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ED HEADS SIMPLE MACHINES


Archives: Past Events and Projects

 

Science Units:


Links for Current Topic (click on them):

Water Cycle Graphic

Water Cycle and Global Warming Explained

Water Cycle Game

 


 

Newton’s  Laws of Motion:

1st  Law:
An object at rest  tends (velocity= O) tends to stay at rest and an object in motion moves in a straight line at a constant speed unless a force changes its course.


2nd  Law:
When a force is applied to an object it changes it’s momentum. The force moves the object in the same direction as the force is moving.


3rd  Law:
When an object exerts a force on another object, the second object will push back just as hard.
 
Stated in more simple terms……


For every action, there is an opposite yet equal reaction.

 


 


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A wheel and axle game .....click here

The working pickles, wheels and screws...here

The wedge....splitting rock  .....here

The inclined plane  ...here

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Complete the chapter crossword puzzle Here.

Learn about Levers here.

 

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Notes for Studyguide book: (3/25)

Simple Machine- A machine with few moving parts or no parts at all.

Mechanical Advantage- The number of times a machine multiplies the force applied. 

Effort Force- Force you apply to a simple machine.

Resistive Force- The Force against which the machine acts.

Output Force- Force the machine applies to object after we supply the effort force.

   Incline Plane- A straight , slanted surface. They multiply the effort force needed to lift an object. 

 Pulley- A rope fits over a grooved wheel, the wheel turns when rope moves over it. 

Pulley Systems- Several pulleys acting together. They allow a mechanical advantage to occur. 

Lever: levers have a rigid bar that rests on a pivot point called a fulcrum. There are 3 classes of levers. 

Wheel and axle-

 

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Review of Levers.....Fill out the worksheet.....begin here.

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Visit Park World.......here.

Build a compound machine, the game begins here.

Build a Rube Goldberg Machine....You might have to install a shockwave player first....begin here.

Play Tinker Ball.....here.

Incline Plane- A straight , slanted surface. They multiply the effort force needed to lift an object.

 

Work-Force X Distance

 

An example of an inclined plan is a ramp.

 

The M.A. of an inclined plane is the output force divided by the input force.

 

Long ramp, less steep = less effort

 

Shorter ramp, more steep= more effort

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Newton’s  Laws of Motion:

1st  Law:
An object at rest  tends (velocity= O) tends to stay at rest and an object in motion moves in a straight line at a constant speed unless a force changes its course.


2nd  Law:
When a force is applied to an object it changes it’s momentum. The force moves the object in the same direction as the force is moving.


3rd  Law:
When an object exerts a force on another object, the second object will push back just as hard.
 
Stated in more simple terms……


For every action, there is an opposite yet equal reaction.

 


 


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A wheel and axle game .....click here

The working pickles, wheels and screws...here

The wedge....splitting rock  .....here

The inclined plane  ...here

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Complete the chapter crossword puzzle Here.

Learn about Levers here.

 

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Notes for Studyguide book: (3/25)

Simple Machine- A machine with few moving parts or no parts at all.

Mechanical Advantage- The number of times a machine multiplies the force applied. 

Effort Force- Force you apply to a simple machine.

Resistive Force- The Force against which the machine acts.

Output Force- Force the machine applies to object after we supply the effort force.

   Incline Plane- A straight , slanted surface. They multiply the effort force needed to lift an object. 

 Pulley- A rope fits over a grooved wheel, the wheel turns when rope moves over it. 

Pulley Systems- Several pulleys acting together. They allow a mechanical advantage to occur. 

Lever: levers have a rigid bar that rests on a pivot point called a fulcrum. There are 3 classes of levers. 

Wheel and axle-

 

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Review of Levers.....Fill out the worksheet.....begin here.

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Visit Park World.......here.

Build a compound machine, the game begins here.

Build a Rube Goldberg Machine....You might have to install a shockwave player first....begin here.

Play Tinker Ball.....here.

Incline Plane- A straight , slanted surface. They multiply the effort force needed to lift an object.

 

Work-Force X Distance

 

An example of an inclined plan is a ramp.

 

The M.A. of an inclined plane is the output force divided by the input force.

 

Long ramp, less steep = less effort

 

Shorter ramp, more steep= more effort

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice Mitosis: Click Here

Mitosis to Music: Click Here

 

Cell Camera Interactive Click Here

 

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 P. B38
 
Life Cycle- All the stages of a living thing's development from one generation to the next
 
Reproduction- The process that a living thing uses to produce more of its own kind.
 
 Stages of Life: Birth, Infancy, Growth and Development (Childhood. Adolescence, and Adulthood)
 
 
Metamorphosis- Occurs when animals change from one form to a completely different form.
 
Cell Cycle- Made up of a time of growth and a time of dividing. 
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Fleming was German scientist who first observed cells in various stages, or phases of cell division.
 
 
Mitosis- The gradual, continuous process in which the nucleus divides. A second set of chromosomes is formed inside the cell.
 
 
 

 

When the cell splits and produces two new cells, each set of chromosomes goes to a new cell.

 

 

Phases of Mitosis

Interphase

 

 

 

 

Nucleus is clearly seen
Chromosomes make copies of themselves.
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Prophase

 

 

 

 
 
Chromosomes become visible
Membrane around nucleus begins to disappear.
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Metaphase

 

 

Chromosome pairs line up along the middle of the cell.

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Anaphase

 

 

 

Chromosome pairs split apart and begin to move to opposite sides of the cell.

 

Telophase

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes
Each new nucleus has the same number of chromosomes as the original cell
Cytoplasm divides
Two new cells are formed
 

 

 

 


The nuclear membrane breaks down during prophase because the nucleus is preparing to divide.  

 

The nuclear membrane forms during telophase because the nucleus has divided and the membrane helps filter what reaches the nucleus of each new cell.  

 

Why is each stage (phase) necessary for mitosis to occur?  Each stage is a step in the process, if one does not occur mitosis will not happen.


  Meiosis: The process in which the nucleus of a sex cell divides twice. The final sex cells have  only half as many chromosomes as the other cells in an organism , 23 chromosomes. 

Interphase Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Meiosis II Anaphase II Telophase II
 Cell replicates its chromosomes               Chromosomes become visible, membrane around nucleus begins to disappear. Pairs of chromosomes line up Pairs of chromosomes separate Cell divides 2nd divisionOf meiosis,mitosis of the products Of the first division of meiosis Pairs of chromosomes separate Cell divides again

 


Meiosis Video: Click Here

Meiosis Video (2): Click Here


Links for Building Electric Motors, Magnets, and Other Electricity Projects:

Motors #1

Magnetics and More

Projects and Experiments

 

 

 

 

 


 

 ELECTRICITY

 

p. E94

 

All matter is made up of atoms----atoms are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons.

 

 

Protons- positive charge

 

Electrons- negative charge

 

 

Under proper conditions, they can transmit energy in the form of electricity.

 

  

When two different materials are brought into close contact, some of the electrons move from one material onto the other causing the material to become electrically charged.

 

 

 

 

 Material that loses some of it electrons becomes positively charged because it has fewer electrons than protons.

 

 

 

 

 

Static Electricity result when electrons move from one place to another and cause a build up of separated positive and negative charges.

 

 

 

 

 

Develops 2 Ways:

1) On two different materials that have touched.

2) Can develop in different parts of a single materials.

 

 

Pos. charge and neg. charge will pull each other.

 

 

Oposite charges will attract, like charges will repel.

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-

 

Cold and Dry air of winter will enhance an static charge.

