# Mr. Wellman's Archived Notes

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Name_______________________Hour___Date________

Foot = Fist

Measure to the nearest ¼, ½, or whole inch

Whole Body:

Longest Finger Tip to Longest Finger Tip______________

Height_______________

Observation when comparing: ________________________________________________________________________________________________

Half Body:

Top of head to Top of Thigh Bone_____________

Top of Thighbone to Bottom of Your Foot___________

Observation when comparing: ________________________________________________________________________________________________

Foot:

Distance Between Wrist and Elbow______________

Inside Foot from end of Heel to End of Big Toe_________

Observation when comparing: ________________________________________________________________________________________________

Elbow:

Distance Between Shoulder and Elbow__________

Distance Between Elbow and Wrist_____________

Observation when comparing: ________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Measurement Totals:

How many total inches (round up)_________________

How many total feet (round up)___________________

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What have you learned about the parts of your body after making all the measurements?

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Practice Measuring....here.

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 Extra Practice Read the instructions and sample problems. Scroll down and practice problems using scratch paper. Adding Pounds and Ounces Subtracting Feet and Inches Subtracting Pounds and Ounces

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View a math video, begin by clicking Here

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Read and complete a tutorial on dividing fractions....complete the problems at the end-Begin Here

Read & Complete Tutorial on Dividing Mixed Numbers Here

Dividing Fractions:

1. Read how to divide fractions and complete 20 practice problems.....when finished, click "Report Totals"--type in your name after the red letters on the screen and click print......or report your score to Mrs. Adair or I. Begin here.
2.  Find a partner and play fraction soccer shoot out....you will need a whiteboard or scratch paper to complete the problems....begin here.
3. Visual fractions.....can you help find Grammy.....here
4. Find GRAMPY using lowest terms (simplified fracts.) here.

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Multiplying Mixed Numbers

Multiplying two mixed numbers:
• Convert each mixed number to an improper fraction.
• Multiply the two numerators together.
• Multiply the two denominators together.
• Convert the result back to a mixed number if it is an improper fraction.
• Simplify the mixed number.

Example: 6  2/8   *   3  5/9 =
 Convert each mixed number to an improper fraction. 50/8   *   32/9 Multiply the two numerators together. 50 * 32 = 1600 Multiply the two denominators together. 8 * 9 = 72 Convert the result to a mixed number. 1600/72 = 22   16/72 Simplify the mixed number. 22  2/9

(from AAAmath.com)

Today's Assignment (Wed. 3-19-8)

Complete 20 Problems and have Mrs. Adair or I check your score.

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Subtracting Fractions Practice on computer:

Complete 20 Problems (Attempts)

You will have to look at the number lines to find the fractions. Look at how many whole numbers are shaded and then look at what number makes up a whole set. Last, look at the shaded parts of the set to find the fraction.

Use paper and number the problems, work the problems out showing your work.

When you are finished, have Mrs. Adair or I check your score on the computer and turn your paper into us.

Click Here to Begin

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Fraction Jeopardy.....Here.

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2008-02-29

Here are some sites to practice what we have been covering in math:

We can round numbers to a certain accuracy or number of decimal places. This is used to make calculation easier to do and results easier to understand, when exact values are not too important.

First, you'll need to remember your place values:

1. Practice rounding place values in decimals. Complete 25 problems and then click "Report Totals", enter your name, and print the results, I will help you print or ask another student. Begin Here.

2. Finding percents of a number. Complete 25 problems and then Click "Report Totals", enter your name, and print the results. I will help you print or ask another student. Begin Her

3. Practice finding the area of a triangle. Complete 20 problems and then click "Report Totals", enter your name, and print the results, I will help you print or ask another student. Begin Here.

Take a break and try out Peg Solitaire. Try to end the game with as few pieces possible.

4. If there is time, try to work ahead and read about solving the area of a circle. Read the formulas and directions on what to do if you have either the radius or the diameter. Ask for help if needed. Complete as many as possible. Begin Here

2008-02-27 Today in Math we practiced solving problems in short-response style where we label and explain how we worked a problem. Some students created math posters for our math wall. We also learned to how to find the the area of a triangle which is half of its Base X Height.

Probability: We have been examining probability with dominoes and spinners. We will review probability again by taking another look at spinners and dice. We also will create some spinners and look at the outcomes from having few or greater sections. We will roll some virtual dice twenty times and see what number(s) result more. We will discuss why the number(s) come up more often.

Read an introduction to Pythagoras. View the Pythagorean Puzzle.

Pythagorean Theorem:

Solving for the unknown length of a side of a Right Triangle.

