Limited Time Offer: Get 2 Months of ABCmouse.com for only $5!

Ms. Bruckner's Global 12 Prep

GLOBAL PREP 12TH GRADE INFORMATION- abrucknersfe@gmail.com


DECEMBER 20TH-23RD:
 

DECEMBER 13TH-19TH:
Belief Systems Unit: PowerPoint Creations in Pairs

DECEMBER 5TH-12TH:
Genocide Unit: Public Service Announcement Commercial Creation

REST OF NOVEMBER:
Midterm and Review

WEEK OF NOVEMBER 14TH-18TH
Unit: Political Revolutions- Notes Carousel, Jeopardy Review, Midterm Review,
Midterm Day 1: DBQ scaffold questions: Nationalism
Midterm Day 2 will be on Monday November 21st- DBQ Essay to be written
Midterm Day 3: Tuesday November 22nd- multiple choice questions
Midterm Day 4: Wednesday November 23rd- make up day/thematic essay

THURSDAY NOVEMBER 10TH
Thematic Essay Writing Assessment- those on field trip it is due by Monday

WEDNESDAY NOVEMBER 9TH
World War II Notes and Discussion

Background-WWII

  • The rise of the fascist Adolf Hitler and the formation of German totalitarianism is directly related to the Versailles Treaty. 
  • Hitler blamed it for Germany's economic trouble.
  • The Nazi Party came to power in the early 1930's; used terror to achieve its goals.
  • Benito Mussolini, the fascist leader of Italy, had a similar rise and utilized the same policies.

Causes of World War II

  • The Axis Powers (Germany, Italy and Japan) were power hungry
  • The League of Nations and the Kellogg-Briand Pact were weak and ineffectual
  • Immediate Cause was appeasement
  • Allied Powers (U.S., Britain, France) allowed Germany to use nationalism and militarism
  • Germany violated the treaty of Versailles

Munich Conference

  • British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, led a conference in Munich, Germany (1938)
  • Appeasement became official when Hitler was allowed to keep what he had taken if he promised to stop

Hitler Begins the War

  • Invaded Poland in 1939
  • Blitzkrieg tactic: “Lightening War”
    • Use all available military resources to attack the target simultaneously

Theaters of the War

  • European Theater
    • Britain and France fell to the Germans
    • Fall of Paris and Battle of Britain
    • Italian and German troops gained control of the Mediterranean and the North coast of Africa
    • Germany attacked the Soviet Union despite their secret agreement
    • D-Day invasion (U.S. on French coast)
    • Hitler committed Suicide as Soviets took control in 1945
  • Pacific Theater
    • (U.S. and Japan primarily)
    • General Douglas MacArthur’s Island Hopping Campaign
    • Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Holocaust

  • Jews persecuted and blamed for Germany’s problems
  • Death camps- people were killed by the masses
  • Atrocities of the Holocaust came out following Soviets taking Germany
  • Nuremburg Trials: Nazis held accountable for their crimes

Aftermath

  • United Nations
  • Superpowers formed to lead into Cold War
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) vs. Warsaw Pact
  • United States vs. Soviet Union

MONDAY NOVEMBER 7TH
World War was also called The Great War, or “The War to End All Wars.”  (1914-1918)

Causes of World War I

Militarism- Imperialism and nationalism led to increased production of goods and economic stability in these countries, which resulted in an arms race. The aggressive attitude of this policy drove them into producing more weaponry, such as strong navies and armored vehicles.

Alliances: The alliances of Europe were formed for protection against each other. However, the Triple Entente and the Triple Alliance very quickly took aggressive postures towards one another. This is due in large part to the lack of any global organization designed to promote peace among the nations of the world.

Imperialism: European countries divided up Africa and Asia to strengthen the political and economic power of the mother country. This resulted in competition among European countries.

Nationalism: Nationalism was both a uniting force and a divisive one. It resulted in Germany and Italy uniting into strong nations, and also caused the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary.

The Powder Keg

  • The Ottoman Empire broke apart
  • Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and the entire Balkan region struggled to free themselves.
  • All of the tension in this area made the region become known as the “powder keg,” meaning it could blow any second.

