August 24 - September 4, 2020

Module Title

Concepts and Components of Physical Fitness



       After completion of this module, you should be able to:

  1. Define physical activity, exercise, physical fitness and its related terms.
  2. Determine the factors that affect fitness.
  3. Explain how to use the Physical Activity Pyramid to plan a physical activity program.
  4. Discuss the recommended amount of physical activity for adults between 18-65.
  5. Explain the benefits of exercise.
  6. Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic exercise.
  7. Define hypokinetic and cite some hypokinetic diseases or conditions.
  8. Describe some common posture problems.
  9. List some biomechanical principles that will help you improve posture and avoid back       problems.
  10. Identify and explain the components of physical fitness.
  11. Determine the different body types and the major muscle groups.
  12. Realize the importance of the PAR-Q for everyone.
  13. Complete all the learning activities of Module 1.



Participating in physical activity, exercise and physical fitness are important health maintenance strategies for people of all ages including children, teenagers, adults, and seniors. If being physically active is to become a part of a person’s lifestyle, it will be important to make a positive emotional connection to the activities of choice. In other words, there needs to be a feeling that physical activity, exercise and physical fitness are enjoyable and fun. It can be achieved by simply making it a habit.


The intent of this lesson is to have your parents or family, peers or friends and the college work together to help you take greater ownership of your own physical fitness, promote the discovery of activities suited to your own individual interests, and encourage active lifestyles that persist into your future.




Activity 1: Common Terms in Physical Fitness

Please refer to Module 1 Answer Sheets

What is Physical Fitness?


Physical fitness refers to the ability of your body systems to work together efficiently to allow you to be healthy and perform activities of daily living . Being efficient means doing daily activities with the least effort possible (Corbin & Le Masurier,2014). Physical fitness is often described as the capability to carry out day to day functions energetically and vigilantly by keeping extra energy to do other leisure-time activities and emergency needs. It is one of the most important factors that allow us to lead a healthy and active life.



What is considered a fit person?  A fit person….


  • is able to perform schoolwork, meet home responsibilities, and still have enough energy to enjoy sport and other leisure activities.


  • A fit person can respond effectively to normal life situations, such as raking leaves at home, stocking shelves at a part-time job, and marching in the band at school.


  • A fit person can also respond to emergency situations - for example, by running to get help or aiding a friend in distress.


What factors affect fitness? These factors include your….

  1. environment                 
  2. gender                      
  3. stress                       
  4. genetics  
  5. job
  6. body type
  7. medications
  8. age
  9. diet
  10. chronic disease
  11. vices
  12. obesity                     



What is physical activity?


Physical activity refers to any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure (WHO). It include activities undertaken by you, while working, playing, carrying out household chores, traveling or engaging in recreational pursuits.


How much physical activity does WHO recommends to adults aged 18-65?

Adults aged 18–64 years:

  • You should do at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity throughout the week, or do at least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity throughout the week, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity.


  • You should increase your moderate-intensity physical activity to 300 minutes per week, or equivalent for your additional health benefits.


  • You should do muscle-strengthening activities involving your major muscle groups on 2 or more days a week.


The intensity of the various forms of physical activity varies between you and others. In order to be beneficial to your health, all physical activities should be performed by you in bouts of at least 10 minutes duration.




The Physical Activity Pyramid


The physical fitness pyramid is a guide for you to improve your physical fitness. It recommends different types of activities you should be doing in a week to stay physically fit. The closer you are to the pyramid base, the more frequent you should do the activity. As a student, you have a lot of physical activities that you can do to stay fit and healthy even with a busy schedule.


The five steps of the Physical Activity Pyramid help you understand the five kinds of physical activity, which build different parts of fitness and produce different health and wellness benefits (recall the principle of specificity).


To meet the recommended 60 minutes of daily activity, you can choose from the different types of activity and for optimal benefits, you should perform activities from all parts of the pyramid each week. As you can see, activities at or near the bottom of the pyramid may need to be done more frequently or for a longer time than those near the top of the pyramid to get the same volume of activity.


