Notes-Module 53 (Social Thinking) Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations (p. 706-708)1. Psychologists who study how we think about, influence, and relate to one another are called _____________ ____________________.2. Heider’s theory of how we explain others’ behavior is the ___________________ theory. According to this theory, we attribute behavior either to an internal cause, which is called a _________________ ___________________, or to an external cause, which is called a _________ _____________________.3. Most people tend to ____________________ (overestimate/underestimate) the extent to which people’s actions are influenced by social situations because their __________________ is focused on the person. This tendency is called the ____________________ ______________________ _______________. When explaining our own behavior, or that of someone we know well, this tendency is ________________ (stronger/weaker). When observers view the world from others’ perspectives, attributions are ______________ (the same/reversed). Attitudes and Actions (p. 798-711)1. Beliefs and feelings that predispose our responses are called ______________.2. The many research studies on attitudes and actions conducted during the 1960s _________________ (challenged/supported) the common assumption that our actions are guided by our attitudes.3. Many research studies demonstrate that out attitudes are strongly influenced by our ___________________. One example of this is the tendency for people who agree to a small request to comply later with a larger one. This is the _____________-_________-_________-___________ phenomenon.4. When you follow the social prescriptions for how you should act as, say, a college student, you are adopting a ______________.5. Taking on a set of behaviors, or acting in a certain way, generally _________________ (changes/does not change) people’s attitudes.6. According to ______________ _________________ theory, thoughts and feelings change because people are motivated to justify actions that would otherwise seem hypocritical. This theory was proposed by _______________.7. Dissonance theory predicts that people induced (without coercion) to behave contrary to their true attitudes will be motivated to reduce the resulting ________________ by changing their ___________________. Notes-Module 54 (Social Influence) Conformity and Obedience (p. 713-719)1. The “chameleon effect” refers to our natural tendency to unconsciously ____________________ others’ expressions, postures, and voice tones. 2. Copycat violence is a serious example of the effects of ________________ on behavior.3. The term that refers to the tendency to adjust one’s behavior to coincide with an assumed group standard is _____________.4. The psychologist who first studied the effects of group pressure on conformity is ____________________.5. In this study, when the opinion of other group members was contradicted by objective evidence, subjects ________ (were/were not) willing to conform to the group opinion.6. One reason that people comply with social pressure is to gain approval or avoid rejection; this is called _________________ ________________ ____________________. Understood rules for accepted and expected behavior are called social ________________.7. Another reason people comply is that they have genuinely been influenced by what they have learned from others; this type of influence is called ________________ __________________ ________________.8. In one experiment, Robert Baron found that people were more likely to conform to the group’s judgments when the task was construed as _________________ (important/unimportant) and when it was _________ (easy/difficult).9. Conformity rates tend to be lower in __________________ (individualistic/collectivistic) cultures.10. The classic social psychology studies of obedience were conducted by _____________. When ordered by the experimenter to electrically shock the “learner,” the majority of participants (the “teachers”) in these studies _______________ (complied/refused). Recent studies have found that women’s compliance rates in similar situations were ______________ (higher than/lower than/similar to) men’s.11. In getting people to administer increasingly larger shocks, Milgram was in effect applying the __________-___________-_________-__________ technique. Group Influence (p. 719-723)1. The tendency to perform a task better when other people are present is called ___________________ ______________________. In general, people become aroused in the presence of others, and arousal enhances the correct response on a(n) ____________ (easy/difficult) task. Later research revealed that arousal strengthens the response that is most __________________ in a given situation.2. Researchers have found that the reactions of people in crowded situations are often ______________ (lessened/amplified).3. Ingham found that people worked ________________ (harder/less hard) in a team tug-of-war than they had in an individual contest. This phenomenon has been called _________________ __________________.4. The feeling of anonymity and loss of restraint that an individual may develop when in a group is called ____________________.5. Over time, the initial differences between groups usually ____________________ (increase/decrease).The enhancement of each group’s prevailing tendency is called _________________ ___________________.Future research studies will reveal whether electronic discussions on the ____________________ also demonstrate this tendency.6. When the desire for group harmony overrides realistic thinking in individuals, the phenomenon known as ____________________ has occurred. 