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(Don't write this part down) 

Discussion:

 Shocking, Mr. Wellman's cats, gas station warning signs,lightning rods,  Walmart coolers

What is it? Click Here

A simple explanation....Click Here

 

Static Electricity at gas station: Click Here

Static Fires: Click Here

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An Induced Charge is a static charge that results when charged object causes the pos. and neg.  charges in a neaby object to move apart.

 

(We will read and discuss pictures on p. E100)

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Conductor- Anything that allows electrons to move through it fairly easily.

 

 Examples: Metals, water, human tissue.

 

 

Insulator- Any material that do not allow electrons to move through it freely.

 

Examples: Plaster, Plastics.

 

 

How Electricity is Grounded:

The grounding wire of an appliance connects the metal case to the ground through the household wiring.

 

The ground wire conducts electricity easily and will reduce the excess charge and make charge less dangerous.

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  • Lightning is produced by Static Electricity.
  • The combination of water, ice, and motion gives the lower part a thunderstorm cloud a negative charge. The ground below acquires a positive charge.
  • When the attraction between negative and positive charges grows great enough, negative charges surge along a conductive path from the cloud to the ground.
  • The surge heats the air to glowing and a flash can be seen.
  • This same heat also makes the air expand rapidly and we can hear a loud clap.

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Video on static charges: Click Here

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Friday January 9, 2009

-Try the Lightning Interactive: Click Here

 -Try the Tornado Interactive: Click Here.

Read about Static Electricity, Static Cling, and Fly Away Hair........Click Here.

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Read about Generating Static Electricity....Click Here

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Read the Lesson Summary .....Click Here.

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Complete the Fill-in-Blanks for the Lesson....Click Here

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-More Stuff.....Click Here

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Notes for Monday 1-12-09

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Circuit- A path along which charged particles can travel.

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Electrons- The charged particles that move through wires and bulbs.

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The source of electricity will push and pull the electrons through the circuit.

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Current- The flow of charged particles (electrons) moving through a circuit.

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Simple circuits are made up of an electricity source, devices, and connecting wires.

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As the voltage in a source of electricity becomes greater, more negative energy and more positive charges can build up at either end.

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* Draw the simple circuit in your notebook that is on page E108.

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Resistor- Part that opposes a flow of electrons and makes  the current smaller.

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A resistor grows warmer as current is reduced.

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A very conductive path that bypasses less conductive parts of a circuit is called a short circuit.

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Notes for Tuesday 1-13-09

Series Circuits:

A series circuit is made when batteries are connected in a series.

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The voltage of the batteries adds together which results in  an increased crowding of electrons at the negative end of one battery and increased removal of electrons at the positive end of the other. This means that there will be more force on electrons that tends to produce more current.

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A parallel circuit is a circuit with more than one path for current. Total current increases when another path is added even though another resistor is present.

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Open circuit- A circuit that is incomplete. There is a gap in the current path and electrons do not make a full path.Devices will not operate when there is an open circuit.

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Closed circuit- A circuit with a complete unbroken path (no gap), the current flow freely  from battery, along wires, and to devices making them operate.

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Switch- a device used to open and close a circuit easily (bridges the gap).

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Switch

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On- closes circuit, current flows.

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Off- opens the circuit, current stops.

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Wednesday, January 14, 2009

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Computer Sites:

Circuits

Simple Circuits

Circuit Types & Experiments

Building Circuits

Build Your Own Circuit(advanced)

Quiz 

Silicone Spies

 

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Tuesday January 20, 2009

Quiz Board Projects

 Here are the links I promised to supply for the weekend. You may also do some free searching on the internet....use this as your main search words: quiz board science project.

Links:

Quiz Boards

Quiz Board 2a

Quiz Boardb

Quiz Board 3

Quiz Board 4

Quiz Board 5

Quiz Board 6

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Magnets:

-Common magnets attract metal objects made of iron, cobalt, or nickel.

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Magnets attract or repel other magnets.

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Magnets have two poles:

  1. A north seeking pole
  2. A south seeking pole

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A north seeking pole will point to Earth's North-Pole (when magnet is spinning freely). South seeking pole will then point to Earth's South-Pole.

Attract and repel:

North-South: Attract

North-North: Repel

South-North: Attract

South-South: Repel

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The attraction or repulsion is strongest at the poles.

 

Compasses:

A north seeking pole will point towards Earth's North Pole.

 -

Magnetism is produced from the motions of electrons in atoms.

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The moving electrons cause each atom to act as a tiny magnet.

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Atoms in an entire object line line up in the same direction (p E119 picture).

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-Electromagnet- a device made magnetic by electric current.

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A magnet field is the area around a magnet in which other magnets can feel attraction or repulsion.

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Scientists draw arrows to represent magnetic fields around a magnet.

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Compass:

  • Compass needles pointing north show us that earth has a magnetic field. The needle always points magnetic north.
  • Compass is a thin bar magnet. The needle is free to spin.
  • Location of Earth's magnetic poles are about 11 degrees off the true geographic North and South poles.
  • Earth's magnetism is most likely caused by electric currents in a fluid metal layer in earth's inner core.

 -

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Electric Motors (p. E122)

  • Spinning force in an electric motor comes from an electromagnet.
  • A loop of wire is placed in the field between two permanent magnets.
  • Current passes through the wire, the loop becomes an electromagnet and rotates between the permanent magnets.
  •  

 

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The magnetism in iron, cobalt, or nickel is unusual because the atoms in them line up. In most other materials, the magnetism from the motions of the electrons in the atoms cancels out.

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MRI - Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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A patient's body is surrounded by a very strong magnetic field produced by electromagnets.

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The nuclei of certain atoms inside the patient's body act like little magnets.

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The nuclei absorb radio waves beamed at them and return radio waves of their own.

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MRI Video : Click Here

MRI Safety Video: Click Here

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Making Sound:

The electromagnet at the narrow end of a speaker's cone sits in the field of a permanent magnent.

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The sound to be reproduced is fed to the  electromagnet as bursts of current.

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The spacing between the bursts of current matches the spacing between the sound waves in the recording.

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The back-and-forth motion of the electromagnet makes the speaker cone diaphragm vibrate, producing sound.

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We are studying Isaac Newton and The 3 Laws of Motion. We have been visiting interactive site that allow us to adjust mass, force, velocity, angles, etc and see how those adjustments impact motion.                           


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Above: An example of an incline plane, a C-clamp with threads

 

 

 

 

 

Below: A 1926 Model T jack brought in by Matthew shows how simple machine  combine to make a complex machine.....We found gears, screws, and a lever all at work in this jack.

 

 

 
 
 
 
 

 

 

Below: Matthew presents the jack and shows us how it works. A special thank you to Matthew's father who allowed us the chance to see this jack.

 

 

 

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Above: Demonstrating a pulley system...This one has four pulleys in it. 

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Above: Demonstrating a moveable pulley system. This one has Two pulleys and multiplies your applied effort force by 2.....making objects easier to lift. 

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Lever games......click here.

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2008-03-10

Read p F72-75

Mechanical Advantage- The number of times a machine multiplies the force applied.

 

Pulley- A rope fits over a grooved wheel, the wheel turns when rope moves over it.

 

Pulley Systems- Several pulleys acting together. They allow a mechanical advantage to occur.

 

Pulleys change the direction of force.

 

A fixed pulley does not multiply the effort force.

 

Pulleys make lifting, positioning, and moving easier.

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View different types of pulleys and examine their mechanical advantages here.