Image Available from:


Activity 2: My Personal Physical Activity Pyramid

Please refer to Module 1 Answer Sheets


What is Exercise?


You all know that exercise is important in your daily lives, but you may not know why or what exercise can do for you.  The term "exercise" has been used interchangeably with "physical activity", and, in fact, both have a number of common elements. However, exercise is a subcategory of physical activity.


Exercise is physical activity that is planned, structured and repetitive for the purpose of conditioning any part of the body used to improve health and maintain fitness. Generally, you work up a sweat, breath heavy and increase your heart rate during exercise.


What are the benefits of exercise?

There are many benefits of regular exercise and maintaining fitness and these include:
1. Exercise increases energy levels.

2. Exercise improves muscle strength.

3. Exercise can help you to maintain a healthy weight.

4. Exercise improves brain functions.

5. Exercise is good for your heart.

6. Exercise enhances your immune system.

7. Exercise may help to reduce the risks of certain cancer.

8. Exercise can help prevent and treat mental illnesses.

9. Exercise can reduce some of the effects of aging.

10.Exercise reduces the likelihood of developing some degenerative bone disease.



Group Exercise Programming.

Benefits of exercise.


What’s the difference between aerobic and anaerobic exercise?


Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are excellent forms of physical activity. However, knowing the differences between each can take fitness to the next level.  


Aerobic Exercise

According to the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), aerobic exercise refers to rhythmic activities that use large muscle groups.



“Aerobic” means “with oxygen,” and that defines what occurs in the body during this type of exercise. When people engage in aerobic exercise, the heart pumps oxygenated blood to working muscles so they can burn fuel and move. Note that the body may only burn carbohydrates and fats in the presence of oxygen.


Anaerobic Exercises


The ACSM characterizes anaerobic exercise as short, intense physical activity that is fueled by energy sources within the contracting muscles. Those types of activities include weightlifting, sprinting, and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). 


Anaerobic” means “without oxygen.” Instead of receiving energy through oxygenated blood in aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise requires the body to break down carbohydrates from blood glucose or glucose stored in muscle. Because the body doesn’t rely on oxygen in anaerobic exercise, people can only exercise in this capacity for a short amount of time.




Watch and Listen:

Digital Information: What happens inside your body when you exercise?


Activity 3: Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Exercise

Please refer to Module 1 Answer Sheets



Read: Posture Problems

A strong, long muscles contribute to a healthy back.  They also are important to good posture.  You will get to see some of the common posture problems associated with poor fitness such as lordosis, ptosis and kyphosis which are among the most common posture problems of PE 1 students CHMSC. You might recognize any of these postural problems with your own posture.  


Biomechanical Principles to help you improve your posture and avoid back problems:

  1. Use the large muscles of the body when lifting.
  2. When lifting, kip your weight (hips) low.
  3. Divide a load to make it easier to carry.
  4. Avoid twisting while lifting.
  5. Push or pull heavy objects rather than lift them.
  6. Avoid a bent-over position when sitting, standing or lifting.


Images on Bad Postures that are Ruining Your Health


Forward head and neck

Round shoulders

Anterior pelvic tilt

Elevated shoulders

Pigeon toes

Duck feet  


A bad posture problem is normally caused by a variation of weak neck muscles, seated job positions, incorrect sleeping positions, and prolonged computer or TV use. Over time, poor posture takes a serious toll on your spine, shoulders, hips, and knees.


Activity 4: Independent Discovery

Please refer to Module 1 Answer Sheets



Read Me : Components of Physical Fitness


Physical fitness is more easily understood by examining its components, or parts. As you have learned before, there are two categories of physical fitness: health-related fitness components and skill-related fitness components. However, when planning a well-rounded exercise program, it is important to understand the five components of physical fitness and how your training affects them.  The components include: cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. In general, achieving an adequate level of fitness in all five categories is essential to good health.