7. In considering the power of social influence, we cannot overlook that interaction of _________________ _________________ (the power of the situation) and ________________ _______________ (the power of the individual).8. The power of one or two individuals to sway the opinion of the majority is called ________________ ________________.9. A minority opinion will have the most success in swaying the majority if it takes a stance that is ________________ (unswerving/flexible). Notes-Module 55 (Social Relations) Prejudice (p. 725-730)1. Prejudice is an _______________ and usually _____________ attitude toward a group that involves overgeneralized beliefs known as ___________________.2. Americans today express ___________ (less/the same/more) racial and gender prejudice than they did 50 years ago.3. Blatant forms of prejudice _____________ (have/have not) diminished. However, even people who deny holding prejudiced attitudes may carry negative __________________ about race or gender.4. Worldwide, _____________ (women/men) are more likely to live in poverty, and two-thirds of children without basic schooling are ___________ (girls/boys). However, people tend to perceive women as being more ___________________ and _____________, and less ________________ than men.5. For those with money, power, and prestige, prejudice often serves as a means of _________ social inequities.6. Discrimination increases prejudice through the tendency of people to ______________ victims for their plight.7. Through our _________________ ________________, we associated ourselves with certain groups.8. Prejudice is often fostered by the _____________ ______________, a tendency to favor groups to which one belongs—called the ______________--while excluding others, or the ____________. Research studies also reveal that the terror of facing _______________ tends to heighten aggression toward people who threaten one’s __________________.9. That prejudice derives from attempts to blame others for one’s frustration is proposed by the ________________ theory. People who feel loved and supported become more _______________ to and _________________ of those who differ from them.10. Research suggests that prejudice may also derive from ________________, the process by which we attempt to simplify our world by classifying people into groups. One by-product of this process is that people tend to ________________ the similarity of those within a group. 11. Another factor that fosters the formation of the group stereotypes and prejudice is the tendency to _________________ from vivid or memorable cases.12. The belief that people get what they deserve—that the good are rewarded and the bad are punished—is expressed in the _____________ ______________ phenomenon. This phenomenon is based in part on ________________ _______________, the tendency to believe that one would have foreseen how something turned out. Aggression (p. 730-737)1. Aggressive behavior is defined by the text as:2. Freud believed that people have a self-destructive __________________ __________________ that is manifested as aggression when it is _______________ toward others. Today, most psychologists _________ (do/do not) consider human aggression to be instinctive.3. In humans, aggressiveness ___________ (varies/does not vary) greatly from culture to culture and person to person.4. That there are genetic influences on aggression can be shown by the fact that many species of animals have been ___________________ for aggressiveness.5. Twin studies suggest that genes __________ (do/do not) influence human aggression. One genetic marker of those who commit the most violence is the ___________________ chromosome. Studies of violent criminals reveal diminished activity in the brain’s ________________ ______________, which play an important role in controlling _______________.6. In humans and animals, aggression is activated and inhibited by __________________ systems, such as those in the ______________ ________________, which are in turn influenced by ______________ and other substances in the blood. 7. The aggressive behavior of animals can be manipulated by altering the levels of the hormone _________________. When this level is _______________ (increased/decreased), aggressive tendencies are reduced.8. High levels of testosterone correlate with _________________, low tolerance for _________________, and ________________. Among teenage boys and adult men, high testosterone also correlates with ________________, hard _______________ _________________, and aggressive responses to ___________________. With age, testosterone levels-and aggressiveness- _____________ (increase/decrease). 9. One drug that unleashes aggressive responses to provocation is __________________.10. According to the _________________ _________________ principle, inability to achieve a goal leads to anger, which may generate aggression.11. Aggressive behavior can be learned through _________________, as shown by the fact that people use aggression where they’ve found it pays, and though ___________________ of others.12. Crime rates are higher in countries in which there is a large disparity between those who are _______________ and those who are ______________.High violence rates also are typical of cultures and families in which there is minimal _________________ __________________.13. Violence on television tends to __________________ people to cruelty and _______________ them to respond aggressively when they are provoked.14. A woman’s risk of rape is generally _____________ (greater/less) today than it was half a century ago. Most rapes ___________ (are/are not) reported.15. Studies of pornography and aggression _______________ (generally/do not generally) show a relationship between availability of pornography and the incidence of sexual aggression. 