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 Medieval Levers: Build a Medieval weapon using levers. You have to have the sound on to appreciate this.

 Raise A Stone:  Use weights and supports to raise a stone. Hint- you can stack supports under the fulcrum and stack supports under the stone.

Lever Balance: hook items on the balance lever and weight tosee what drops next.

 

2008-03-05

Energy:

(read F60-F61)

The Law of Conservation of Energy:

  • Scientists believe that the total energy of the universe remains constant.
  • Energy may change in form.
  • Energy can not be created or destroyed.

Machine- A device that makes it easier for us to do work.

Simple Machine- A machine with few moving parts or no parts at all.

 Compound Machine- Many simple machines combined.

  • Might change direction of force.
  • Increase the strength of an applied force.

Effort Force- Force you apply to a simple machine.

Resistive Force- The Force against which the machine acts.

Output Force- Force the machine applies to object after we supply the effort force.


2008-03-04

  • Notes from p. F57 to F59 (read these pages first)
  • Work can turn energy into heat energy. The amount of heat energy produced is equal to the work done.
  • Work calculation:    
  • Work = force (newtons)XDistance.
  • This formula tells how many joules (energy) was used doing the work.

Demonstration: Kinetic and Potential Energy.  A pendulum may be used to show how different levels of gravitational poetential energy. We can change the angles of release to see how they impact the action (speed) of the pendulum. We can also shorten the string.Left click a drag to change the angles. Click on the top of the string and drag up or down to shorten or lengthen the string. Click here to view a pendulum in action.



 

2008-03-02 

 

 Notes:(p F54-55)

Energy Transformation: Energy can be transformed from one form to another.

Batteries: Batteries work by changing chemical energy into electricity.

There are two types of batteries. Dry-Cell batteries, called a primary cell, can only be used once. A lead acid battery, called a secondary battery, can be recharged. The most popular secondary battery is the nickel cadmium battery.                  

WorK (p. F56)- Work is applying a force to an object to move it through a distance.

The amount of work is calculated by multiplying the distance by force.

When work is done on an object, energy is added to it.

The work you do equals the increase in the potential energy.

 



2008-02-29

 

   
Forms of Energy:     Examples of Source
 Atomic  Radioactive Material
Chemical  Food
Electrical  household outlet
 Light  the sun
 Mechanical  moving parts in a machine
 Sound Terminal  vibrations of a stereo speaker
 Thermal (heat)  hot water in a radiator

 

 

Potential Energy- Stored energy because of position. 

Gravitational Potential Energy- Anytime an object is raised above the ground it gains potential energy. The greater the height and weight, the more gravitational potential energy an object gains. 

Kinetic Energy- A moving object has energy due to its motion. 

     Try out a roller coaster. Can you get it to roll up the hills? Click Here


 

2008-02-27 Here is a site on Newton that has lots of items to view and learn. Here is a quiz on Newtons Laws. 


2-26-2008  Today in 3rd Hour Science we tested the main thruster for the rockets we are building to study the laws of motion. The seltzer in a film canister did not launch very well. We are looking at alternative rockets such as soda bottle rockets, etc. Also, Will took it upon himself to write a letter to a Newton site and ask questions about how we can use formulas to adjust angles when we launch in hopes of hitting a target at a location. Visit the site Will found here. Last, Jordan brought in a rocket from home. He has a kit and has built and launched 3 rockets on his own. We looked at one of his rockets to think about how we could design or own. The students began to draw rockets.

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Pg A68-69  BIOMES

BIOTIC FACTORS ARE LIVING THINGS. THEY NEED CERTAIN NONLIVING THINGS TO SURVIVE.

 

ABIOTIC FACTORS ARE NONLIVING THINGS: WATER, MINERALS, SUNLIGHT, AIR, AND SOIL.

 

ABIOTIC FACTORS DIFFER AT DIFFERENT PLACES: RAIN, TEMPERATURES, LENGTH OF SEASONS.

 

 

 

CLIMATE- THE PATTERN OF PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE THROUGHOUT A YEAR IN CERTAIN REGION.

CLIMATES DIFFER AT DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE EARTH:

AREAS CLOSER TO THE EQUATOR GET MORE DIRECT SUNLIGHT. 

 CLIMATES DIFFER IF THEY ARE NEAR A BODY OF WATER.

CLIMATES MAY ALSO DIFFER FROM WIND PATTERNS OR OCEAN CURRENTS.

 

BIOMES ARE LARGE LAND REGIONS WITH GIVEN CLIMATES.

8-25-8 (p A70-72)

 

Earth's Biomes:

 

Tropical Rain Forest-Hot all year, 80-180 inches of rain, no season changes.

 

 

Deciduous Forest-Four seasons a year,mainly mild, humid summers, cold cold winters, 30-50 inches precipitation yearly.

 

 

Desert-Hot days, cool nights, and usually less than 10 inches of precipitation per year.

 

 

Grassland-Cool winters, hot summer, 10-30 inches precipitation per year.

 

 

Taiga-Very cold and snowy winters, cool summers, and about 20 inches of precipitation per year.

 

 

 Tundra- long cold winters (harsh conditions), cool summers, and 4-5 inches precipitation per year.

 

 

 

Biomes On Mountains

The higher above sea level you go, the cooler the climate is.

 

Moist air cools and drops off moisture creating a frozen top.

 

(Look at Illustration on p. A73)

Depending on where you are at on the mountain you may have different temperature and precipitation than another location (height above sea level).

 

Timberline- The height above which it is too cold and dry for trees to grow.

 

Alpine Tundra- Climate  at mountaintops in which plants grow close to ground to survive cold winds.

 

Chaparral- The dry scrubland at the foothills of California's southern mountains (also in other western states and Mexico).

 

 

 

 

 

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Learn more about Biomes by visiting these sites: click here for MBG and  click here for WorldBiomes.

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Notes 9-2-8

Ecosystem- Biotic and Abioitic factors along with their interactions make up an ecosystem.

 

Niche- The role each kind of living thing has a  in an ecosystem.

 

Niche includes:

  • What an animal eats
  • Where it lives
  • Way it raises its young
  • Whether the species is active at day or night

 

 

Population- Organisms of the same kind living in a particular place. A population can be any size.

 

Population- Biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem make up a population's size.

 

Example: Lack of precipitation (water) = Lack of plants (food) = a population moves = another population has to move.

 

 

Community- Populations living together in the same area.

 

 

Interactions in a Community

  • Competition
  • Mutualism
  • Parasitism

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9-3-8

Competion-Populations cannot share the same niche. They compete, those better adapted take over.

 

Mutualism- Occurs when a behavior is helpful to two populations.

 

Parasitism- The relationship in which only one organism benefits while the other is harmed.

 

Abiotic factors include soil, water, and air.

 

Many aboitic factors are constantly cycled through nature.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The 3 Cycles

 

  1. Water Cycle
  2. Oxygen-Carbon Dioxide Cycle
  3. Nitrogen Cycle

 

 

 

Water Cycle- Earth has a limited supply of water. Water goes from surface of Earth, through atmosphere, and back.

 

 

Water Cycle Processes

1.                       Precipitation

2.                       Evaporation

3.                       Condensation 

 

 

 

Oxygen-Carbon Dioxide Cycle:

Respiration- Animals take in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide

Photosynthesis- plants take in carbon dioxide and give off oxygen

 

 

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Monday 9-8-8

Nitrogen:

 

All life requires nitrogen to make protein.

 

Air is 79% nitrogen.

 

It must be made into useable nitrogen compounds by nitrogen fixing bacteria.

