Effects can be physical, mental or more often a combination of the two. 

Jane, for example, is a 13-year-old, female, showing changes in weight, complaints of feeling ill, isolation from peers, defiance, irritability, lack of interest, poor time management, and follow-through. 


Other effects often appear as the following: 

Complaints of feeling sick, school absence, lack of participation, sleepiness, 

Isolation from peers, problems with social skills, defiance

Difficulty concentrating on tasks/activities

Poor work completion

Forgetting to complete assignments, difficulty concentrating

Difficulties with planning, organizing, and executing tasks

Refusing to complete work, missing deadlines

Facial expressions or body language indicating depression or sadness

Working slowly


Easily hurt feelings, crying, anger

Poor performance and follow-through on tasks

Distractability, restlessness

Separation anxiety from parents or caregiver

(Crundwel & Killu, 2010)