The Spark that Ignited War

  • In 1914, Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife were visiting the capital of Bosnia. 
  • A Serbian nationalist group called the Black Hand assassinated the Archduke
  • The countries of Europe took sides and war began

Trench Warfare:

  • Most of World War I was a stalemate
  • Both sides stayed in trenches and would attack each other from there
  • This style was brutal; disease was everywhere

Technology

  • Machine Gun
  • Tank
  • Airplane
  • Submarine
  • Use of Poison Gas

Aftermath

  • “Big Four” met to sign the Treaty of Versailles in 1919
  • Vittorio Orlando of Italy, Woodrow Wilson of U.S., David Lloyd George of Britain, Georges Clemenceau of France
  • League of Nations was created to prevent another war of this magnitude
  • The United States wished to remain neutral, so it did not join the League of Nations and the League became ineffective
  • Germany was forced to pay reparations and give up territory, as they were blamed for the start of the physical war.

Worldwide Depression

  • Europe needed to rebuild cities, give soldiers returning jobs and recover from war debt
  • The United States experienced economic prosperity until the stock market crash of 1929 that reverberated throughout the world

Economic Problems

  • Industrialized countries imported huge amounts of raw materials. After the war, production fell and imperialized countries suffered
  • Following the war, industries tried to keep production up, but they could not sell
  • Millions of people lost their jobs as banks and businesses closed around the world
  • Living conditions were horrible

FRIDAY NOVEMBER 4TH
Groups present PowerPoint projects for grade

THURSDAY NOVEMBER 3RD
Groups work on Africa PowerPoint projects

WEDNESDAY NOVEMBER 2ND
Completion of Africa Notes; Introduction of PowerPoint project about modern problems facing Africa

Modern Issues facing Africa

HIV/AIDS; Poverty; Global Warming; Desertification; Hunger/Starvation; Diamond Conflict; Darfur Conflict; Human Trafficking

Modern Issues in Africa: PowerPoint Mini- Project Guidelines

Step 1: Choose a Topic
Step 2: Do some research
Step 3: Create your slides:

  • Slide 1: Topic, Presenter(s)
  • Slide 2: What is the issue being presented? Brief summary of the issue at hand (3 sentences)
  • Slide 3: Who is affected by it? (Significant groups, people, individuals)
  • Slide 4: Where in Africa is this focused on? (Geography)
  • Slide 5: How can we change this?
  • Slide 6: What Global History Themes is this topic relative to?

TUESDAY NOVEMBER 1ST
Notes on Africa Day 2:

The Spread of Islam:

North Africa:

  • Muslim armies carried Islam into North Africa in the mid-late 600s
  • After joining forces, Muslims and North Africans continued to spread Islam to other parts of North and West Africa

Imperialism

Domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country. 

The Scramble for Africa:

  • 1870s: King Leopold of Belgium sent a mission to interior Africa to establish trade agreements
  • This began the Scramble for Africa by European nations

The Berlin Conference

  • 1884: European leaders met in Berlin, Germany to set up rules for colonizing Africa.
  • They divided Africa with little regard for the people who actually lived there.
  • In 1850, most of Africa was free. By 1857, it was nearly all colonized.

The Boer War

  • Dutch farmers (called Boers) settled in southern Africa in the 1600s
  • In the 1800s the British acquired the cape Town Colony from the Dutch
  • Cecil Rhodes became the prime minister of the Cape Colony in 1890
    • In the late 1800s, the British decided to annex the Boer republics
    • Boers resisted= Boer War (1899-1902)

African Independence Movements

  • Pan-Africanism: emphasized the unity of Africans and people of African descent all over the world
  • Most African nations did not gain independence from their European countries until after 1945
  • Ghana
    • Gold coast was British
    • Leader Kwame Nkrumah, inspired by Pan-Africanism and Gandhi organized a political party
    • 1957: British granted Gold Coast independence; Nkrumah became prime minister
  • Kenya
    • British colony
    • Independence led by Jomo Kenyatta
    • Some people turned violent, Kenyatta jailed; later released (1963)-became prime minister
  • Algeria
    • French colony
    • Muslim nationalist movement vs. French army resulted in 100’s of 1,000’s of deaths (1954-1962)
    • Public opinion in France turned against the war- 1962 Algeria= Free

Economic Links with Europe

  • Imperialism created trading patterns
  • Africa relied on European goods
  • Rising debts and trade deficits exist today

Ethnic Tensions and Nationalism

  • Nigeria
    • Tribalism led to civil war- 200 different ethnic groups exist
    • 1966: massacre of 20,000
    • War raged for several years
  • Rwanda
    • Ethnic conflict leading to genocide
    • Before 1994, Rwanda was 85 percent Hutu and 14 percent Tutsi
    • Hutu extremists launched a murderous campaign against the Tutsis
    • 500, 000 people were killed in a few months
  • Darfur
    • A region of western Sudan
    • Since 2003, Arabic militias have killed more than 200,000 black villagers with the quiet approval of the Sudanese government
    • More than 2 million villagers have become refugees: UN trying to negotiate