 

The Nitrogen Cycle:

Living things use nitrogen compounds.

Living things die, bacteria breaks down the compounds, and nitrogen gas returns to the air.

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Tuesday 9-9-8

P A 86

Food Web- the overlapping of food chains, organisms can be both prey and predator.

 

Human role- first hunters and gatherers, switched to farming.Only species to control food supply.Human actions impact food web.

 

 

P A 90

How Ecosystems Change and Results:

  • Increased human population and longer life expectancy due to Industrial Revolution (1750's). More food and resources used
  • America consumes more globa energy.
  • Actions in nature affect earth - most help replenish earth

Humans are dependant on nature and its cycles, plant life, need for shelter, etc.

 

What can be done: 3 R’s  - Reduce,  Reuse,  Recycle

 

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 Cool  Review for Test:

CLIMATE-THE PATTERN OF PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE THROUGHOUT A YEAR IN CERTAIN REGION. WHY THEY DIFFER-CLIMATES DIFFER AT DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE EARTH: AREAS CLOSER TO THE EQUATOR GET MORE DIRECT SUNLIGHT.

 

WATER CYCLE: Water goes from surface of Earth, through atmosphere, and back. 

 

Water Cycle Processes

1.                       Precipitation

2.                       Evaporation

3.                       Condensation  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Quiz:

  1. Name the four chambers of the human heart.
  2. Blood from the body that is filled with carbon dioxide enters the heart through the______.
  3. Blood from the right ventricle is oxygenated in the _____.
  4. Blood leaves the heart and goes to the body from the_________.

 

 

 

The Heart:

 

Sounds:

Thump-Thump

  • The sound of the heart is the closing valves.
  • First noise: valves closing between the atria and ventricles.
  • Second noise: valves closing between the ventricles and the great vessels.

 

  • 2 sides to heart, left and right, divided by thick muscular wall.
  • Atrium- Upper 2 chambers of heart, left and right.
  • Ventricle- Lower 2 chambers of heart.
  • Vena Cava- Blood enters heart through this
  • Aorta- Blood leaves the heart through this

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Heart Interactives:

  • Virtual Stethescope...here.
  • Flowing blood to and from heart....here.
  • View the heart parts .....here.
  • Heart valves at work...here.

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Circulatory System:

Heart

Blood vessels

Blood

 

Circulation: Flow of blood through body.

 

Blood: liquid containing:

Red blood cells- carry oxygen and nutrients to cells.

White blood cells- fight germs that enter the body.

Platelets- cell fragments that make the blood clot.

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The Heart:

  • - a muscular organ the size of a fist
  • - beats 70 to 90 times a minute
  • - pumps blood  through the blood vessels

 

The Arteries:

  • -Carry blood away from the heart
  • -Certain arteries carry blood to lungs where oxygen is picked up by cells
  • -Other arteries carry the oxygen rich blood to other parts of the body

 

------------------------------------------------------------

Veins:

  • carry blood from other parts of the body back to heart.
  • blood in veins carries wastes released by cells and has little oxygen

 Capillaries:

narrow blood vessels in which blood flows from arteries to veins.

 

 

************************************************************

Bones Diagram here 

********

Read about muscle groups and complete the short-answer worksheet on major skeletal muscle groups....here.

Read and view the slides about knee joints. Complete the site worksheet in complete sentences...

 

*********************************************************************

 

Highlite Points

Diagrams of bones, bones as a system of levers...here

 

Muscular System

3 types of muscles make up the body:

  1.  Skeletal Muscles- Attached to and move bones, attached bone by a tendon ( thick cord), they pull bones to move them (they work in pairs).
  2. Cardiac Muscles-found only in the heart, walls of heart are made of thick strong cardiac muscles, when they contract blood is squeezed out of the heart, when they relax the heart is filled with blood. Info and heart beat...here.
  3. Smooth Muscles- make up the internal muscles and blood vessels, smooth muscles in the lungs help us breathe, those in blood vessels help control blood flow around the body.

What these muscles look like.....Click Here.

 When a muscle contracts, it becomes shorter and thicker; it pulls on the bone it is attached to. Example: your biceps and triceps muscle contract alternately to move your arm.

More on muscles, the facts....click here.

*************************************************************

Skeletal System

Five Functions of the Skeletal System

1. Support- Keeps body in correct shape, supports internal organs, supports muscles. Example: leg bones support the weight of the body.

2. Protection- Protects organs. Examples: Skull protects the brain and eyes; Ribs protect heart and lungs; back bone protects spinal cord.

3. Movement- Many muscles are arranged in pairs to pull one bone towards another. Some bones are arranged as levers so a small contraction muscle makes a large movement in the bones. The joints between bones allow movement to be smooth. A joint is the place where 2 or more bones meet. Examples of joints: elbow, hip, and shoulder.

4. Blood cell production- Blood cells are produced in the marrow of larger bones.

5. Attachment- Bones provide an attachment surface for muscles, tendons, and ligaments.

 

Bone Facts:

There are 19 major bones the body.

There are 206 bones in the adult body.

 

Types of Joints:

Immovable Joints- Places where bones fit together too tightly to move. Example: There are 29 bones in the skull, only the jaw of the skull moves.

Partly Movable Joints- Places where the bones can only move a little. Example: sternum and rib combination. (CPR compressions- rib cage is pressed to stimulate heart and lungs. Rib cage is spring-like).

Movable Joints-Places where bones move easily. There are 4 types of moveable joints.

1. Gliding Joint- Bones slide against one another and the joint allows movement in all directions. Example: hands and wrist.

2. Ball and Socket Joint- Ball of one bone fits into socket of another bone. They allow bones to move back and forth, in a circle, and side to side. Example: the hip and shoulder.

3. Hinge Joint- Allows bones to move back and forth in one direction. Example: the knee and elbow.

4. Pivot Joint- Allows side to side movement and up and down movement. Example: joint between skull and neck.

Bone Game......in a as few clicks as possible....here

Vocabulary review games, click on "Quiz" Quiz 

*********************************************************************

Virtual Skeleton Tour: Read and view all 3 Sections.....Click Here

Read a tutorial and see the parts of a skeleton, use blue arrow on left side of screen to move through site........Click Here

Read More information about how a skeleton operates .....Click here

Take a quiz on skeletons....Click Here .

Check out how you can make a skeleton move...Click Here

 

 

 ================================================

 Extras:

Control a tornado.....click here.

Make another tornado...click here

Make an earthquake....click here

********************************************************************

 

Read more about sense of touch...here

Senses quiz....click here .

**************************************************************

Mike B. of 6th Hour science emailed a question about drinking through straws and how it might alter our taste buds.......here is the response we received:

 Mr. Wellman, thank you for submitting the following question to the
Howard Hughes Medical Institute's Ask a Scientist website:


Does drinking through a straw alter your taste?

Here is a response provided by one of our volunteer scientists:


Yes, drinking through a straw can alter the taste of liquids. When you drink through a straw the liquid is delivered to different parts of the tongue than when you sip a drink. Taste buds for the different flavors are distributed differently over the tongue area. So by delivering the liquid past the tip of the tongue using a straw for example, you may reduce the sensation of sweetness, typically focussed at the front of the tongue. Fewer taste buds tend to stimulated so the flavor is reduced in intensity (hence why unpleasant tasting liquid medicines may be tolerated better through a straw). Since there are other factors that impact taste, such as cold, hot, and smell (for more see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taste) the complete sensation associated with a drink can be significantly changed by drinking through a straw.

