Unit 2 Cells

OVERVIEW:

By taking on the role of a cell biologist, students will be able to relate cell structure to cell function (specifically: cell membrane, nucleus, chloroplasts, cytoplasm, and mitochondria). Students will understand that cells take in nutrients in order to grow, divide, make needed materials, and reproduce. They will demonstrate understanding of the levels of cellular organization and the relationship among cells, tissues, organs, and systems.

All living organisms are made of cells, and most organisms have specialized cells that perform different functions. Thus, most organisms have many types of cells. Still, there are some similarities between all animal cells, just as there are some similarities between all plant cells. Animal cells have organelles such as a nucleus, cell membrane, and mitochondria. Plant cells have all of the organelles listed for animal cells, plus the presence of chloroplasts where photosynthesis takes place, cell walls that give the plant cell more structure, and a large central vacuole that stores water (also proteins and/or crystals) and helps give the plant rigidity. Most cells are too small to see with the naked eye, but with the aid of a microscope, many can be viewed. The use of cell wall and central vacuole are for the purposes of comparing plant and animal cells. Focus for standard S7L2 is still on the organelles listed.

Focus Standard(s):

S7L2: Students will describe the structure and function of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.


a. Explain that cells take in nutrients in order to grow and divide and to make needed materials.
b. Relate cell structures (cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, mitochondria) to basic cell functions.
c. Explain that cells are organized into tissues, tissues into organs, organs into systems, and systems into organisms.


Supporting Standard(s):

S7L4 Students will examine the dependence of organisms on one another and their environments.

c. Recognize that changes in environmental conditions can affect the survival of both individuals and entire species.

S7L2 Students will describe the structure and function of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.

d. Explain that tissues, organs, and organ systems serve the needs cells have for oxygen, food, and waste removal.                                     e. Explain the purpose of the major organ systems in the human body.