Apartheid

  • Legal separation of the races
  • African-National Congress (ANC)
    • 1912: organized in South Africa, used boycotts and nonviolent civil disobedience
    • South African government outlawed the ANC following riots
  • Nelson Mandela
    • Leader in the ANC
    • Sentenced to prison for life
  • Desmond Tutu
    • Black Anglican bishop and civil rights leader
    • Convinced foreign nations and businesses to limit trade and investment in segregated South Africa
  • F.W. de Klerk
    • President of South Africa in 1989
    • Legalized the ANC knowing reform was needed
    • Repealed segregation laws
    • Mandela released from jail and elected president in 1990

MONDAY OCTOBER 31ST
Africa Unit Day 1: Early African Trading Civilizations. Graphic Organizer Creation with vocabulary.

Early African Trading Kingdoms:

1.      Formed diverse societies in different geographical areas

2.      Built trading empires in Ghana, Mali, Songhai, and Axum

3.      Became part of the global trade network through West African and East African trading states

4.      Were introduced to the religion of Islam

5.      Maintained traditions around village, family, and religious belief

Ghana (800-1000)

Mali (1200-1450)

Songhai (1450-1600)

Controls trade in gold and salt across West Africa

Mali conquers kingdom of Ghana

Songhai grows into largest West African state

Women work in business and government

Mansa Musa becomes great emperor

Controls important trade routes

King has Muslim advisors

Mali controls gold trade routes

Emperor sets up Muslim dynasty

 

Timbuktu becomes a great trading city and center of learning

 

Savanna: grassy plain

Desert: dry, barren land

Ghana: Muslim merchants settled an area where rulers of many farming villages united to create a kingdom

Mali: ruled by kings, extended its borders and dominated West Africa, Islamic

Mansa Musa: most powerful ruler of Mali

Songhai: largest African state that controlled important trading routes and set up a Muslim dynasty

Swahili: language that mixed Arabic words with Bantu, an African language

Axum: kingdom located in East Africa on the Red Sea that linked Africa, India and the Mediterranean world through trade

FRIDAY OCTOBER 28TH
No Class- early dismissal

THURSDAY OCTOBER 27TH
DBQ Essay Strategies. Whole class instruction and creation of DBQ Essay Outline.  Essay due Monday in class.
DBQ Essay Organization:

  1. Re-read the task- this will tell you exactly what you need to include in your essay.
  2. Organize the documents into any groups you might need. Make a chart and fill it in with the outside information you brainstormed to start with.
  3. Create a thesis statement- what will your essay be about?
  4. Come up with a broad opening- how will you introduce the topic?
  5. Begin writing the essay- use your outline to help guide your process.

WEDNESDAY OCTOBER 26TH
DBQ Document Reading Strategies with accompanying DBQ Practice (Industrial Revolution Topic)
DBQ Document Reading:
1. Read the entire task for the Part B essay

2. Annotate the page- identify what it is you will need to write about.

3. Brainstorm everything you know about the topic before you begin to read teh documents.

4. Read the question that accompanies the document FIRST! You need to know what information is needed from the document before you can effectively extract it.

5.  Annotate the document- you are allowed to do this.  Even with pictures and maps, make notes for yourself.  In the blank spaces, you can reason out what your final answer will be.

6. Especially with text documents, underline, circle and mark up the text.  This will help you sort through a particularly long or difficult document.

7. Think about what the question asks you.  Look back to your notes on the document before you create your answer.

8. Answer every question!!!!!

9. When finished with the documents, go back and review them.  Organize them into any possible groups and outline your essay.

TUESDAY OCTOBER 25TH
Industrial Revolution Day 1: Notes

 

INVENTOR

NATION

INVENTION OR DEVELOPMENT

YEAR

Henry Bessemer

Great Britain

Process to turn iron ore into steel

1856

Alexander Graham Bell

United States

Telephone

1876

Thomas Edison

United States

Electric Light Bulb

1879

Gottlieb Daimier

Germany

Automobile

1887

Henry Ford

United States

Mass-Produced Automobile

1903

Orville and Wilbur Wright

United States

Airplane

1903

Causes:

  1. Agrarian Revolution: was a change in farming methods that allowed for a greater production of food.  Fueled by the use of new farming technology.  Population explosion.
  2. Geography: Great Britain has an abundance of natural resources needed for industrialization such as iron ore and coal.  Also, had access to rivers and natural harbors.
  3. Capital: The British had a vast overseas empire that provided them with a strong economy. (mercantilism)
  4. Technology and Energy: Britain experienced a revolution in the change from animal power to water and then steam power (steam engine source of industrial revolution

Effects:

  1. Mass Production: Factory system, shifted people from rural areas to cities (urbanization)
  2. Big Business: influx of capital allowed business to grow into corporations with interest in many different areas.
  3. Laissez-Faire Economics: Economic philosophy began by Adam Smith (Wealth of Nations)- business and economy would run best without government influence.
  4. Working Conditions: long hours, little pay, child labor, unsafe and harsh conditions
  5. Societal Changes: middle class role development, women began to work, more formal education
  6. Communism: Karl Marx (Communist Manifesto) working class importance-all equal
  7. Imperialism: colonizing new markets for goods and raw materials (scramble for Africa)

The Industrial Revolution was a major turning point in world history as it resulted in a complete change in society on all levels. Effects of the Industrial Revolutions were long reaching, and influenced many other cultures both positively and negatively.

MONDAY OCTOBER 17TH
Age of Absolutism Unit Day 1: Guided Reading
NOTES FOR UNIT:

Absolute Monarchs in Europe 1500-1800
Patterns of Interaction chapter 21

Section 1: Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism

  1. Spain’s Powerful Empire
    1. In 1556, Philip II becomes king of Spain, the wealthiest, most powerful nation in Europe.
    2. Wealthy because of explorations to the new world- they controlled a large amount of South and Central America
    3. Philip defends Roman Catholicism against Protestantism and Islam
    4. Spanish riches help stimulate a golden age in the arts
  2. Problems Weaken the Spanish Empire
    1. Inflation and an unequal tax structure unbalance the Spanish economy.
    2. Spain spends much of its money overseas, further harming the economy.
    3. The Dutch revolt and break away from Spain to form a new nation.
  3. The Independent Dutch Prosper
    1. Religious toleration is practiced in the Dutch republic
    2. Dutch traders make the Netherlands a center of European trade and banking
    3. Dutch art flourishes in a climate of prosperity
  4. Absolutism in Europe
    1. Absolute monarchs try to ensure that all power stays in their hands
    2. They believe that God gives them the right to rule
    3. Both the centralization of state authority and crises in Europe fuel the growth of absolute rule

Vocabulary:
Absolute Monarch: a king or queen who has unlimited power and seeks to control all aspects of society
Divine Right: the idea that monarchs are God’s representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God

Section 2: France’s Ultimate Monarch

  1. Religious Wars Create a Crisis
    1. In the late 1500s, French Protestants and Catholics fight eight civil wars
    2. King Henry IV tries to end the conflict by guaranteeing religious tolerance
    3. After Henry’s death, Cardinal Richelieu becomes the power behind the throne
    4. French thinkers embrace skepticism as a world view
  2. Louis XIV Rules Absolutely
    1. Cardinal Mazarin rules France during Louis XIV’s childhood
    2. Mazarin raises taxes and strengthens the central government, despite nobility-led riots
    3. After Mazarin’s death, Louis rules independently, becoming the most powerful king in the history of France.
    4. Louis’s finance minister, Jean Baptiste Colbert, tries to make France economically self-sufficient.
  3. Louis’ Grand Style
    1. Louis XIV surrounds himself with luxury
    2. He brings nobles to his court and makes them wait on him
    3. He builds a lavish palace at Versailles and become a great patron of the arts.
  4. Louis Fights Disastrous Wars
    1. Louis XIV builds up a huge army and wages war to expand French territory and influence
    2. Other European nations join forces to equal French power
    3. France gains but eventually weakens from constant war

Vocabulary:
Intendent: a French government official appointed by the monarch to collect taxes and administer justice
War of Spanish Succession: a conflict, lasting from 1701-1713, in which a number of European states fought to prevent the Bourbon family from controlling Spain and France