 

************************************************************** 

Tasting:

Eat→chemicals in food dissolve in saliva.

Saliva→carries chemicals to taste buds on tongue.

Taste buds have receptors in them that sense the

Four Main Tastes:

Sweet

Sour

Salty

Bitter

The receptors send impulses along a nerve to center

of brain→The brain identifies the taste of food which is usually a combination of the four main tastes.


 

 

 

 Read more about your sense of taste:

Link One:

View and read tutorial on how tasting happens: Click Here. 


Link Two:

View and read another tutorial. Take the quiz that is in the site....Click Here


 

Link Three 

Visit the ThinkQuest Site on Taste......Click Here.


 

Link Four :

Visit this link: Read the essay that is in the link first.....then view QuickTime Video on Taste. Click Here.


 

Link Five: 

I was thinking about how we drink beverages. I know that some glasses are specifically designed to have fluids hit a certain part of your tongue when you drink. There are several types of wine glasses made for this purpose.......but what really had me thinking was the fact the most of are drinking is done through straws....so do straws serve any purpose in directing fluids to a certain section of our tongue to hit certain taste buds?

I did a free search and found others had the same questions and different responses....do a free search on this topic and write a short paragraph on what you find and use quality sites and expert opinions.

The non-expert views and opinions are a good starting point to start you thinking....Click Here.


 

Information on Your Nose:

The Nose Click Here

More on the nose and sense of smell Here

 Even more info Here.

More, More, More.....Here Think twice about what you pick and eat.....Really!

*************************************

Fact:

  • Our sense of smell helps us recognize tastes.
  • A sneeze can travel 100 mph.
  • People who cannot smell have condition called Anosmia.
  •   

Anatomy:

Nostrils- 2 holes in your nose.

Nasal Hair- (cilia) filter the air.

Septum- wall of very thin bone and cartilage between nostrils.

Nasal cavity- space behind your nose.

Adenoids- lump of tissue at the back of the nose, it helps fight infection.

 

Functions of  Nose:

  • Hair in the nostrils filter air
  • The nose adds moisture to air before it goes to lungs
  • Nose breathes back out carbon dioxide

   

Sense of Smell:

  • You smell tiny things called odor particles
  • Odor  particles are made up of chemicals from things like food, flowers, etc.
  • Smells travel along olfactory nerve to the brain
  • Sense of small is connected to our memory*

****************************************************

 

There has been great advances in the study of the human brain due to new technology.

 

View images of the brain obtained by technology here and read of each machine or scanner works. Write 1 or 2 sentences that describes how CT, PET, MRI, and Functional MRI, and Angiography work. Begin Here.

In the same site as the machines and scanners, click on "Play The MRI Game" and follow Emery and help her perform an MRI exam.

Take a virtual tour of how an MRI works...here.

 

***********************************************************

Take 3-D tour of the brain.....here.

Take a tour of the brain from the Alzheimer site...here

More study of the human eye...here.

We will examine the ear ......here.

More study on hearing .....here.

 

 

##############################################

There are three structures for the ear:

 

External-

 Collects sound waves.

 

Middle-

 

contains the ear drum (tympanic membrane).

It is cone shaped.

 

 Sound waves travel through ear canal to ear drum and it vibrates in response.

 

 There are 3 small middle ear bones called ossicles.

Two small muscles in the middle ear protect the ear drum and ossicles from damage from loud noises.

 

Inner-

 System of tubes, chambers, and fluids.

 Cochlea – for sense of hearing

3 semicircular canals for sense of balance

 

The cochlear branches carry audio sensations to the medulla oblongata….the sounds are interpreted by both sides of the brain.

 

############################################

 

Take the "Eye Quiz" here

Read in more detail how the eye works and why some people need glasses...here.

Take a tour of advances in vision...here.

Visit a lab to see how lenses are made  here.

Virtual contact lab for vision......click here.

Discover optical illusions...Here.

Learn more about the brain and the eyes Write down in sentence 5 things you learned about the eyes while in this site.....if time permits, write down 5 things your learned about the brain....begin here.

############################################## 


Notes from 4-4-08 from pages R20-R21

Levels of Organization:

  1. Cells
  2. Tissues
  3. Organs
  4. Organ Systems
  5. Organism

 

  • The human body is made up of trillions  of cells.
  • Cells are organized into tissues
  • Tissues form organs: examples are heart and lungs.
  • Organs form organ systems...example the heart is part of the circulatory system.

 

The Nervous System:

  • Brain
  • Spinal Cord
  • Other: Outer (Peripheral ) nerves.

 

The parts of the brain:

Cerebrum:

  • largest part of the brain
  • a deep groove separates the halves (hemispheres) of the cerebrum.
  • both left and right sides of the cerb. contain control centers for the senses.

 

Functions of the Cerebrum:

  • Movement
  • Reason
  • Speech
  • Touch
  • Taste
  • Hearing
  • Smell
  • Vision

 

 

Cerebellum:

  • lies below the cerebrum
  • coordinates the skeletal muscles so the work smoothly and together.
  • it helps keep balance. 

 

Medulla

  • The lowest part of the brain stem.
  • Controls heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and muscles in digestive system.

 

Assignment: Draw and label picture of brain and its part on P. R21 (2nd column middle).

 

Parts of a Neuron:

Neurons are the nerves in the nervous sytem, each has 3 parts

  1. Cell body
  2. dendrites- branching fibers that carry impulses (electrical signals) toward the cell body.
  3. axon- nerve fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body.

**************************************************************

 

There are 3 types of neurons:

  1. Sensory
  2. Associative
  3. Motor

Example:

Stub your toe:Sensory Neurons send message to associative neurons in your spinal column and brain....in the brain the message is interpreted and sent to motor neurons that make you hop and say "Ow!"

**********************************************************

Seeing: (page R 22)

Parts of the eye:

  • Cornea
  • pupil
  • lens
  • iris
  • retina
  • optic nerve

Draw the eye and label its parts as shown on R 22.

************************************************************

How your eyes work:

  • light is reflected from an object & enters the eye & falls on the retina.
  • recpetor cells change the light into electrical signals (impulses).
  • signals travel along the optic nerve to the vision center of the brain.

*************************************************************************************************

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Math Archives:

 

Name_______________________Hour___Date________

Foot = Fist

Measure to the nearest ¼, ½, or whole inch

Whole Body:

Longest Finger Tip to Longest Finger Tip______________

Height_______________

Observation when comparing: ________________________________________________________________________________________________

Half Body:

Top of head to Top of Thigh Bone_____________

Top of Thighbone to Bottom of Your Foot___________

Observation when comparing: ________________________________________________________________________________________________

Foot:

Distance Around Your Closed Fist_____________

Distance Between Wrist and Elbow______________

Inside Foot from end of Heel to End of Big Toe_________

Observation when comparing: ________________________________________________________________________________________________

Elbow:

Distance Between Shoulder and Elbow__________

Distance Between Elbow and Wrist_____________

Observation when comparing: ________________________________________________________________________________________________

************************************************

Measurement Totals:

How many total inches (round up)_________________

How many total feet (round up)___________________

************************************************

What have you learned about the parts of your body after making all the measurements?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

*********************************************************************

 

How to read a ruler....here.

  Practice read a ruler.....Here.

Try out the "Ruler" game.....click here

Practice Measuring....here.

*********************************************************************

 Extra Practice

 Read the instructions and sample problems. Scroll down and practice problems using scratch paper.                                                    

 Adding Feet and Inches            

 Adding Pounds and Ounces
 Subtracting Feet and Inches  Subtracting Pounds and Ounces
   

MULTIPLICATION GAMES:.......CLICK HERE.

