3-13-13 WH-CH 12 Summary

Chapter 12 Summary

LESSON 1- THE ROMAN WAY OF LIFE

• The capital of the Roman Empire was Rome. Wealthy nobles, 

artisans, shopkeepers, and enslaved people lived in the city.

• The Roman family was important in Roman culture. The 

father was the head of the family. Women had few rights 

and were not full citizens. 

• As Rome conquered more territories, the number of 

enslaved people increased. Enslaved people worked in 

homes, on farms, and helped build bridges and roads 

throughout the Empire.

• Romans adapted Greek ideas about religion, science, 

architecture, art, literature, and theater. 

• The Roman language, Latin, served as the basis for many 

European languages.

LESSON 2- Rome’s Decline

• During the a.d. 200s, the power of Rome declined because 

of a weakened government, a failing economy, and invasions 

by Germanic groups.

• Emperors such as Diocletian and Constantine tried to reform 

the empire. 

• Emperor Constantine moved the capital of the Empire to the 

city of Byzantium. The city was renamed Constantinople. 

Today, it is called Istanbul, Turkey.

• Emperor Theodosius divided the Empire into two empires: 

the Western Roman Empire, with its capital in Rome, and 

the Eastern Roman Empire, with its capital in 

Constantinople.

• Over the next several hundred years, German invaders—

including the Vandals and Visigoths—gained control of most 

of the Western empire.

• Rome had a lasting impact on the modern world. Even 

today, Rome influences law, government, art, architecture, 

language, and religion.