Section 3: Central European Monarchs Clash

  1. The Thirty Years’ War
    1. In 1618, Protestant and Catholic states in Germany go to war
    2. The Thirty Years’ War causes great destruction
    3. The Peace of Westphalia ends the war in 1648, with major effects on central European states and their allies
  2. Central Europe Differs from the West
    1. The formation of states in central Europe occurs more slowly than in western Europe
    2. Central European nobles hold down serfs and block the development of strong kings
    3. The Holy Roman Empire loses strength after the Thirty Years’ War, but Austria remains a powerful force in central Europe
  3. Prussia and Austria Clash
    1. Under Hohenzollern rule, Prussia challenges Austrian power in central Europe
    2. Prussian rulers Frederick William and Frederick the Great forge a military state that limits the power of the nobles
    3. In the 1700s, Prussia battles Austria in wars that involve other European powers and produce mixed results

Vocabulary:
Thirty Years’ War: a European conflict over religion, over territory, and for power among ruling families, lasting from 1618 to 1648
Seven Years’ War: a conflict in Europe, North America, and India, lasting from 1756 to 1763, in which the forces of Britain and Prussia battled those of Austria, France, Russia, and other countries.

Section 4: Russian Czars Increase Power

  1. From Ivan to the Romanovs
    1. A series of Russian czars, including Ivan the Terrible, tries to strengthen the Russian state and reduce the power of the boyars, or nobles
    2. After an initial “good” period, Ivan creates a ruthless police state and persecutes all who oppose him
    3. Russia enters the Time of Troubles after Ivan’s death, but Romanov rulers restore order
  2.  Peter Rules Absolutely
    1. Peter decides to westernize Russia so it can compete with western Europe
    2. He places religion under state control, limits nobles’ power, and modernizes the army
    3. he gains territory on the Baltic Sea and builds the warm water seaport St. Petersburg to gain easier access to the West

Vocabulary:

Westernization: an adoption of the social, political or economic institutions of Western- especially European or American- countries
Boyars: landowning nobles of Russia

Section 5: Parliament Limits the English Monarchy

  1. Monarchs Clash with Parliament
    1. English kings clash with Parliament over money and power
    2. Charles I dissolves Parliament when it opposes him
  2. English Civil War
    1. Charles I recalls Parliament, but the two sides soon clash
    2. Supporters and opponents of Charles I fight a civil war
    3. The Puritans, led by Oliver Cromwell, win the civil war
    4. Charles I is executed and Cromwell rules as dictator
  3. Restoration and Revolution
    1. After Cromwell’s death, disillusionment with Puritan rule leads to the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II
    2. James II takes the throne next but is deposed for his pro-Catholic bias and contempt for Parliament
    3. William and Mary take power in the Glorious Revolution
  4. Political Changes
    1. William and Mary agree to govern with Parliament in a constitutional monarchy
    2. Parliament drafts a Bill of Rights, limiting royal power
    3. The cabinet, set up as a link between Parliament and the monarchy, becomes the center of power

Vocabulary:
English Civil War: a conflict, lasting from 1642 to 1649, in which Puritan supporters of Parliament battles supporters of England’s monarchy
Restoration: the period of Charles II’s rule over England, after the collapse of Oliver Cromwell’s government
Habeas Corpus: a document requiring that a prisoner be brought before a court of judge so that it can be decided whether his or her imprisonment is legal
Glorious Revolution: the bloodless overthrow of the English King James II and his replacement by William and Mary
Constitutional Monarchy: a monarchy in which the ruler’s power is limited by law

THURSDAY OCTOBER 13TH
Review for Test; completion of week-long KWL chart about the Dynasties
Powerpoint review with notes:
Tang and Song Dynasty
Tang Dynasty 618-907
Following civil war, Tang reestablished a unified government
Expanded territories, demanding tribute from Korea and Vietnam
Redistributed land to peasants
Civil Service System: Confucian scholars run government
Established law code
Strict social structure: gentry, peasantry, merchants
Invented gunpowder, block printing, mechanical clocks
Developed smallpox vaccine in the 10th century-did not reach Europe ‘til 1600s

Song Dynasty 960-1279
Lack of strong central government led to the rise of Song Emperor
China began rice cultivation
Maintained extensive trade with India, Persia and the Middle East
Porcelain, calligraphy, landscape paintings, design of the pagoda
Movable type printing machines which spread to Europe by Mongol armies
Spinning wheel for silk into cloth

Mongol Dynasty
Conquered many lands in Asia and Europe
Period of stability and growth (Pax Mongolia)
Increased trade- silk road
Pressures of diverse power grew and the Mongols declined
Genghis Khan-invaded Eastern Europe
Kublai Khan in China (Yuan dynasty)
Absolutist government in Russia

Ming Dynasty
1368-1644
Ming seized power following Mongol rule.
Restored Confucian government
Economic Revival due to great achievements and agricultural production
Population growth from increased food production
Thrived on porcelain, paper, tools, printing, canal system
Confucian poetry, opera and drama, landscape painting, blue and white vases