********************************************************************** 

Read some interesting facts on origins of measurements....click here

Making capacity easier to remember....click here

Read about capacity and complete sample problems here

Read about weight and complete sample problems here

..

Play Artie Ounces Soda Jerk......click here

 

 

*********************************************************************

 View a math video, begin by clicking Here

********************************************************************** 

Read and complete a tutorial on dividing fractions....complete the problems at the end-Begin Here 

Read & Complete Tutorial on Dividing Mixed Numbers Here

Dividing Fractions:

  1. Read how to divide fractions and complete 20 practice problems.....when finished, click "Report Totals"--type in your name after the red letters on the screen and click print......or report your score to Mrs. Adair or I. Begin here.
  2.  Find a partner and play fraction soccer shoot out....you will need a whiteboard or scratch paper to complete the problems....begin here.
  3. Visual fractions.....can you help find Grammy.....here
  4. Find GRAMPY using lowest terms (simplified fracts.) here.

**********************************************************************

 

Multiplying Mixed Numbers

 

    Multiplying two mixed numbers:
  • Convert each mixed number to an improper fraction.
  • Multiply the two numerators together.
  • Multiply the two denominators together.
  • Convert the result back to a mixed number if it is an improper fraction.
  • Simplify the mixed number.

 

Example: 6  2/8   *   3  5/9 =
Convert each mixed number to an improper fraction. 50/8   *   32/9
Multiply the two numerators together. 50 * 32 = 1600
Multiply the two denominators together. 8 * 9 = 72
Convert the result to a mixed number. 1600/72 = 22   16/72
Simplify the mixed number. 22  2/9

(from AAAmath.com)

Today's Assignment (Wed. 3-19-8)


Complete 20 Problems and have Mrs. Adair or I check your score.

 

Begin Here 

 

************************************************

Subtracting Fractions Practice on computer:

Complete 20 Problems (Attempts)

 

You will have to look at the number lines to find the fractions. Look at how many whole numbers are shaded and then look at what number makes up a whole set. Last, look at the shaded parts of the set to find the fraction.

Use paper and number the problems, work the problems out showing your work.

 

When you are finished, have Mrs. Adair or I check your score on the computer and turn your paper into us.

Click Here to Begin

************************************************

THIS IS A QUIZ FOR FRACTIONS ADDED BY DYLAN LOMAX CLICK HERE

 

 

 ************************************************************************

 

 Fraction Jeopardy.....Here.

**************************************************************

 


 

 

 

 

2008-02-29

Here are some sites to practice what we have been covering in math:

We can round numbers to a certain accuracy or number of decimal places. This is used to make calculation easier to do and results easier to understand, when exact values are not too important.

First, you'll need to remember your place values:

1. Practice rounding place values in decimals. Complete 25 problems and then click "Report Totals", enter your name, and print the results, I will help you print or ask another student. Begin Here.

2. Finding percents of a number. Complete 25 problems and then Click "Report Totals", enter your name, and print the results. I will help you print or ask another student. Begin Her

 

3. Practice finding the area of a triangle. Complete 20 problems and then click "Report Totals", enter your name, and print the results, I will help you print or ask another student. Begin Here.

Take a break and try out Peg Solitaire. Try to end the game with as few pieces possible.

4. If there is time, try to work ahead and read about solving the area of a circle. Read the formulas and directions on what to do if you have either the radius or the diameter. Ask for help if needed. Complete as many as possible. Begin Here


2008-02-27 Today in Math we practiced solving problems in short-response style where we label and explain how we worked a problem. Some students created math posters for our math wall. We also learned to how to find the the area of a triangle which is half of its Base X Height.

Probability: We have been examining probability with dominoes and spinners. We will review probability again by taking another look at spinners and dice. We also will create some spinners and look at the outcomes from having few or greater sections. We will roll some virtual dice twenty times and see what number(s) result more. We will discuss why the number(s) come up more often.

 


 

 

Read an introduction to Pythagoras. View the Pythagorean Puzzle.

 

Pythagorean Theorem:

Solving for the unknown length of a side of a Right Triangle.

 

 

To Find the hypotenuse:

1. Square the length of the legs.

2. Add the squares of the legs.

3. Find the square root of Step 2's result ( result and √ on calc)

 

 

Example:

Leg 1 is 3 in    3= 0 sq. in.

Leg 2 is 4 in.   42  = 16 sq. in.

9 + 16 = 25

Find sq. root of 25 (25 √ on calc) = 5 in.

 

Experiment finding the missing hypotenuse providing you have the lengths of both legs . Get your paper and calculator ready and click here to begin.


Pythagorean Theorem:

Know the length of one leg and the length of the hypotenuse, but not the length of the other leg.

 

1. Square the length of the leg.

2. Square the length of the hypotenuse.

3. Subtract the squared leg from the squared hypotenuse.

4. Find the square root of result from Step 3 (Result and √ on calc)

 

 

Example:

One Leg is 12 in.     122 = 144

Hypotenuse 13 in.    132 = 169

169- 144 = 25

Find sq. root of 25 (25 √ on calc) = 5 in.

         * Also think of what number times itself would produce 25.

 

 

Experiment finding the missing leg length providing you have the length of a leg and the length of the hypotenuse. Get you paper and calculator ready and click here to begin.


The area of a triangle is half the product of its base and height:

1/2 bh

 Example

What is the area of the triangle below having a base of length 5.2 and a height of 4.2?

 


Tuesday: 2/26/2008

Take some time to play with some cards and complete a quiz on probability. Play both the 5 card  and the 5-10 card game here.

 

Visit the 2 links above we visited yesterday on solving for the length of a missing leg and solving for the missing length of the hypotenuse. Write down 6 problems from each link and show you work in solving them. You may use your calculator. Put this in your class math bin. 

Practice making shapes and solving area & perimeter problems by putting bands on a virtual geoboard.

For fun, brush up on degrees and pick some fruit. Also, shoot a water cannon at items on a playground.

Home Work: Review and Correct Math Minute packet.


 

 

6th Grade Science:

*************************************************************

 

Knee Joint Activity : Click Here

_____________________________

Read more about your sense of taste:

Link One:

View and read tutorial on how tasting happens: Click Here. 


Link Two:

View and read another tutorial. Take the quiz that is in the site....Click Here


 

Link Three 

Visit the ThinkQuest Site on Taste......Click Here.


 

Link Four :

Visit this link: Read the essay that is in the link first.....then view QuickTime Video on Taste. Click Here.


 

Link Five: 

I was thinking about how we drink beverages. I know that some glasses are specifically designed to have fluids hit a certain part of your tongue when you drink. There are several types of wine glasses made for this purpose.......but what really had me thinking was the fact the most of are drinking is done through straws....so do straws serve any purpose in directing fluids to a certain section of our tongue to hit certain taste buds?

I did a free search and found others had the same questions and different responses....do a free search on this topic and write a short paragraph on what you find and use quality sites and expert opinions.

The non-expert views and opinions are a good starting point to start you thinking....Click Here.


 

Information on Your Nose:

The Nose Click Here

More on the nose and sense of smell Here

 Even more info Here.

More, More, More.....Here Think twice about what you pick and eat.....Really!

*************************************

Fact:

  • Our sense of smell helps us recognize tastes.
  • A sneeze can travel 100 mph.
  • People who cannot smell have condition called Anosmia.
  •   

Anatomy:

Nostrils- 2 holes in your nose.

