Rocks and minerals
What are rocks and minerals?
How are they formed?
What are the different types of rocks and minerals?
A rock is a naturally occurring and coherent aggragate of minerals.
There are three major classifications of rocks:
Igneous - created by cooling of molten rock
Sedimentary - created by cementation of small sediments of rock
Metamorphic - created by partial melting and squishing due to intense heat and pressure
Let's begin with the first rocks...igneous:
There are two types of magma, so there are two types of igneous rocks...Mafic (dark and heavy) and Felsic (light).
Also, these rocks could be cooled slowly underground and get big crystals or erupt and form so quickly that they have tiny crystals:
Know Granite, Pumice, Gabbro, Basalt, Scoria, and Obsidion
Now let's look at sedimentary rocks:
These rocks are cemented from sediments of other rocks. They are defined by what sediment makes up the rock. Sand sediment makes sandstone...salt makes halite...clay makes shale...etc.
Know shale, sandstone, conglomerate, limestone, halite. Coal and gypsum are also to be known, but coal is usually considered metamorphic and gypsum a pure mineral.
Now let's look at metamorphic rocks:
These are created by adding significant heat and pressure to other rocks. They are characterized by what rock they started as as well as how much of their minerals melted and reformed.
Know slate, schist, gneiss, marble, and coal.
Minerals are naturally occurring, homogeneous, inorganic solids having a characteristic chemical composition and crystalline structure.
There are lots of minerals. We will look at some of the more important ones:
Most of what we will be looking at are rocks of uniform mineral content.
Know sulfur, biotite, muscovite, magnetite, agate, turquoise, azurite, malachite, hematite, talc, gypsum, calcite, flourite, feldspar, quartz, amethyst, rose quartz, smoky quartz, olivine, galena, topaz, garnet, corundum, iron pyrite, graphite, diamond, jade, copper.
Are you ready for the test?
Define rock, mineral, and ore.
How would you tell is an igneous rock were mafic, felsic, intrusive, or extrusive?
What does the texture tell us about the rock's formation?
Which type of rock would you most likely find fossils in?
What causes metamorphism?
Describe the effects of metamorphism.
Draw the rock cycle.