Biology - Course OutlineFirst Semester -
I. Cellular Growth
A. Cell Size Limitations
1. Ratio of surface area to volume
2. Transport of substances
3. Cellular communications
B. The Cell Cycle
1. The stages of interphase
2. Mitosis and cytokinesis
3. Prokaryotic cell division
C. Mitosis and cytokinesis
2. The Stages of Mitosis
D. Cell cycle regulation
1. Normal Cell Cycle
a. The role cyclins
b. Quality Control checkpoints
2. Abnormal Cell Cycle: Cancer
a. Causes of cancer
b. Cancer genetics
4. Stem Cells
a. Embryonic stem cells
b. Adult stem cells
A. Chromosomes and Chromosome Number
1. Homologous chromosomes
2. Haploid and diploid cells
B. Meiosis I
2. Prophase I
3. Metaphase I
4. Anaphase I
5. Telophase I
C. Meiosis II
D. The Importance of Meiosis
1. Meiosis provides variation
Mitosis and Meiosis
2. Smart Board
3. Powerpoint for teaching
4. Sheets of paper for students to create foldables. Each foldable will allow the student to record what they learn from each phase of mitosis and meiosis.
5. Crossword Review of key words: cell cycle, interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis, chromosome, chromatin, prophase, sister chromatid, centromere, spindle apparatus, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cyclin, cyclin dependent kinase, cancer carcingogen, apotosis and stem cell.
6. Paper to draw the phases of the cell cycle for Mitosis and Meiosis
Mitosis and Meiosis
Create a powerpoint describing the process of Mitosis and Meiosis.Review Questions
Mitosis Review - All of this will be on the test. Quiz yourself! Requiz yourself! Have someone else quiz you!1. What is responsible for moving chromosomes during mitosis?
2. In what phase does a cell spend most of its life?
3. What does each phase of mitosis look like?
4. What happens during each of the phases?
5. What are the four phases of mitosis (from first to last)?
6. What are chromatids? How do they differ from chromosomes?
7. What are chromosomes made of? Where are they found?
8. What is a centromere?
9. What are the five parts of the cell cycle?
10. How many chromosomes are in a human body cell?
11. What are centrioles? What types of cells have them?
12. What is the spindle?
13. What is cytokinesis? How is it different in plants and animal cells?
14. What two things limit the size of cells?
15. Why is surface area and volume important for cell sizes?
16. What limits cell division?
17. What is cyclin?
18. Define Cancer. What causes cancer?
19. What are stem cells and where do they come from?
Review Questions - “Meiosis”
1. Distinguish between germ cells and gametes.
2."One parent alone produces offspring, and each offspring inherits the same number and kinds of genes as its parent" describes _______ reproduction.
3._____________ reproduction involves meiosis, gamete formation, and fertilization.
4.________________divides chromosomes into separate parcels not once but twice prior to cell division.
5.Describe the relationship between the following terms: homologous chromosomes, diploid number , and haploid number .
6.If the diploid chromosome number for a particular plant species is 18, the haploid gamete number is__________.
7.During interphase a germ cell duplicates its DNA; a duplicated chromosome consists of two DNA molecules that remain attached to a constriction called the __________.
8.As long as the two DNA molecules remain attached, they are referred to as __________ __________ of the chromosome.
9.During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair; each homologue consists of __________ chromatids.
10.During meiosis II, the two sister __________ of each _________ are separated from each other.
11.Interphase of the cell cycle consists of G1,__________, and G2.
12.The __________ attachment and subsequent positioning of each pair of maternal and paternal chromosomes at metaphase I lead to different__________ of maternal and paternal traits ineach generation of offspring.
13.Meiosis in the animal life cycle results in haploid __________; meiosis in the plant life cycle results in haploid __________ 14.Using the special terms for the cells at the various stages, describe spermatogenesis in male animals and oogenesis in female animals.
15.Crossing over, the distribution of random mixes of homologous chromosomes into gametes, and fertilization contribute to __________ in the traits of offspring.
16.Mitotic cell division produces only _______________; meiotic cell division, in conjunction with subsequent fertilization, promotes __________________ in traits among offspring.
17.Be able to list three ways that meiosis promotes variation in offspring.
Use this website to view more cells and processes with interactive modules.http://www.cellsalive.com/
To view flourescent pictures of meiosis visit this website http://microscopy.fsu.edu/micro/gallery/mitosis/mitosis.html
Students can view a mitosis tutorial at this web address http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/tutorials/cell_cycle/problems.html
Other Useful Information
Any biology class can be educated with meaningful lab assignments. High schools are not usually equipped for in depth procedures but some laboratories can be designed within a topic that will help make the student think about what they have learned.
Do sunscreens really block sunlight? Sunscreens contain a variety of different compounds that absorb UVB from sunlight. UVB is linked to mutations in DNA that can lead to skin cancer. Find out how effective at blocking sunlight various sunscreens are.
1. Read and complete the laboratory safety form.
2. Choose one of the sunscreen products provided by your teacher. Record the active ingredients and the sun protection factor (SPF) on the data sheet.
3. Obtain two sheets of plastic wrap. On one sheet use a permanent marker to draw two widely spaced circles. Place a drop of sunscreen in the middle of one circle and a drop of zinc oxide in the middle of the other.
4. Lay the second sheet on top of both circles. Spread the drops by pressing with a book.
5. Take a covered piece of Sun sensitive paper and your two pieces of plastic wrap to a sunny area. Quickly uncover the paper, lay the two peices of plastic wrap on top, and place in the sunlight.
6. After the paper is fully exposed (1-5 minutes), remove it from the sunlight and develop according to instructions.
1. Think Critically-Why did you compare the sunscreens to zinc oxide?
2. Draw conclusions-After examining the developed Sun sensitive papers from your class, which sunscreens do you think would be most likely to prevent DNA mutations?