Nasal Hair- (cilia) filter the air.

Septum- wall of very thin bone and cartilage between nostrils.

Nasal cavity- space behind your nose.

Adenoids- lump of tissue at the back of the nose, it helps fight infection.

 

Functions of  Nose:

  • Hair in the nostrils filter air
  • The nose adds moisture to air before it goes to lungs
  • Nose breathes back out carbon dioxide

   

Sense of Smell:

  • You smell tiny things called odor particles
  • Odor  particles are made up of chemicals from things like food, flowers, etc.
  • Smells travel along olfactory nerve to the brain
  • Sense of small is connected to our memory*

****************************************************

 

There has been great advances in the study of the human brain due to new technology.

 

View images of the brain obtained by technology here and read of each machine or scanner works. Write 1 or 2 sentences that describes how CT, PET, MRI, and Functional MRI, and Angiography work. Begin Here.

In the same site as the machines and scanners, click on "Play The MRI Game" and follow Emery and help her perform an MRI exam.

Take a virtual tour of how an MRI works...here.

 

***********************************************************

Take 3-D tour of the brain.....here.

Take a tour of the brain from the Alzheimer site...here

More study of the human eye...here.

We will examine the ear ......here.

More study on hearing .....here.

 

 

##############################################

There are three structures for the ear:

 

External-

 Collects sound waves.

 

Middle-

 

contains the ear drum (tympanic membrane).

It is cone shaped.

 

 Sound waves travel through ear canal to ear drum and it vibrates in response.

 

 There are 3 small middle ear bones called ossicles.

Two small muscles in the middle ear protect the ear drum and ossicles from damage from loud noises.

 

Inner-

 System of tubes, chambers, and fluids.

 Cochlea – for sense of hearing

3 semicircular canals for sense of balance

 

The cochlear branches carry audio sensations to the medulla oblongata….the sounds are interpreted by both sides of the brain.

 

############################################

 

Take the "Eye Quiz" here

Read in more detail how the eye works and why some people need glasses...here.

Take a tour of advances in vision...here.

Visit a lab to see how lenses are made  here.

Virtual contact lab for vision......click here.

Discover optical illusions...Here.

Learn more about the brain and the eyes Write down in sentence 5 things you learned about the eyes while in this site.....if time permits, write down 5 things your learned about the brain....begin here.

############################################## 


Notes from 4-4-08 from pages R20-R21

Levels of Organization:

  1. Cells
  2. Tissues
  3. Organs
  4. Organ Systems
  5. Organism

 

  • The human body is made up of trillions  of cells.
  • Cells are organized into tissues
  • Tissues form organs: examples are heart and lungs.
  • Organs form organ systems...example the heart is part of the circulatory system.

 

The Nervous System:

  • Brain
  • Spinal Cord
  • Other: Outer (Peripheral ) nerves.

 

The parts of the brain:

Cerebrum:

  • largest part of the brain
  • a deep groove separates the halves (hemispheres) of the cerebrum.
  • both left and right sides of the cerb. contain control centers for the senses.

 

Functions of the Cerebrum:

  • Movement
  • Reason
  • Speech
  • Touch
  • Taste
  • Hearing
  • Smell
  • Vision

 

 

Cerebellum:

  • lies below the cerebrum
  • coordinates the skeletal muscles so the work smoothly and together.
  • it helps keep balance. 

 

Medulla

  • The lowest part of the brain stem.
  • Controls heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and muscles in digestive system.

 

Assignment: Draw and label picture of brain and its part on P. R21 (2nd column middle).

 

Parts of a Neuron:

Neurons are the nerves in the nervous sytem, each has 3 parts

  1. Cell body
  2. dendrites- branching fibers that carry impulses (electrical signals) toward the cell body.
  3. axon- nerve fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body.

**************************************************************

 

There are 3 types of neurons:

  1. Sensory
  2. Associative
  3. Motor

Example:

Stub your toe:Sensory Neurons send message to associative neurons in your spinal column and brain....in the brain the message is interpreted and sent to motor neurons that make you hop and say "Ow!"

**********************************************************

Seeing: (page R 22)

Parts of the eye:

  • Cornea
  • pupil
  • lens
  • iris
  • retina
  • optic nerve

Draw the eye and label its parts as shown on R 22.

************************************************************

How your eyes work:

  • light is reflected from an object & enters the eye & falls on the retina.
  • recpetor cells change the light into electrical signals (impulses).
  • signals travel along the optic nerve to the vision center of the brain.

************************************************************************

*************************

Virtual MRI Exam: Click Here 

Virtual Cardiac Lab: Click Here

 

______________________________

Skeletal System

Five Functions of the Skeletal System

1. Support- Keeps body in correct shape, supports internal organs, supports muscles. Example: leg bones support the weight of the body.

2. Protection- Protects organs. Examples: Skull protects the brain and eyes; Ribs protect heart and lungs; back bone protects spinal cord.

3. Movement- Many muscles are arranged in pairs to pull one bone towards another. Some bones are arranged as levers so a small contraction muscle makes a large movement in the bones. The joints between bones allow movement to be smooth. A joint is the place where 2 or more bones meet. Examples of joints: elbow, hip, and shoulder.

4. Blood cell production- Blood cells are produced in the marrow of larger bones.

5. Attachment- Bones provide an attachment surface for muscles, tendons, and ligaments.

 

Bone Facts:

There are 19 major bones the body.

There are 206 bones in the adult body.

 

Types of Joints:

Immovable Joints- Places where bones fit together too tightly to move. Example: There are 29 bones in the skull, only the jaw of the skull moves.

Partly Movable Joints- Places where the bones can only move a little. Example: sternum and rib combination. (CPR compressions- rib cage is pressed to stimulate heart and lungs. Rib cage is spring-like).

Movable Joints-Places where bones move easily. There are 4 types of moveable joints.

1. Gliding Joint- Bones slide against one another and the joint allows movement in all directions. Example: hands and wrist.

2. Ball and Socket Joint- Ball of one bone fits into socket of another bone. They allow bones to move back and forth, in a circle, and side to side. Example: the hip and shoulder.

3. Hinge Joint- Allows bones to move back and forth in one direction. Example: the knee and elbow.

4. Pivot Joint- Allows side to side movement and up and down movement. Example: joint between skull and neck.

***********************************

1.                  Skull- top of body, protects brain and eyes.

-

2.                  Mandible- lower Jaw hold your teeth in place.

-

3.                  Clavicle- collarbone, supports arms and transfers force from the arms into the central skeleton.

-

4.                  Sternum- breast bone, long narrow flat plate that forms the center of the front of the chest.

-

5.                  Humerus- (funny bone) bone in the upper nerve.

-

6.                  Rib- Flat, curved bones that form the framework on the chest and make a large cage to protect the upper body organs.

-

7.                  Vertebra- column of bones and cartilage that extends from the skull to the pelvis.

-

8.                  Pelvis- a ring of bones in the lower body which is bonded by the coccyx (tail bone) and the hip bone.

-

9.                  Radius- the shorter of the two long bones in the forearm.

-

10.      Ulna- The longer of the 2 bones in the forearm.

-

11.      Carpal- Skeleton of wrist consisting of eight tiny bones that are firmly bound together.

-

12.      Metacarpal- one of the long cylindrical bones in the body of the hand.

-

13.      Phalanges- The small bones that make up the skeleton of the fingers, thumb, and toes. Each finger and small toes have 3 phalanges.

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14.      Femur- Thigh bone, the longest bone in the human body. The lower end joins the tibia to form the knee.

