Rocks and minerals images

Rocks and minerals


What are rocks and minerals?
How are they formed?
What are the different types of rocks and minerals?




A rock is any naturally occurring and coherent solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter.


Naturally occuing means that they may be made by animals (pearls or ivory), but not by humans.  


Coherent means that it is united and consistent.


Aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter means that rocks are made up of smaller substances called minerals.


Rocks are usually categorized by the minerals in them, their chemical composition, or the way in which they are formed.


Rocks are usually grouped into three main groups: igneous rocks, metamorphic rocks and sedimentary rocks based on how they are made.


Minerals are naturally occurring, homogeneous, inorganic solids having a characteristic chemical composition and crystalline structure.

There are lots of minerals.  We will look at some of the more important ones in this unit.


Homogeneous means that the minerals are uniform and all alike within.


Inorganic means that they are not produced by living things (ivory, pearls, petrified trees, amber, etc.)


A characteristic chemical composition and crystalline structure means that the chemicals inside them bind in predictable and dependable ways forming a crystal structure.  



Let's look more closely at some of the more common rocks and minerals.  

We'll begin with rocks based on how they are formed:


Igneous - created by cooling of molten rock

Sedimentary - created by cementation of small sediments of rock

Metamorphic - created by partial melting and squishing due to intense heat and pressure


Image result for rock cycle

As you can see from this, the same materials on Earth's surface keep getting recycled and change forms.  The Earth is dynamic (ever changing).  


Let's begin with the first rocks...igneous:

There are two types of magma, so there are two types of igneous rocks...Mafic (dark and heavy) and Felsic (light).

Also, these rocks could be cooled slowly underground and get big crystals or erupt and form so quickly that they have tiny crystals:

Image result for igneous rocks chart

Know Granite, Pumice, Gabbro, Basalt, Scoria, and Obsidion


Image result for igneous rocks chart


Now let's look at sedimentary rocks:

These rocks are cemented from sediments of other rocks.  They are defined by what sediment makes up the rock.  Sand sediment makes sandstone...salt makes halite...clay makes shale...etc.

These rocks are made gently and preserve footprints and fossils best.

Image result for sedimentary rocks chart

Know shale, sandstone, conglomerate, limestone, halite.  Coal and gypsum are also to be known, but coal is usually considered metamorphic and gypsum a pure mineral.



Now let's look at metamorphic rocks:

These are created by adding significant heat and pressure to other rocks.  They are characterized by what rock they started as as well as how much of their minerals melted and reformed.

Image result for metamorphic rocks chart

Know slate, schist, gneiss, marble, and coal.

Image result for metamorphic rocks chart


Image result for metamorphic rocks




Let's look closer at some of the minerals making up those rocks:

These minerals may be sorted and organized in myriad ways (hardness, cleavage, shape, color, properties, etc.)


Image result for mohs hardness scale

Image result for minerals

Image result for minerals


Know sulfur, biotite, muscovite, magnetite, agate, turquoise, azurite, malachite, hematite, talc, gypsum, calcite, flourite, feldspar, quartz, amethyst, rose quartz, smoky quartz, olivine, galena, topaz, garnet, corundum, iron pyrite, graphite, diamond, jade, copper.


Are you ready for the test?

Define rock, mineral, and ore.
How would you tell is an igneous rock were mafic, felsic, intrusive, or extrusive?
    What does the texture tell us about the rock's formation?
Which type of rock would you most likely find fossils in?
What causes metamorphism?
    Describe the effects of metamorphism.
Draw the rock cycle.

Identify rocks!

Granite, Granite and Granodiorite FAQ - Golden Gate National Recreation Area (U.S.  National Park Service)Salt and pepper appearance, light in color, large grain size

Pumice, Pumice - My rock familyLight in color, full of holes, floats in water, tiny grain size

Gabbro, Geology - rocks and mineralsDark in color, large grain size

Basalt, Basalt Rock Images, Stock Photos & Vectors | ShutterstockDark in color, tiny grain size

Scoria, Scoria: Igneous Rock - Pictures, Definition & MoreDark in color, full of holes, tiny grain size

