Chapter 7, Lesson 4 Notes
*A natural disaster is a natural event that causes severe or widespread destruction.
*Natural disasters such as hurricanes, tornados, and wildfires have repeatedly damaged many areas of Florida, causing loss of life and damage to property.
*40% of all hurricanes in the United States hit Florida.
*Much damage can be done by powerful, long-lasting winds sometimes called sustained winds.
*Hurricanes can produce 15-30 centimeters of rain, up to 160 kilometers inland mostly during the 6 hours before and after landfall. These rains can cause flash floods and mudslides.
*The rush of water that is caused by powerful winds is called a storm surge. Storm surges are the greatest threat to life and property during a hurricane.
*In the ocean, storm surges can be 80-160 kilometers wide and raise sea levels 4.5 meters above normal tides.
*In the summer months, tornadoes form from tropical cyclones making landfall in Florida. More powerful tornadoes occur in late winter as the jet stream moves south into Florida bringing strengthened thunderstorms.
*A wildfire is a large fire that spreads quickly over a natural area and is started by lightning, arson, or debris burning. While wildfires are destructive and dangerous, they also shape the landscape in Florida.
*A flood is an overflowing of water in a normally dry area.
*Hurricanes can bring heavy rains to much of Florida causing flooding.
*Many floods occur when the volume of water in a river increases so much that the river overflows its channel.
*Other floods are caused by storm surges. Floods can be caused by storm surges from ocean or from large lakes.
*People try to control floods by building dams.
*A long period of scarce rainfall or dry weather is known as a drought. Droughts are usually caused by dry weather systems that remain in one place for weeks or months at a time.
*Long-term droughts can cause crop failure and even famine. People can prepare by conserving water when dry conditions first occur.
*If you hear a hurricane warning and are told to evacuate, leave the area immediately.
*The safest place to be during a tornado is in either a storm shelter or a basement.
*During thunderstorms, avoid places where lightning may strike. Also, avoid objects that can conduct electricity, such as metal objects and bodies of water.
*The sun can be harmful to your skin and eyes. To protect yourself from the harmful effects of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation, limit your exposure to the sun.
*If you are outside for a duration of time, apply sunscreen with UVA/UVB protection, wear clothes and wear sunglasses. Clouds do not block sun’s harmful ultraviolet radiation.