16. Experiments have shown that it is not eroticism but depictions of ________________ ____________________ that most directly affect men’s acceptance and performance of aggression against women. Such depictions may create ________________ _________________ to which people respond when they are in new situations or are uncertain how to act.17. Research studies of the impact of violent video games _______________ (confirm/disconfirm) the idea that we feel better if we “blow off steam” by venting our emotions. This idea is the ______________ ______________. Playing violent video games increases _________________ ______________, _________________, and ___________________. Conflicts (p. 737-739)1. A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas is called __________. This perception can take place between individuals, ________________, or _________________.2. Two destructive social processes that contribute to conflict are _____________ _______________ and _________________ perceptions.3. When the “non-zero-sum-game” is played, most people fall into the social trap by mistrusting the other player and pursuing their own _____________________.4. The diabolical images people in conflict form of each other are called _________________-_________________ perceptions.5. Several psychological tendencies foster biased perceptions. First, people tend to accept credit for good deeds but not blame for bad deeds, a phenomenon called the _______________ ________________. Second, conflicting parties tend to attribute the other’s actions to a negative disposition and example of the _________________ _________________ _________________. Preconceived attitudes, or ___________________, also contribute to the problem, as does the ______________________ that often emerges within a group as the members’ attitudes become _______________. Attraction (p. 739-745)1. A prerequisite for, and perhaps the most powerful predictor of, attraction is __________________.2. When people are repeatedly exposed to unfamiliar stimuli, their liking of the stimuli ______________ (increases/decreases). This phenomenon is the ________________ __________________ effect. Robert Zajonc contends that this phenomenon was ________________ for our ancestors, for whom the unfamiliar was often dangerous. One implication of this is that ____________________ against those who are culturally different may be a primitive, _________________, emotional response.3. Our first impression of another person is most influenced by the person’s __________________.4. In a sentence, list several of the characteristics that physically attractive people are judged to possess: 5. A person’s attractiveness __________ (is/is not) strongly related to his or her self-esteem or happiness. Since 1970, the number of women unhappy with their appearance has ____________ (increased/decreased/remained stable).6. Cross-cultural research reveals that men judge women as more attractive if they have a _____________ appearance, whereas women judge men who appear _______________, __________________, and _______________ as more attractive.7. People also seem to prefer physical features that are neither unusually ______________ or ___________________. Average faces, which tend to be _______________, are judged to be more sexually attractive.8. Relationships in which the partners are very similar are ________ (more/less) likely to last.9. Compared with strangers, friends and couples are more likely to be similar in terms of: 10. Hatfield has distinguished two types of love: ________________ love and _______________ love.11. According to the two-factor theory, emotions have two components: physical ________________ and a _______________ label.12. When college men were placed in an aroused state, their feelings toward an attractive woman ___________ (were/were not) more positive than those of men who had not been aroused.13. Companionate love is promoted by ____________________--mutual sharing and giving by both partners. Another key ingredient of loving relationships is the revealing of intimate aspects of ourselves through __________________. Altruism (p. 747)1. An unselfish regard for the welfare of others is called ___________________.2. According to Darley and Latane’, people will help only if a three-stage decision-making process is completed: Bystanders must first _______________ the incident, then ______________ it is an emergency, and finally _____________ _____________ for helping. 3. When people who overheard a seizure victim calling for help thought others were hearing the same plea, they were __________ (more/less) likely to go to his aid than when they thought no one else was aware of the emergency.4. In a series of staged accidents, Latane’ and Darley found that a bystander was _____________ (more/less) likely to help if other bystanders were present. This phenomenon has been called the _________________ ___________________.5. The idea that social behavior aims to maximize rewards and minimize costs is proposed by ________________ __________________ theory.6. One rule of social behavior tells us to return help to those who have helped us; this is the ___________________ norm. Another tells us to help those who need our help; this is the _________________ __________________ norm. Peacemaking (p. 747-750)1. Conflict resolution is most likely in situations characterized by __________________, __________________, and ____________________.2. In most situations, establishing contact between two conflicting groups _______ (is/is not) sufficient to resolve conflict.3. In Sherif’s study, two conflicting groups of campers were able to resolve their conflicts by working together on projects in which they shared _______________ goals. Shared _________________ breed solidarity, as demonstrated by a surge in use of the word _______________ in the weeks after 9/11.4. When conflicts arise, a third-party ___________________ may facilitate communication and promote understanding.5. Osgood has advanced a strategy of conciliation called GRIT, which stands for ___________________ and _________________ ________________ in ___________________-_________________. The key to this method is each side’s offering of a small __________________ gesture in order to increase mutual trust and cooperation.