Zhou, Qin, Han
Zhou (1027BC-221BC) overthrew the Shang claiming they had the Mandate of Heaven or divine right of rule
Used to explain the Dynastic Cycle
Discovery of silk creation, book making
Feudalism system in place

Qin (221BC-206BC) abolished feudalism and created military districts
National money and standardized measurements
Uniformity in Chinese writing
Great Wall built to keep out invaders

Han (206-220) created a Golden Age for China. 
Emperor Wudi strengthened economy and opened the Silk Road
Confucianism became official belief system of China-civil service exam
Wrote books and people were advanced astronomers
Developed acupuncture

Maya, Aztec, Inca
Mayas developed a complex agricultural society
Men cultivated crops, women made food
farmers paid taxes to support cities and temples
Each city-state had its own ruler with a strict social hierarchy
Giant pyramid temples, system of writing, 365 day calendar
number system, concept of zero before Europeans
Cities became abandoned from warfare

Aztecs became dominant power in Central Mexico
Ruled by a single emperor, chosen by a council of nobles and priests
Warriors, traders (scouted lands for future conquests)
Slaves = criminals or enemies captured, guaranteed rights and could own land and buy freedoms
Established schools and developed ways to treat dental cavities and set broken bones

Incas ruled by an emperor who held absolute power
Officials collected taxes and enforced laws
Built system of roads, bridges, and tunnels to connect empire
used terraces to farm sides of mountains
Performed surgery and used herbs as antiseptics

Heian Period (feudal Japan)
Lasted from 12th c.-19th c.
Class structure- Emperor (shogun) Tokugawa Shogunate
Time of peace and stability
Strong Economy, agriculture and commerce

THURSDAY OCTOBER 6TH
Review for "Quest" (Quiz/Test) tomorrow:

Classical Greece

  • Geography: mountainous, archipelago
  • Led to the development of city-states= little amount of cultural diffusion 
  • Athens = direct democracy.  Under this system, only eligible citizens were able to participate in government.  Women, slaves, and those who didn’t own land weren’t included
  • Development of art and philosophy

Hellenistic (Greece)

  • Began under leadership of Alexander the Great
  • Empire ran from Greece to the Indus River Valley
  • Hellenistic society was a blending of Greek, Egyptian, and Persian cultures
  • Led to advancements in math, science, art, and literature.  
  • Alexander died young, and his empire was divided between his strongest generals.

Ancient Rome

  • The Roman Republic was founded in 509 BCE. 
  • Government: elected officials = senators; chosen from upper class (Patricians); lower class= biggest group (Plebeians)
  • By 270 BCE, Rome controlled all of Italy and eventually Carthage, Macedonia, Greece, and parts of Asia Minor.  
  • Civil war broke out when Julius Caesar took power
  • Augustus came into power and turned Rome into an empire
  • This helped spread language, the alphabet, and Rome was supported through taxes and trade

Byzantine Empire

  • Roman Empire became divided under Diocletian. 
  • Eastern half became known as the Byzantine Empire with the capitol being Byzantium
  • They preserved Ancient Greek and Roman culture and spread the ideals
  • Russia benefited: Orthodox Christian religion
  • Greek Alphabet spread to allow Cyrillic alphabet


Classical contributions to the Development of Law
Greece: first direct democracy defined roles of citizen in government

Rome: Laws of the Twelve Tables; first law code that applied to all people

Byzantium: Justinian's Code foundation of medieval law

Gupta Empire
Background
The Golden Age of India occurs under the rule of the Gupta Dynasty (320 - 550 CE)
Strong central government which also allowed a degree of local control. 
Hindu beliefs
Gupta mathematicians developed the concept of zero in the use decimal system based on the number 10. 
Medicine
Herbal Remedies
Vaccines against smallpox
Plastic Surgery 
Arts & Literature
temples for the Hindu Gods
Buddhist shrines called Stupas (Pagodas in China)
Literature: Sanskrit, Aladdin
The Gupta Dynasty declined due to weak rulers and a series of invasions

Ottoman Empire

  • 1400s and 1500s
  • Southeastern Europe through the Middle East and North Africa
  • Extended Muslim influence
  • Made contributions in the arts, architecture and literature
  • Forced Europeans to begin seeking new routes for trade with Asia
  • Constantinople = biggest city
  • Decline: Internal Disorder, European growth
Get 2 Months for $5!