Mod 45-52 Notes

                                                     Notes-Module 45 Defining and Understanding Psychological Disorders (p.624-626)1. Psychological disorders are ___________ ________________ that must be judged to be ________________, ___________________, __________________, and _________________. This definition emphasizes that standards of acceptability for behavior are _______________ (constant/variable).2. The view that psychological disorders are sicknesses is the basis of the ______________ model. According to this view, psychological disorders are viewed as mental ___________________ or ____________________.3. One of the first reformers to advocate this position and call for providing more humane living conditions for the mentally ill was ______________________.4. Today’s psychologists recognize that all behavior arises from the interaction of __________________ and _________________. To presume that a person is “mentally ill” attributes the condition solely to an ___________________ problem.5. Major psychological disorders such as _________________ and ________________ are universal; others, such as __________________ ______________ and ___________, are culture-bound. These culture-bound disorders may share an underlying ____________________, such as __________________, yet differ in their _________________.6. Most mental health workers today work from the _____________-______________-______________ perspective, which assumes that disorders are influenced by _________________ _________________ and ______________ ________________, inner _________________ ______________, and ___________________ and ________________ circumstances. Classifying and Labeling Psychological Disorders (p. 626-629)1. The most widely used system for classifying psychological disorders is the American Psychiatric Association manual, commonly known by its abbreviation, ________________. This manual defines 400 categories of “mental disorder,” divided into __________ (how many?) categories.2. Psychological illnesses that are severely impairing, called ______________ _________________ are contrasted with ________________ _______________, or psychological illnesses that allow the person to function socially. In general, DSM-IV now seeks to list and _________________ the disorders rather than attempting to _________________ their causes.3. Independent diagnoses made with the current manual generally ____________ (show/do not show) agreement.4. One criticism of DSM-IV is that as the number of disorder categories has _______________ (increased/decreased), the number of adults who meet the criteria for at least one psychiatric ailment has ________________ (increased/ decreased).5. Studies have shown that labeling has ____________________ (little/a significant) effect on our interpretation of individuals and their behavior. Rates of Psychological Disorders (p. 629-630)1. Research reveals that approximately one in every _________ (how many?) Americans suffers clinically significant mental disorders.2. The incidence of serious psychological disorders is ______________ (higher/lower) among those below the poverty line.3. In terms of age of onset, most psychological disorders appear by  ____________ (early/middle/late) adulthood. Some, such as the ____________ _______________ and _______________, appear during childhood. Notes-Mod 46 and 47 Mod 46-Anxiety Disorders-Types(p. 634-636)1. When a person tend to feel anxious for no apparent reason, he or she is diagnosed as suffering from a ________________ ________________ disorder.2. In generalized anxiety disorder, the body reacts physiologically with the arousal of the _________________ nervous system. In some instances, anxiety may intensify dramatically and be accompanied by trembling or dizziness; people with these symptoms are said to have ________________ _______________.3. People who fear situations in which escape might not be possible when panic strikes suffer from_____________________.4. When a person has an irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation, the diagnosis is a ___________________. Although in many situations, the person can live with the problem, some _________________ ________________, such as fear of thunderstorms, are incapacitating.5. When a person as an intense fear of being scrutinized by others, the diagnosis is a _________________ ________________.6. When a person cannot control repetitive thoughts and actions an _____________-_______________ disorder is diagnosed. Older people are __________(more/less) likely than teens and young adults to suffer from this disorder. Explaining Anxiety Disorders (p.636-640)1. Freud assumed that anxiety disorders re symptoms of submerged mental energy that derives from intolerable impulses that were __________________ during childhood.2. Learning theorists, drawing on research in which rats are given unpredictable shocks, link general anxiety with ___________________ conditioning of _________________.3. Some fears arise from ____________ _______________, such as when a person who fears heights after a fall also comes to fear airplanes.4. Phobias and compulsive behaviors reduce anxiety and thereby are ______________. Through _____________ learning, someone might also learn fear by seeing others display their own fears.5. Humans probably _________________ (are/are not) biologically prepared to develop certain fears. Compulsive acts typically are exaggerations of behaviors that contributed to our species’ _____________________.6. The anxiety response probably ____________ (is/is not) genetically influenced.7. PET scans of persons with obsessive-compulsive disorder reveal excessive activity in a region of the _________________ lobes. Some antidepressant drugs dampen fear-circuit activity in the _______________, thus reducing this behavior.8. Traumatic stress, such as that associated with witnessing atrocities or combat, can produce _________-__________________ ________________ disorder, symptoms of which include: ________________________________________________________________.