Obsidian, Obsidian: Igneous Rock - Pictures, Uses, PropertiesBlack, glassy, conchoidal fracture (sharp, circular breaks), tiny grains

shale, Shale: Sedimentary Rock - Pictures, Definition & MoreLayers of clay

sandstone, Sandstone ~ Learning GeologySand cemented together, sometimes layered, bite sand

conglomerate, Geology - rocks and mineralsMix of grain sizes cemented together

limestone, Limestone: Rock Uses, Formation, Composition, PicturesLight in color, bubbles with acid

halite, Halite Crystals Inowroclaw Mine Bydgoszcz, Poland #6112972Clear, rectangles, salty

slate, Should I Replace My Slate Roof with a Synthetic? (U.S. National Park  Service)Hard, shiny layers of clay (some metamorphism)

schist, Schist: Metamorphic Rock - Pictures, Definition & MoreShiny rock (metamorphism pulled out the mica)

gneiss, Geology - rocks and mineralsMangled layers / bands

marble, Marble: Metamorphic Rock: Pictures, Definition, PropertiesHard, shiny, light in color, bubbles in acid

coal, Coal Rock | History | OriginBlack, lightweight, streaks black, burns easily

sulfur, Sulfur | Rock & Gem MagazineYellow, burns blue

biotite, Biotite Mineral | Uses and PropertiesThin, flat, dark layers 

muscovite, Muscovite Mineral Information photos and Facts, gemsThin, flat, light layers

magnetite, Magnetite & Lodestone | Mineral Photos, Uses, Propertiesusually heavy and dark, always magnetic

agate, Tiger's-Eye Gemstones | Tiger Eye Beads, Jewelry, Tumbled StonesTiger eye moving light patch

turquoise, Decorative Pebbles 100g Blue Turquoise Rock Polished Rough  Healing Nugget Gemstone Mineral Specimen Garden Patio Decorations:  Everything ElseLight blue

azurite, Azurite Meaning & Use: Aids Third Eye Activation & Psychic GiftsBlue rock

malachite, Malachite Tumbled Stone Gemstone Crystal Healing Rock Wiccan  Supplies/Black Velvet Bag/Info Sheet by GYPSY PALACE: Health & Personal CareGreen rock

hematite, Hematite Value, Price, and Jewelry Information - International Gem SocietyMay be polished silver or natural red, always streaks red

talc, The Mineral Talc: Uses, Properties, PhotosSoft enough to rub off the powdered rock with finger

gypsum, Gypsum Mineral | Uses and PropertiesWhite and soft (fingernail will scratch it)

calcite, calcite minerals Manufacturer in Chennai Tamil Nadu India by Jay Jay  Agencies | ID - 4981765Clear, squished square, doubles images

fluorite, Green Fluorite Crystal OctahedronTranslucent and green

Apatite,Geology - rocks and minerals

feldspar, Feldspar Images, Stock Photos & Vectors | ShutterstockPink and edgy

quartz, Quartz: The mineral Quartz information and picturesClear and translucent, hard

amethyst, The Origin of Amethysts May Leave You All Tingly - Scientific American Blog  NetworkPurple quartz

rose quartz, Rough Rose Quartz Crystal Rocks Natural Stones 1KG Home  Decoration: Home & KitchenPink quartz

smoky quartz, SMOKY QUARTZGrey quartz

olivine, e-Rocks Mineral AuctionsOlive green rock

galena, Galena Mineral | Uses and PropertiesSilver and cubical, smells like sulfur with acid

topaz, Topaz Mineral Information photos and Facts, gem TopazTranslucent brown, very hard

garnet, Garnet: Mineral, January birthstone, abrasive, filter mediaDark red, edgy

corundum, Corundum: Use as a Gemstone, Abrasive, RefractoryExtremely hard, ruby and sapphire

iron pyrite, Iron Pyrite or Fools Gold Meaning & Uses: Enhances Energy & VitalityGold in color, squared, hard

graphite, Graphite: A mineral with extreme properties and many usesGrey and streaks grey very easily

diamond, Diamond: A gem mineral with properties for industrial useClear, refractory, hardest

jade, Photographs of mineral No. 34565: Jade from Jade Cove, Monterey County,  California Milky green

copper, Oxidized Copper Mass - The Mineral and Gemstone KingdomGreen or brown, metallic

Flint, Flint Rock Images, Stock Photos & Vectors | ShutterstockEasily broken