ________________ them.2. The ancient Greeks classified people according to four types: ____________, or depressed; __________________, or cheerful; ____________________, or unemotional; and ___________________, or irritable.3. Sheldon identified three body types: the jolly ________________ type, the bold __________________ type, and the high-strung ______________ type. 4. The _________________-______________ _________________ ______________ classifies people according to Carl Jung’s personality types. Although recently criticized for its lack of predictive value, this test has been widely used in __________________ and ________________ counseling.5. To reduce the number of traits to a few basic ones, psychologists use the statistical procedure of _________________ __________________. The Eysencks think that two or three genetically influenced personality dimensions are sufficient; these include _________________-_______________ and emotional _________________-_______________.6. Some researchers believe that extraverts seek stimulation because their level of ______________ ______________ is relatively low. PET scans reveal an area of the brain’s _______________ lobe that is less active in ________________ (extraverts/intraverts) than in ________________ (extraverts/intraverts).7. Emotionally ____________ (stable/unstable) people react calmly because their ___________ _______________ ___________________ are not as reactive as those of ________________ (stable/unstable) people.8. Jerome Kagan attributes differences in children’s __________________ and __________________ to autonomic nervous system reactivity.9. Research increasingly reveals that our _______________ play an important role in defining our ______________ and ________________ style. Assessing Traits and the Big Five Factors (p. 596-599) 1. Questionnaires that categorize personality traits are called __________________ __________________. The most widely used of all such personality tests is the _________________ _________________ ______________ _________________. This test was developed by testing a large pool of items and selecting those that differentiated particular individuals; in other words, the test was ____________________ derived.2. Although personality tests that are based on __________________ reports are the most widely used, some psychologists believe that ________________ reports are more trustworthy.3. Researchers have arrived at a cluster of five factors that seem to describe the major features of personality. List and briefly describe the Big Five.          a)           b)           c)           d)           e) 4. In adulthood, the Big Five are quite ______________ (stable/variable), with heritability estimated at ______________ percent or more for each dimension. Moreover, these traits ______________ (describe/do not describe) personality in other cultures and ________________ (predict/do not predict) other personal attributes. Evaluating the Trait Perspective (p.599-603)1. Human behavior is influenced by both our inner _____________ and by the external ________________. The issue of which of these is the more important influence on personality is called the _______________-________________ controversy.2. To be considered a personality trait, a characteristic must persist over __________ and across ______________. Research studies reveal that personality trait scores _______________ (correlate/do not correlate) with scores obtained seven years later. The consistency of specific behaviors from one situation to the next is ___________________ (predictably consistent/not predictably consistent).3. An individual’s score on a personality test ____________ (is/is not) very predictive of his or her behavior in any given situation. 4. People’s expressive styles, which include their ___________, manner of _________________, and ___________________, are quite ______________________ (consistent/inconsistent). Notes-Mod 43 and 44 Mod 43 (Social-Cognitive perspective)Exploring Behavior in Situations and Reciprocal Influences (p. 604)1. Social-cognitive theory, which focuses on how the individual and the __________________ interact, was proposed by ___________________.2. Social-cognitive theorists propose that personality is shaped by the mutual influence of our __________________, _____________________ factors, and ________________ factors. This is the principle of ___________________ ___________________. Personal Control (p. 605-608)1. In studying how we interact with our environment, social-cognitive theorists point to the importance of our sense of _______________ __________________. Individuals who believe that they control their own destinies are said to perceive an _______________ ______________ ________ ___________________. Individuals who believe that their fate is determined by outside forces are said to perceive ________________ ________________ __________ __________________. Self-control predicts good ________________, better ____________________, and ______________ success.3. People become happier when they are given__________ (more/less) control over what happens to them.4. One measure of a person’s feelings of effectiveness is their degree of ____________________. Our characteristic manner of explaining negative and positive events is called our _____________ __________________.5. During its first century, psychology focused primarily on understanding and alleviating __________________ _______________________. Today, however, thriving Western cultures have an opportunity  create a more ________________ psychology, focused on three pillars:          a)           b)           c) 6. One factor that may help explain Asian-American students’ greater academic achievements is their somewhat greater _____________________.Success requires enough _________________ to provide hope and enough _________________ to prevent complacency.7. Our natural positive thinking tends to vanish when we are about to face _____________________. People tend to be most confident of their abilities in areas where they are, in fact, most ________________ (competent/incompetent). Mod 44 (Contemporary Research: The Self and the Modern Unconscious)Exploring the Self (p. 612-618)1. One of modern psychology’s most vigorously researched topics today is the _______________. Hazel Markus and colleagues introduced the concept of an individual’s __________________ __________________ to emphasize how our aspirations motivate us through specific goals. 2. Our tendency to overestimate the extent to which others are noticing and evaluating us is called the ________________ ___________________.3. According to self theorists, personality development hinges on our feelings of self-worth, or _______________. People who feel good about themselves are relatively _______________ (dependent on/independent of) outside pressures, while people who fall short of their ideals are more prone to _______________ and _______________________. 4. People who are vulnerable to depression often feel they are falling short of their _________________. Those vulnerable to anxiety often feel they are falling short of what they _________________________________________________.5. In a series of experiments, researchers found that people who were made to feel insecure were __________ (more/less) critical of other persons or tended to express heightened _________________ _______________.6. Research studies demonstrate that ethnic minorities, people with disabilities, and women generally ____________ (have/do not have) lower self-esteem.7. Members of stigmatized groups maintain self-esteem in three ways:          1)          2)          3)8. Research has shown that most people tend to have ________ (low/high) self-esteem.9. The tendency of people to judge themselves favorably is called the __________________ bias.10. Responsibility for success is generally accepted ____________ (more/less) readily than responsibility for failure.11. Most people perceive their own behavior and traits as being _______ (above/below) average. 12. Bushman and Baumeister found that students with unrealistically ________ (low/high) self-esteem were most likely to become exceptionally aggressive after criticism.13. A number of psychologists have suggested that humans function best with modest self-enhancing _________________.14. People who give priority to personal goals and define their identity in terms of personal attributions are members of ____________________ cultures. People who give priority to the goals of their groups belong to _____________ cultures.15. Direct confrontation and blunt honesty are rare in ________________ cultures. People in ________________ cultures have more personal _____________, but they also experience more ______________, more __________________, more __________________ and more _________________-________________ disease. Within individualist cultures, people with the strongest _____________________ _______________ express the greatest satisfaction with their lives.16. in recent decades, Western individualism has ________________ (increased/decreased). The Modern Unconscious Mind (p. 619-620)1. Cognitive science reveals that the unconscious is not the site of instinctual urges, as ______________ thought, but rather the site where _______________ is processed without awareness.2. Recent research ___________ (supports/does not support) Freud’s idea that we defend ourselves against anxiety. According to _____________-___________theory, our awareness of vulnerability and death causes us to act in ways to enhance our _________________ and adhere to worldviews that answer questions about __________________ _______________.3. Recent research provides some support for he Freudian defense mechanism ______________, which today’s researchers call the _________ _______________ _______________. More supportive evidence exists for defenses that defend _________________ than for defenses tied to __________ ________________ such as ____________________.