Despite such symptoms, some psychologists believe this disorder is ____________________.
    Mod 47 (Dissociative and Personality Disorders)Dissociative Disorders (p. 641-643)1. In _________________ disorders, a person’s ____________________ _______________ becomes separated from painful memories, thoughts, and feelings.2. A person who develops two or more distinct personalities is suffering from _________________ _________________ disorder.3. Nicholas Spanos has argued that such people may merely be playing different __________________.4. Those who accept this as a genuine disorder point to evidence that differing personalities may be associated with distinct __________________ and ____________________ states.5. The psychoanalytic and learning perspectives view dissociative disorders as ways of dealing with ________________. Others view them as a protective response to histories of ______________ ________________. Skeptics claim these disorders are sometimes contrived by _______________-______________ people, and sometimes constructed out of the ________________-_______________ interaction. Personality Disorders (p. 643-645)1. Personality disorders exist when an individual has character traits that are enduring and impair _______________ _______________.2. An individual who seems have no conscience, lies, steals, is generally irresponsible, and may be criminal is said to have an ______________ personality. Previously, this person was labeled a ________________.3. Studies of the children of convicted criminals suggest that there ________ (is/is not) a biological predisposition to such traits.4. When awaiting electric shocks, antisocial persons show _______________ (little/some/much) arousal of the autonomic nervous system than do control subjects.5. Some studies have detected early signs of antisocial behavior in children as young as _________________. Antisocial adolescents tended to have been _____________________, _______________________, unconcerned with ___________________ ___________________, and low in _______________.6. PET scans  of murderers’ brains reveal reduced activity in the ______________ __________________.7. As in other disorders, in antisocial personality, genetics _________ (is/is not) the whole story. Notes-Module 48 Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder (p. 646-648)1. The leading cause of disability worldwide is ___________________. The experience of prolonged depression with no discernible cause is called ________________ ___________________ disorder.2. When a person’s mood alternates between depression and the hyperactive state of ________________, a __________________ disorder is diagnosed. 3. Although ___________________ are more common, _______________ is the number one reason that people seek mental health services.4. In between the temporary blue moods everyone experiences and major depression is a condition called _________________ _________________, in which a person feels down-in-the-dumps nearly every day for two years or more.5. The possible signs of depression include :          1)          2)          3)6. Major depression occurs when its signs last _____________ ____________ or more with no apparent cause.7. Depressed persons usually _____________ (can/cannot) recover without therapy.8. Symptoms of mania include:          1)          2)          3)The bipolar disorder occurs in approximately ___________ percent of men and women. Explaining Mood Disorders (p. 648-656)1. Compared with men, women are __________ (more/less) vulnerable to major depression. In general, women are most vulnerable to ____________ (active/passive) disorders, such as _____________________, ________________, and ________________ ________________ __________.Men’s disorders tend to be ___________ (active/passive) and include ____________ _____________, ______________ ______________, and _________ _____ ______________ _______________.2. It usually ______ (is/is not) the case that a depressive episode has been triggered by a stressful event. An individual’s vulnerability to depression also increases following the early ________ ___ __ _____________.3. With each new generation, the rate of depression is _____________ (increasing/decreasing) and the disorder is striking _______________ (earlier/later). In North America today, young adults are _________ times (how many?) as likely as their grandparents to suffer depression.4. Mood disorders ______________ (tend/do not tend) to run in families. Studies of ________________ also reveal that genetic influences on mood disorders are ________________ (weak/strong).5. To determine which genes are involved in depression, researchers use _______________ _________________, in which they examine the ____________ of both affected and unaffected family members.6. Depression may also be caused by ___________ (high/low) levels of two neurotransmitters, ___________________ and ___________________.7. Drugs that alleviate mania reduce _______________; drugs that relieve depression increase _________________ or ___________________ supplies by blocking either their ________________ or their chemical ________________.8. The brains of depressed people tend to be _________ (more/less) active, especially in an area of the ____________ _______________ lobe of the brain. In severely depressed patients, this brain area may also be _____________ (smaller/larger) in size. The brain’s _________________, which is important is processing _______________, is vulnerable to stress-related damage. Antidepressant drugs that boost __________________ may promote recovery by stimulating neurons in this area of the brain.9. According to the social-cognitive perspective, depression may be linked with beliefs that are ____________________. Such beliefs may arise from ______________ ________________, the feeling that can arise when the individual repeatedly experiences uncontrollable, painful events.10. Gender differences in _______________ __________________ help explain why women have been twice as vulnerable to depression.11. Research suggests that depressing thoughts usually _____________ (precede/follow/coincide with) a depressed mood.12. Depression-prone people respond to bad events in an especially _________________, ____________________ way.13. Research studies with college students reveal that ________________ thinkers are vulnerable to depression. Students who exhibit _____________ develop more ___________________ __________________, which lowers their risk of depression.14. Being withdrawn, self-focused, and complaining tends to elicit social _______________ (empathy/rejection).15. People commonly experience one of the four types of loneliness: feeling _______________ from a group, feeling _________________ and uncared about by those around you, feeling _________________ and unable to share your private concerns, or feeling _________________, or different. Notes-Module 49Symptoms and Subtypes of Schizophrenia (p. 658-660)1. Schizophrenia, or “split mind,” refers not to split personality but rather to a split from ________________________.2. Three manifestations of schizophrenia are disorganized _______________________, disturbed ____________________, and inappropriate _________________ and _____________________.3. The disturbed, false beliefs of schizophrenia patients are called ___________________.4. Many psychologists attribute the disorganized thinking of schizophrenia to a breakdown in the capacity for ________________ __________________.5. The disturbed perceptions of people suffering from schizophrenia may take the form of __________________, which usually are ________________ (visual/auditory). 6. Some victims of schizophrenia lapse into a zombielike state of apparent apathy, or ___________ ______________; others, who exhibit ____________________, may remain motionless for hours.7. The term schizophrenia describes a __________________ (single disorder/cluster of disorders). 8. Positive symptoms of schizophrenia include:          1)          2)Negative symptoms include:          1)           2)          3)9. When schizophrenia develops slowly (called ___________________ schizophrenia), recovery is ___________ (more/less) likely than when it develops rapidly in reaction to particular life stresses (called ____________________ schizophrenia). Understanding Schizophrenia (p. 650-654)1. The brain tissue of schizophrenia patients has been found to have an excess of receptors for the neurotransmitter ____________________. Drugs that block these receptors have been found to _________________ (increase/decrease) schizophrenia symptoms. Drugs that interfere with the neurotransmitter _________________ can produce negative symptoms of schizophrenia.2. Brain scans have shown that many people suffering from schizophrenia have abnormal patterns of brain _________________ in the frontal lobes.    3. Enlarged, _________________-filled areas and a corresponding _____________________ of cerebral tissue is also characteristic of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients also have a smaller-than-normal _____________________, which may account for the difficulty in filtering ____________________ _____________________ and focusing ______________.4. Some scientists contend that the brain abnormalities of schizophrenia may be caused by a prenatal problem, such as _______________ _______________ _________________, birth complications such as _________________ _________________, or a ________________ __________________ contracted by the mother.5. Twin and adoptive studies ________________ (support/do not support) the contention that heredity plays a role in schizophrenia.6. The role of the prenatal environment in schizophrenia is demonstrated by the fact that identical twins share the same ____________ and are therefore more likely to experience the same prenatal ________________, are more likely to share the disorder. 7. Although adoption studies ___________ (do/do not) confirm the genetic link, other factors such as prenatal viral infections and deprivation of _____________ or ______________________ at birth may also be factors in the disease.8. It appears that for schizophrenia to develop there must be both a ____________________ predisposition and some ______________ trigger.  Notes-Module 50Intro and Psychoanalysis (p. 668-670)1. Psychological therapy is more commonly called ______________________.2. Therapists who blend several psychotherapy techniques are said to take an ____________________ approach.3. The major psychotherapies are based on four perspectives: the _____________________, ____________________, __________________, and __________________ perspectives.4. Freud’s technique in which a patient says whatever comes to mind is called ________ __________________.5. When, in the course of therapy, a person omits shameful embarrassing material, __________________ is occurring. Insight is facilitated by the analyst’s __________________ of the meaning of such omissions, of dreams, and of other information revealed during therapy sessions.6. Freud referred to the hidden meaning of a dream as its ___________ _______________.7. When strong feelings, similar to those experienced in other important relationships, are developed towards the therapist, ________________ has occurred.8. Therapists who are influenced by Freud’s psychoanalysis but who talk to the patient face to face are __________________ therapists. In addition, they work with patients only ____________ (how long?) and for only a few weeks or months.9. A brief alternative to psychodynamic therapy that has proven effective with ______________ patients is _______________ ________________. While this approach aims to help people gain _______________ into their difficulties, is focuses on ____________ ______________ rather than on past hurts. Humanistic Therapies (p. 671-672)1. Humanistic therapies attempt to help people meet their potential for _________________.2. The humanistic therapy based on Rogers’ theory is called ____________________-__________________ therapy, which is described as ________________ therapy because the therapist __________________ (interprets/does not interpret) the person’s problems.3. In order to promote growth in clients, Rogerian therapists exhibit _________________, _____________________, and __________________.4. Rogers’ technique of restating and clarifying what a person is saying is called __________________ __________________. Given a nonjudgmental environment that provides _________________ _________________ _____________, patients are better able to accept themselves as they are and to feel valued and whole.5. Three tips for listening more actively in your own relationships are to _________________, _____________________ ________________, and _____________________ _________________.  