To Find the hypotenuse:

1. Square the length of the legs.

2. Add the squares of the legs.

3. Find the square root of Step 2's result ( result and √ on calc)

Example:

Leg 1 is 3 in    3= 0 sq. in.

Leg 2 is 4 in.   42  = 16 sq. in.

9 + 16 = 25

Find sq. root of 25 (25 √ on calc) = 5 in.

Experiment finding the missing hypotenuse providing you have the lengths of both legs . Get your paper and calculator ready and click here to begin.

Pythagorean Theorem:

Know the length of one leg and the length of the hypotenuse, but not the length of the other leg.

1. Square the length of the leg.

2. Square the length of the hypotenuse.

3. Subtract the squared leg from the squared hypotenuse.

4. Find the square root of result from Step 3 (Result and √ on calc)

Example:

One Leg is 12 in.     122 = 144

Hypotenuse 13 in.    132 = 169

169- 144 = 25

Find sq. root of 25 (25 √ on calc) = 5 in.

* Also think of what number times itself would produce 25.

Experiment finding the missing leg length providing you have the length of a leg and the length of the hypotenuse. Get you paper and calculator ready and click here to begin.

The area of a triangle is half the product of its base and height:

1/2 bh

Example

What is the area of the triangle below having a base of length 5.2 and a height of 4.2?

Tuesday: 2/26/2008

Take some time to play with some cards and complete a quiz on probability. Play both the 5 card  and the 5-10 card game here.

Visit the 2 links above we visited yesterday on solving for the length of a missing leg and solving for the missing length of the hypotenuse. Write down 6 problems from each link and show you work in solving them. You may use your calculator. Put this in your class math bin.

Practice making shapes and solving area & perimeter problems by putting bands on a virtual geoboard.

For fun, brush up on degrees and pick some fruit. Also, shoot a water cannon at items on a playground.

Home Work: Review and Correct Math Minute packet.

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Gene- The factors you get from each parent. A gene is the portion of a cell's chromosome  that controls a particluar trait.

Genes contain the information needed for cells to function.

Genes are arranged along the length of a chromosome.

Organisms have two copies of each gene for a given trait.

Genetic characteristics of every living organism are contained in the that organism's DNA. The DNA in each cells of a given organism is the same.

DNA of every organism is different and unique from that of every other organism.

The Shape and Structure of DNA-

• The shape looks like a spiral staircase. This shape is called a double helix.
• Steps of the staircase are made of chemical bases called compounds.
• These steps fit together like pieces in a puzzle.

The Four DNA Bases:

• Cytosine (C)
• Guanine (G)
• Thymine (T)

Each step is made up of 2 bases, either A and T, or G and C.

The order in which the bases pairs appear on the  DNA helix is the code that tells the cell how to operate. This order allows for a huge number of combinations

The genes you get for a particular trait are received from your mother and father. Both genes are located  in the same place on each chromosome.

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) - Contain the codes that tell each cell how to operate.

Each gene on a chromosome is a short section of the long  DNA molecule that makes up the chromosome.

The DNA Code- Bioligists James Watson and Francis Crick learned in the 1950's that DNA is shaped as double helix and that this shape allows the pairing and replication of bases.

The double helix ( twisted ladder) of  a human DNA molecule can contain up to  12 billion rungs...if removed from the cell and stretched out, it would extend 2 yards.

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LOCATION OF DNA:

• DNA is found in the nucleus of a cell.
• Each cell is surrounded by a cell membrane.
• Inside the membrane is fluid called cytoplasm.
• In the center of the cytoplasm is the nucleus that contains chromosomes made up of DNA.
• The chromosomes form a tangled mass of thin threads inside the nucleus most of the time.

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Many-celled organisms are made up of body cells and sex cells:

Body Cells-

• Examples: bones, tissues, and organs.
• Non-human examples- carrot root, cells of a tree leaf
• Most of the cells in any organism are body cells.
• All body cells contain a full set of chromosomes.
• A human body cell contains 46 chromosomes.
• Every organism has its own number of chromosomes in its body cells.

Sex Cells:

• Sex cells are produced in inside the sex organs of an adult organism.
• Each sex cell contains only one-half the number of chromosomes  in body cells.
• A human sex cell contains 23 chromosomes.

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More notes on DNA:

• DNA contains codes that tells each cell how to operate.
• Messenger molecules carry instructions for making proteins that the cell needs to perform tasks.
• The two main influences on an organisms development are genes and environment.
• Fertilization- When a sperm cell joins with an egg cell.

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Examples of Inherited Traits:

Dominant Traits- having long eyelashes, freckles, free earlobes.

If you do not display these traits, they are recessive.

