Anything that has mass and takes up space is called Matter
Matter comes in different forms and has certain properties.
What are the different states of matter?
Solids are made of atoms bound solidly with their neighboring atoms. They keep a set shape due to this tight "hugging" of atoms.
Liquids are made of atoms bound loosely with their neighboring atoms. The flow and settle to the shape of their container due to the loose "hand-holding" of atoms.
Gases are made of atoms not bound to other atoms. They flow and move freely due to their lack of bonds with their neighboring atoms.
Anything can be found in any one of these states of matter.
All you have to do to change the state of matter is change the energy. Cool water and it solidifies into ice; heat it and it vaporizes into steam.
Later this year we will explore liquid air!
What is BEC? What is plasma?
So plasma is when there is so much energy that the atoms fall apart into the charged particals that they are composed of. In our analogy that would be your limbs running around separately. Awesome, but not found much here on Earth. The sun is made of plasma though.
Bose-Einstein Supersolid Condensate is when the atoms are so cold and compressed that they behave as one atom instead of separate atoms (i.e. no resistence to electricity).
These states of matter have certain properties.
Some of the properties of matter are density, hardness, temperature of state change, color, smell, burnable, reactivity, transparency, etc.
Some properties depend on the state of matter (i.e. something might be blue in liquid form but white in solid form and transparent in gas form)
So lets begin with solids:
Solids connect in set structures:
Liquids have properties too:
Remember that liquids are only "holding hands" and that is loose, but how loose depends on the liquid and gives the liquid cool properties like:
Adhesion is when a liquid sticks (adheres) to something else (think adhesive tape).
Cohesion is when a liquid sticks to itself. (co- means similar)
Another property is dissolvability
Let's explore gases...
Does air have mass?
How much space do gases take up?
Since both liquids and gases flow, they are called fluids and share some cool properties.
One was discovered by this man:
As he climbed into the tub one day, water overflowed. But how much water came out? That is what was so cool. The weight of the water that came out equaled his weight.
In other words, he discovered that an object will float in a fluid when it displaces its weight of that fluid.
You float in water when you displace your weight of water. You would float in the air if you swelled to displace your weight of air.
This means that just about anything can float with the right shape. But what is the best shape. Let's experiment...
Another property of fluids is Pressure. Pressure is the force pushing on an object equally in all directions:
Mathematically, pressure is force / area
But we will wait until we learn about force for this one.
Another brilliant man discovered another property of fluids:
Daniel Bernoulli discovered something that
has to be seen to be believed...
Bernoulli's principle states:
A moving fluid exerts less force on an object.
This also means that the faster a fluid moves, the less force it exerts.
Bernoulli discovered that the faster a fluid is moving the less force it exerts.
You can think of it as blowing the fluid away from one side so only the fluid on the other sides push on the object --> therefore the object moves toward the faster moving fluid.
This allows flight and curve balls and other cool effects.
All matter has mass and takes up space so a property shared by all matter is density.
Mathmatically, density is Mass / Volume
Are you ready for the test?
List some properties of matter.
What are the states of matter?
What are the processes of conversion?
Contrast adhesion and cohesion.
Define viscosity, fluid, and solvent.
State Archimedes' principle.
How does pressure change with height?
State Bernoulli's principle.
Apply both principles to life.