Behavior Therapies (p. 672-677)
1. One cluster of behavior therapies is based on the principles of _______________ _________________, as developed in Pavlov’s experiments. This technique, in which a new, incompatible response is substituted for a maladaptive one, is called _______________. Two examples of this technique are __________________ __________________ and __________________ ________________.2. The most widely used techniques of behavior therapy are the __________________ ________________. The technique of systematic desensitization has been most fully developed by the therapist _______________. The assumption behind the technique is that one cannot simultaneously be _________________ and relaxed.3. The first step in systematic desensitization is the construction of a _____________ of anxiety-arousing stimuli. The second step involves training in _________________ __________________. In the final step, the person is trained to associate the _________________ state with the _______________-arousing stimuli.4. For those who are unable to ________________ _________________ an anxiety-arousing situation, or too afraid or embarrassed to do so, _______________ _________________ __________________ therapy offers a promising alternative.5. In helping people to overcome fears of snakes and spiders, for example, therapists sometimes combine systematic desensitization with _____________ _____________ and other techniques.6. In aversive conditioning, the therapist attempts to substitute a ____________ (positive/negative) response for one that is currently ______________ (positive/negative) In this technique, a person’s unwanted behaviors become associated with ___________________ feelings.7. Therapies that influence behavior by controlling its consequences are based on principles of __________________ conditioning. One application of this form of therapy to institutional settings is the ________________ _________________, in which desired behaviors are rewarded. Cognitive Therapies (p. 677-680)1. Therapists who teach people new, more constructive ways of thinking are using __________________ therapy.2. One variety of cognitive therapy attempts to reverse the __________ beliefs often associated with _________________ by helping clients see their irrationalities. This therapy was developed by __________.3. A form of cognitive therapy developed by Adele Rabin builds on the finding that depressed people ____________ (do/do not) exhibit the self-serving bias.4. Treatment that combines an attack on negative thinking with efforts to modify behavior is known as __________________-___________________ therapy.5. Training people to restructure their thinking in stressful situations is the goal of _______________ _________________ training. Students trained to _______________ their negative thoughts are less likely to experience future depression. Group and Family Therapies (p. 680-681)1. The most common types of group therapy are _______________ and _______________ groups for the addicted, the divorced, and those simply looking for fellowship and growth, for example. Most support groups focus on ________________, ___________________, and _______________-_______________-________________ illnesses.2. The type of group interaction that focuses on the social context in which the individual exists is _______________ ________________.

3. In this type of group, therapists focus on improving ______________ within the family and helping family members to discover new ways of preventing or resolving _____________

Notes-Modules 51 and 52

Is Psychotherapy Effective? (p. 684-689)1. In contrast to earlier times, most therapy today ___________ (is/is not) provided by psychiatrists.2. A majority of psychotherapy clients express ______________ (satisfaction/dissatisfaction) with their therapy.3. A long-term study of 500 Massachusetts boys found that those who received intensive counseling________ (had/did not have) significantly fewer problems than a control group. Research has also shown that “Scared Straight” programs __________ (are/are not) effective in reducing criminal offenses committed by delinquent boys.4. Clients’ and therapists’ perceptions of therapy’s effectiveness may be inflated by their _______________ that a treatment works. This phenomenon is called the ______________ ___________________. Another phenomenon that may inflate their perceptions of therapy’s effectiveness is the phenomenon called ______________ ___________________ __________________ ___________, which is the tendency for _________________ emotions to return to their ______________ state.5. The debate over the effectiveness of psychotherapy began with a study by _______________________; it showed that the rate of improved therapy ____________ (was/was not) higher than the rate for those who did not.6.  A statistical technique that makes it possible to combine the results of many different psychotherapy outcome studies is called ____________-____________. Overall, the results of such analyses indicate that psychotherapy is _____________(somewhat effective/ineffective).7. As a rule, psychotherapy is most effective with problems that are ________________ (specific/nonspecific). The Relative Effectiveness of Different Therapies (p. 689-692)1. Comparisons of the effectiveness of different forms of therapy reveal ____________ (clear/no clear) differences, that the type of therapy provider _____________ (matters/does not matter) greatly, and that whether therapy is provided by an individual therapist or within a group __________________ (makes a difference/does not make a difference).2. Controlled treatment studies have demonstrated that depression may be effectively treated with ____________________, __________________, and ___________________ therapies. In treating anxiety, __________________ and ____________________ therapies and ___________________ _______________ training have proven effective. Cognitive-behavior therapy has proven effective in treating _________________, and behavior modification in treating _________________ ____________________.3. With phobias, compulsions, and other specific behavior problems, ______________ _________________ therapies have been the most effective.  