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Mrs. Johnson's Technology Page

 

History of Programming Cyberhunt

Grades 5 – 8

Students in grades 5 & 6 will answer 1 - 10, grades 7 & 8 will complete all of the questions. Please read carefully, this will count as a quiz grade!

1.  Although there were several “pioneers” in the world of programming, there are a few who stand out; Charles Babbage for one.  In Babbage's times there was a really high error rate in the calculation of math tables; Babbage planned to find a new method that could be used to make computing mechanical, removing the ___________________________________.

 

2.  Grace Hoppper pioneered work on the necessity for high-level programming languages, which she termed automatic programming, and wrote the A-O compiler, which heavily influenced the __________ language. It is significant to note that she achieved the rank of ________________________________.

 

3.  In the first half of the last century, ________________________________________ proposed a theoretical mechanical programming engine, known as the Turing Machine. This machine had an infinitely long tape, an internal register storing its state, and a table of actions.

 

4.  Define Algorithm.

 

5.  Lady Ava Byron Lovelace  met Charles Babbage at a party in 1833 when she was seventeen and was entranced when Babbage demonstrated the small working section of his Analytical  Engine to her. In 1843 she published a translation from the French of an article on the Analytical Engine by an Italian engineer, Luigi Menabrea, to which Ada added extensive notes of her own. The Notes included the first published description of a stepwise sequence of operations for solving certain mathematical problems and Ada is often referred to as '

(adalovelace)_________________________________________ '.

 

6.  A high-level programming language developed by (name him)______________________  at Bell Labs in the mid 1970s. Although originally designed as a systems programming language, C has proved to be a powerful and flexible language that can be used for a variety of applications, from business programs to engineering. C is a particularly popular language for personal computer programmers because it is relatively small -- it requires less memory than other languages.

The first______________________written in C was the UNIX operating system, and for many years C was considered to be inextricably linked with UNIX. Now, however, C is an important language independent of UNIX.

7.  In 1957 John Backus created the language Fortran.  The language was developed to perform scientific, mathematical and statistical computations. It is the oldest language still used today in several industries.

Fortran stands for _____________________________.

8.  Blaise Pascal   is credited with inventing the first calculator in 1641! In 1970 Niklaus Wirth named his language Pascal for Blaise Pascal. He created Pascal as a

__________________________________________________________________________.

 

9.  According to the chart of Programming Language Popularity what was the most popular language as of May 2011? ____________________________________________

10. The purpose of an operating system  is to organize and control __________ and __________ so that the device it lives in behaves in a

_______________________________________________________.

11. The __________________________________Laboratory implemented the first operating systems in early 1950's for their IBM 701. The system of the 50's generally ran one job at a time.

They were called ___________________________________________  because programs and data were submitted in groups or batches.

12. In the beginning-which was 1980--there was an operating system from a company in Seattle. But the company wasn't Microsoft, and the operating system wasn't MS-DOS. Seattle Computer Products sold a computer-on-a-card product which needed an operating system, and a programmer named Tim Paterson wrote one called 86-DOS. (It was also known as QDOS, for ________________________________________ DOS , reflecting how hastily it had been written.)

13. An application that's so good that people buy a particular machine with a particular operating system to use it is known as a killer app. And DOS's first killer app was unquestionably Mitch Kapor's __________________________1-2-3, which appeared in 1983. The spreadsheet was a major advance on Visicalc, the original microcomputer spreadsheet, and therefore gave businesses of all kinds a major reason to opt for a DOS system rather than a non-DOS system from Apple, Tandy, or another major manufacturer of the day.

14. In 1994, Microsoft released __________________________________. By then, most serious PC users were running Windows 3.1, so DOS was already most important as a piece of middleware between the computer and Windows. In 1995, (this operating system) _______________________ would eliminate then need for a separate copy of of DOS, although it did that mostly by incorporating a DOS (version 7.0) into the Windows package itself. Only when Wiindows _____ shipped in _____________ did the bulk of consumers get a version of Windows that didn't have DOS at its heart. 

15. On November 10, 1983, at the Plaza Hotel in New York City, Microsoft Corporation formally announced Microsoft Windows, a next-generation operating system that would provide a graphical user interface (GUI) and a multitasking environment for IBM computers. What is a GUI? What is it commonly known as and finally, who invented it?

_______________________________________________

_______________________________________________

_______________________________________________

 

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