Not all  inherited traits in people can be clearly labeled dominant or recessive (incomplete dominance). Example- the normal red blood cell:

• red blood cells carry oxygen  to all parts of the body.
• normal red blood cells have a round shape.
• some red blood cells have a sickle shape (curved) and cannot carry as much oxygen as the round cells.
• (Check text book page B88 to see how sickle cell trait is labeled)
• It is possible for a person to have round blood cells, sickle shaped cells, and a combination of both together.

Another example of an inherited trait that can not just be clearly labeled dominant or recessive is bloodtype:

• There are four bloodtypes: A, B, AB, and O.
• Three genes control bloodtype.
• Your blood type is based on a kind of protein found on the surface of the red blood cells.
• Type AB blood has the A and B proteins.
• A person with O blood is called a universal donor.
• A person with AB blood is called a universal recipient.

Determining The Sex of a Child:

Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. One of these pairs, the sex chromosomes, determines the sex of a person.

There are two types of sex chromosomes:

• X Chromosome
• Y Chromosome

Females inherit two X chromosomes, one from each parent.

Males inherit one X chromosomes from one parent and one Y chromosome from the other. Only males have a Y chromosome.

The sex of a child is determined by the chromosomes received from the father.

(Draw diagram here from top of page B 90)

There is a 50% probability of the child being a male and a 50% probability of the child being a female. Examine Punnett Square on top of page B 90.

Sex-Linked Genes- Genes that are carried only on the X chromosome.

Sex-Linked Traits- Traits that are determined by sex linked genes such as color blindness and hemophilia.

Color blindness- Inability to recognize certain colors. It is more common in males than in females.

Disorders That are Inherited:

• Sickle Cell Anemia
• Hemophilia
• Dyslexia
• Cystic Fibrosis
• Down Syndrome
• PKU

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Genetic Disorders are caused by the combination of genes an individual receives from his or her parents.

Examples of Genetic Disorders:

• Hemophilia-Blood does not clot properly. This a recessive sex-linked trait and is more common in males.
• Dyslexia- "word blindness"- persons may have trouble reading and writing because they see some letters and words backwards.
• Cystic Fibrosis- causes the build up of too much thick, sticky mucus in the lungs and other organs. Persons may have difficulty breathing and eating.
• Down Syndrome- Occurs when a child inherits an extra copy of a specific chromosome ( #21). Persons having it may have severe mental retardation along with problems with their heart, eyes, and intestines. Many people with Downs may lead active and productive lives.
• PKU - Phenylketonuria- Body can not break down a certain substance. The substance builds up and can cause brain damage affecting the central nervous system.

Genetic Engineering:

• Gene-splicing is used to produce insulin and growth hormone for people whose bodies can not produce their own.
• Vegetables, such as tomatoes, are genetically engineered to have a squarer shape, stay fresh longer, and to taste better. Some fruits and vegetables are made more nutritious from "gene-splicing" allowing more vitamins and minerals into the plant's genes.
• Safety and health become an issue in genetic engineering. People and scientists question whether or not horomones and antibiotics given to animals have an affect on the health of children and people(eat and drink taking in what the animals ate).
• Gene-Counseling - Couples planning to have children can consult on whether or not they are carriers for inherited diseases and the likelihood that they could pass their genes for an inherited disease on to their offspring.
• Scientists hope to find a way to cure disiase such as cystic fibrosis by replacing or altering the gene that causes it.

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Selective Breeding- The process of crossing plants or animals to produce offspring with certain desirable traits.

This has been done for centuries to produce better food crops, hardier domestic animals, and prettier flowers.

Genetic Engineering- A way of changing the DNA sequence that makes up a gene so that the gene will produce a particular trait.

A gene can be moved from one organism to another in one type of genetic engineering.

Bacteria can be genetically engineered to help clean up oil spills or other toxic wastes in the environment. The bacteria can break the oil or wastes down into harmless substances.

The difference between selective breeding and genetic engineering is that SB involves cross-breeding plants or animals and GE involves actually changing the DNA.

Gene-Splicing is a process in which scientists can take the genes of from one organism and attach them to- or splice them to- the genes in another organism.

This is done to produce substances such as insulin.    People with diabetes do not produce enough insulin so they get insulin produced in bacteria as a result of gene-splicing.

Clone- A living thing that receives all its DNA from just one parent.

Dr. Ian Wilmut http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/wil0gal-1

Dolly, a lamb, was cloned by Scottish scientist Ian Wilmut. She was born July 5th, 1996. She lived 6 and a half years. She was "put down" after developing a progressive lung disease. It took 277 attempts at cloning before the success of Dolly. Other animals that have since been cloned include horses, bulls, and a dog. Another sheep, Polly, was created in 1998.