Evaluating Alternative Therapies (p. 689-692)1. Today, many forms of _____________ _______________ are touted as effective treatments for a variety of complaints. Among the most popular is ____________ _______________, in which practitioners move their hands over a patient’s body. Empirical support for this form of therapy is _______________ (strong/nonexistent). 2. In another popular alternative therapy, a therapist triggers eye movements in patients while they imagine _________________ _________________. This therapy, called _________________ _______________ ________________ ____________ __________________, has proven _________________ (completely ineffective/somewhat effective) as a treatment for nonmilitary ____________-________________ ____________________ ______________. However, skeptics point to evidence that _________________ ________________ is just as effective as triggered eye movements in producing beneficial results.3. For people who suffer from the wintertime form of depression called ____________ _________________ _________________, timed __________-________________ therapy may be beneficial in shifting secretion of the hormone __________________. Commonalities among Psychotherapies and Culture and Values in Psychotherapy (p. 692-695)1. Several studies found that treatment for mild problems offered by paraprofessionals ___________ (is/is not) as effective as that offered by professional therapists.2. Generally speaking, psychotherapists’ personal values ___________ (do/do not) influence their therapy.


Mod 52Drug Therapies (p. 697-700)1. The most widely used biomedical treatments are the _______________ therapies. Thanks to these therapies, the number of people in mental hospitals has ________________ (increased/decreased) sharply.2. The field that studies the effects of drugs on the mind and behavior is _________________.3. When neither the patients nor the staff are aware of which condition a given individual is in, a _________________-_________________ study is being conducted.4. One effect of ___________________ drugs such as ________________ is to help those experiencing ______________ (positive/negative) symptoms of schizophrenia by decreasing their responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli; schizophrenia patients who are apathetic and withdrawn may be more effectively treated with the drug ________________. These drugs work by blocking the receptor sites of the neurotransmitters ____________________ and __________________.5. Xanax and Valium are classified as __________________ drugs. These drugs depress activity in the _________________ ________________ _______________.6. Drugs that are prescribed to alleviate depression are called __________________. These drugs also work by increasing levels of the neurotransmitters _____________________ and ____________________. One example of this type of drug is _________________, which works by blocking the reabsorption of ________________ from synapses and is therefore called a ___________________-___________________-_______________-___________ drug.7. Equally effective in calming anxious people and energizing depressed people is _________________ _______________, which has positive side effects.8. Although people with depression often improve after one month on antidepressants, meta-analysis studies demonstrate that a large percentage of the effectiveness is due to a _______________ ___________.9. Current drug therapies work by affecting activity at all the ______________ for a given neurotransmitter. One type of drug currently under development aims to block only those for a brain chemical called ______________ _____________, which helps transmit _____________ messages.10. In order to stabilize the mood swings of a bipolar disorder, the drug ______________ is often prescribed.  Electroconvulsive Therapy and Psychosurgery (p.701-702)1. The therapeutic technique in which the patient receives an electric shock to the brain is referred to as ___________________ therapy, abbreviated as _________.2. ECT is most often used with patients suffering from severe ______________. Research evidence _____________ (confirms/does not confirm) effectiveness with such patients.3. One theory of how ECT works suggests that it increases release of the neurotransmitter ________________.4. A gentler procedure called _______________ _______________ _____________ ___________________ aims to treat depression by presenting pulses through a magnetic coil held close to a person’s skull above the right eyebrow. Unlike ECT, this procedure produces no ________________, _________________ loss, or other side effects. This procedure may work by energizing the brain’s left _____________ _____________, which is relatively inactive in depressed patients.5. The biomedical therapy in which a portion of brain tissue is removed or destroyed is called ________________.6. In the 1930s, Moniz developed an operation called the ______________. In this procedure, the _____________ lobe of the brain is disconnected from the rest of the brain.7. Today, most psychosurgery has been replaced by the use of _____________or some other form of treatment.