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15.      Patella – knee cap, triangular shaped bone at the front of the knee joint. It protects the knee joint.   

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Bone Game......in a as few clicks as possible....here

Vocabulary review games, click on "Quiz" Quiz 

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Virtual Skeleton Tour: Read and view all 3 Sections.....Click Here

Read a tutorial and see the parts of a skeleton, use blue arrow on left side of screen to move through site........Click Here

Read More information about how a skeleton operates .....Click here

Take a quiz on skeletons....Click Here .

Check out how you can make a skeleton move...Click Here

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Today's Notes 4-28 : Click Here

Current Notes : Click Here

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Midwest Faults : Click Here

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Earthquake site for 4-3 Assignment: Here

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Glacier Interactive : Click Here

Animations: Click Here

Pictures : Click Here

Water Erosion Video: Click Here

Interactive : Click Here

Big List of Links: Click Here

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Try the EarthQuake Interactive: Click Here

Virtual Volcano: Click Here

Volcano Cam: Click Here (Try the colored links in the site)

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Assignment for Monday 3-30-09

Students are to read in Chapter 7 pages D6 – D11

 Assignment #1:

Students will  define these words and answer questions below on a sheet of loose paper and hand them in (all one assignment):

1.       Crust

2.       Original Horizontality

3.       Continental Drift

4.       Sea –Floor Spreading

5.       Magma

6.       Plate Tectonics

7.       Mantle

 

8) Answer Red Question on p. D8 : How does the sea-floor show Earth’s Crust is  moving?

 

9)Answer Red Question on p. D9: What have scientists learned about sea-floor spreading?

 

10) Answer Red Question on p. D11: How does plate tectonics explain the movement of Earth’s crust?

 Assignment #2:

Complete Lesson Outline p173-174  # 1-13, We will complete 14-19 later. Turn

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Notes

 

Crust- Earth’s solid surface.

Original Horizontality- Rocks that form in flat horizontal layers that make up Earth’s surface.

Continental Drift- Hypothesis by Alfred Wegener in his 1912 book The Origins of The Continents and Oceans that there was once a supercontinent (he called it Pangaea) that 200 million years ago split into pieces that are today’s continents.  Wegener did not explain how or why the drifting took place.

 

Sea-Floor Spreading- a model that states that new crustal material is forming at the ridges on ocean floor. As the material forms, it spreads apart the old sea floor on both sides of the ridges.

 

Magma- Hot melted rock found below ridges of the sea floor. It flows up through cracks, cools, and hardens into new solid rock along ridges. This process continues making new rock and pushing older rock material farther away along the sea floor.

Plate Tectonics- Model that describes Earth’s crust as broken into pieces, or plates. Plates slide on the lower portion of the mantle.

Mantle – Material from a layer below the crust.

 

1)      How does the sea –floor show Earth’s crust is moving? At the mid-ocean’s ridges, magma flows up though the cracks, forming new rock that spreads apart the old sea floor.

2)      What have scientists learned about sea-floor spreading?  Continental rock is older than floor rock; most ocean floor rock is volcanic; the youngest rock is at the mid-ocean ridges; ocean floor rocks get older toward the continents.

3)      How do plate tectonics explain the movement of Earth’s crust? Earth’s crust is broken into sections called plates that move around on the lower portion of the mantle.

 
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Notes:
 
Divergent Boundaries (splitting)
1) Where sea-floor spreading occurs
2) At places where parts of a continent or split.
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Convergent Boundaries (colliding)
Occurs where there are continents on both sides of the colliding plates. This caues rock to crumble and crumpling can build up mountains.
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Transform Faults-  Boundaries at which plates slide by each other smashing and grinding causing earthquakes.
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Subduction- process in which a denser ocean plate that collides with another plate and slide under it. Subduction is a cycle in which older rock is destroyed. New rock is formed in the mid-ocean ridges.
 
Results of Subduction:
1) a trench forms
2) melted rock can produce a string of volcanic islands called an island arc. 
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Notes
 
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Earthquakes:
  • are a sudden trembling of the ground
  • they are caused by something happening in earth's crust.
  • 80 percent of all earthquakes happen along the edges of the Pacific Plate.
  • Plates collide along their edges, they might slide past each other, they may pull apart.
  • Earth quakes are less likely to happen at the center of plates.
  • -

Faults:

  • Plates moving makes rocks of the crust bends and stretch first, then the rocks break, and huge cracks form below the surface of  the crust called faults.

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3 Types of Faults:

  1. Normal Fault (div. boundaries) plates pull apart and rocks above the fault surface move down. Ex. Sierra Nevada in Cal.
  2. Reverse Fault (conv. boundaries) Plates push together and rocks above the fault move upward. Ex. Himalayas in India.
  3. Strike- Slip (Tranform boundaries) Plates slide past each other and rocks slide past each other in different directions. Ex. San Andreas Fault in California.

-Broken sides of a fault may slide past each other moving only centimeters a year....or they move suddenly shaking the crust and set an earthquake in motion.

-

-P. D22

Focus- the point where rocks begin to slide past each other and the earthquake starts.

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Seismic Waves- Vibrations caused by motions that spread out from the focus. Waves reach Earth's surface above the focus.

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Notes

The point on earth's surface directly above the focus is the epicenter.

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Shaking of the crust after the initial  shock are called aftershocks.

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Primary Waves- The fastest seismic waves.

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Secondary Waves- Waves that are slower than primary waves.

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Surface waves- Earth's surface heave up and down or sway from side to side. These waves tear apart structures built on the surface.

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Tsunami- A huge ocean wave caused by an earthquake. These occur when the focus of the earthquake is beneath the sea floor (p. D23).

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Magnitude- The amount of energy released by an earthquake.

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Richter Scale- The measure of the energy of earthquakes from 1 to 10.

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Mercalli Scale- Measures the amount of damage done at a give location. Near the epicenter = more damage ......farther away = less damage.

-

-

Preparing for Earthquakes:

  •  Build structures that a seismic safe= build them so they do not collapse.
  • New buildings may have shock absorbers in their foundations.
  • Build with flexible materials.
  •  

 

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Today (3-23-09 Monday) How Batteries Work - Click Here

Science Test Review: Click Here


Notes for week of March 9 -13th:

Notes on Acceleration and Mass: Click Here

Notes on Work and Machines: Click Here

Simple Machines: Click Here

Mouse Trap Car Project: Click Here

 

 

Simple Machine Examples: Click Here

Lever Interactives: Click Here

Machine Interactives and Lessons: Click Here

 

Lever Interactives (Complete Worksheet with It): Click Here

wheel and axle game .....click here

The working pickles, wheels and screws...here

The wedge....splitting rock  .....here

The inclined plane  ...here

Visit Park World.......here.

Build a compound machine, the game begins here.

Build a Rube Goldberg Machine....You might have to install a shockwave player first....begin here.

Play Tinker Ball.....here.


View the Webquest Unit on Motors: Click Here


Chapter 12 Notes: Click Here

 

 Newton Interactives: Click Here

 


Student Science Posters Assignment:

Science Class Code Number: 163909

Teacher: Mr. Wellman

Login to Posters:  ( When Creating First, Click "Create New Poster") : Click Here

 

 

 

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Links for Building Electric Motors, Magnets, and Other Electricity Projects:

Motors #1

Magnetics and More

Projects and Experiments

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Check Out These Cool Links:

Virtual Microscope: Click Here 


 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Click To "UMS6 Home Page"

Magnetic Pogo Stick

 


Click To "UMS6 Home Page"