Dolly is now on display at the Royal Museum of Scotland.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Dollyscotland_(crop).jpg

How Dolly Was Cloned:

1. The body cell was grown in a dish.

2.The body cell was stopped from making a copy of its own chromosomes.

3. An egg cell from a different adult sheep is used and scientists removed the nucleus which contained its DNA.

4.The two cells  are brought together and a small amount of electricity is applied.

5.The electricity made the insides of the body cell (including the 54 chromosomes) go into the egg cell. The egg cell began to divide as if it had joined with a sperm cell.

6. Six days later, the egg cell had divided into a ball of cell. The ball was placed inside a female sheep, which gave birth to Dolly.

Scientists compared Dolly’s DNA to DNA from the sheep whose body cell had been used and the two were identical

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Genetically Engineered Crops:

Questions on how we will feed an increasing population in the world has forced us to use genetically engineered crops. There is a limited amount of land available.

The benefits of GE crops:

Grow more food in same amount of space.

Save forests from destruction.

Foods have a longer shelf life.

Foods are more nutritious(increase of vitamin contents).

Crops are healthier and more resistant to pests.

Examples of GE Crops:

Corn and potatoes can have a gene injected into there cells that makes a protein that kills insects. With fewer pests around the plant, it can grow stronger and fight off certain viral diseases.

Scientists have developed rice grains with increased levels of vitamin A and iron. This helps diet needs of people who depend on rice as their main food.

Controversy Around GE Foods:

Concerns about introducing foreign genes into organisms and possible side effects and risks (time always tells).

Potential allergic reactions to new traits.

Scientists’ Response to controversy:

Work to increase the goodness in naturally occurring genes.

Work to alter the risks of certain genes.

Work to alter genes to increase vitamin content.

In doing these things, they are not introducing foreign genes and reducing side effects.

Genetically altering plants or crops can be dangerous because it can alter the environment in which they lives if given the wrong traits (p 105).

George Washington Carver:

Conducted plant-breeding experiments to develop new varieties of cotton that yielded more than twice as much cotton per acre and grew well without very much fertilizer.

He discovered more than 300 uses for peanuts .

Luther Burbank:

Plant breeder who developed a larger, whiter potato.

Burbank developed hundreds of unusual new varieties of plums, peaches, berries, prunes, tomatoes, nuts, and flowers by crossing different kinds of fruits and vegetables.

Bred a white blackberry.

Bred a spineless cactus.

Developed a method of attaching one type of fruit tree onto another to produce faster growing varieties.

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• n- pollen form in male parts of a pea flower pollinates the female parts of the same flower.

Cross-Pollination: When pollen from one flower is transported to a different flower. This can be done by winds, birds, or insects.

Mendel and Pollination -

• Mendel cross-pollinated peas by removing male parts from a flower, then transfering pollen from another flower to the flower with only female parts.
• Peas usually self-pollinate in nature so Mendel had to cross-pollinate by hand to control which plants were crossed.

Purebred- A self pollinated organism that shows the same form of a trait in all its offspring for several generations of self-pollination.

Hybrid- An organism produced by crossing parents that have two different forms of the same trait.

Dominant Trait- The form of the trait that appears in the hybrid generation.    (occurs after purebred parents with different forms of a trait are crossed)

Recessive Trait- The form of a trait hidden in the hybrid generation.

How Mendel analyzed data:

• He studied only one or two traits at a time.
• He kept detailed records.
• This system made it easier for him to analyze results

Traits that Mendel Analyzed:

• seed color
• plant height
• flower color
• flower position
• pod color
• pod shape

Mendel cross-pollinated purebred short peas with tall purebred peas.....The result was that all were tall hybrids.

Parents pass inherited traits to their offspring during reproduction.

Mendel found that offspring have some traits of one parent and some traits of the other parent.....but they do not show all of the traits of both parents.

Mendel's Hypothesis:

1. Traits are passed from parent to offspring by "factors."
2. Offspring inherit a pair of factors for each trait, one from each parent.
3. If the factors are different, the dominant factor is expressed in the offspring.

Geneticists- Scientists who study how heredity works.

The study of genetics is used by medical researchers to find cures for inherited diseases.

Probability- How likely it is that something will happen.

Punnet Square- a table used to predict the outcome of crossing different forms of a trait.

Letters are used to represent factors for each trait.

A capital letter  stands for the dominant factors.

A lowercase letter stands for the recessive factor.

A punnett square shows the different combinations of factors offspring can inherit from their parents.

A punnet square predicts outcomes of crosses.

Incomplete Dominance- Occurs when neither of the two forms of a trait completely masks the other.

Pedigree- A chart used to trace the history of traits in a family.

Humans inherit factors for traits, they do not inherit traits.

Carrier- An individual who has the factor for a particular trait but who does not show that trait.