Watch and Listen

The 5 Components of Health Related Fitness


What is Fitness: Health & Skill Fitness Components PE


Understanding the 11 Component of Fitness



Health-related fitness



Body Composition

the makeup of the body in terms of lean mass (muscle, bone, vital tissue, and organs) and fat mass.

skinfold calipers

bioelectrical impedance analyzers  body mass index (BMI)

underwater weighing

dual energy X-ray absorptiometry


Cardiovascular endurance

the ability of the cardiovascular system (heart, blood, blood vessels) and respiratory system (lungs, air passages) to deliver oxygen and other nutrients to the working muscles and

 to remove wastes

Walking, running

(e.g., 20 m shuttle run test)


swimming, rowing


the ability to move joints through their full range of motion.

  • Static stretches
  • Dynamic stretches
  • PNF stretches

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation

  • neck stretch, chest stretch, cross body shoulder stretch
  • scorpion stretch, dynamic side lunge, arm circles, leg swing
  • Contract-Relax (CR) Method &Contract-Relax-Antagonist-

Contract (CRAC) Method

Muscular Endurance

the ability of a muscle, or a group of muscles to sustain repeated contractions or to continue applying force against a fixed object

push-ups (maximum repetition)

curl-ups (maximum repitition)

pull ups (maximum repetition)

plank hold (maximum time)

Muscular Strength

the ability of a muscle, or a group of muscles to exert maximum amount of force for a brief period of time.

weightlifting exercises

(the weight lifted, divided by the person’s body weight)

squat, lunge


Skill-related fitness




the ability of the body to change direction quickly and effectively while under control.

football, soccer, tennis, volleyball, basketball


the ability to maintain an upright posture while in a stationary position or moving.

Yoga, pilates, gymnastics, single leg exercises, Bosu ball exercises, stability ball exercises


the ability to do stretch work at an explosive pace or the amount of work performed per unit of time

Olympic lifts

(i.e. clean & jerk, snatch)


( jumps, depth jumps, clap push ups)

baseball, boxing, golf, volleyball

track and field

(high jump, long jump, pole vault, javelin)


the ability to move quickly from one point to another.


(100 meter, 200 meter, 400 meter)


(front crawl, butterfly, backstroke)


the integration of hand and/or foot movements with the input of the senses (what we see, hear and feel)

Group fitness

(Zumba, Body Pump, Bootcamp)

Baseball, basketball, golf,

jumping rope, martial arts


Reaction Time

the amount of time it takes to react to a stimulus

racquet sports

(tennis, badminton)

baseball, sprinting, swimming

martial arts


Activity 5:  Chart the Heart

Please refer to Module 1 Answer Sheets


Image Available from


Watch and Listen:

Digital Information:



 Activity 6: Fitness Quest

Please refer to Module 1 Answer Sheets

Watch and Listen:

Digital Information: Home workout (no equipment) Endurance, strength, flexibility

Sample of Fitness Quest


Fitness Component

jumping rope for three minutes

cardiovascular endurance

lower back stretch


push ups

muscular strength


muscular endurance



Read Me : Body Types and Major Muscle Groups


The three basic body types—endomorph, ectomorph, and mesomorph. Most people are actually a combination of these body types. The factors that contribute to a person’s body type are heredity, diet, exercise.


Image Available:


Read further:





Major Muscle Groups


You may be aware that there are more than 600 muscle in the human body but what are considered the major muscle groups from that list?


About 35-42 percent of your body weight is made up of muscle tissue and muscle is either cardiac, smooth or skeletal. 

  • Cardiac muscles are the muscles that control your heart.
  • Smooth muscles control involuntary functions like constricting your blood vessels.
  • Skeletal muscles are the muscles that you target in the gym that help your body move.

Muscle fibers are classified as either or slow twitch fibers  fasst twitch fibers based on their contraction times.

The actual number of major muscles groups in the body is thirteen and they are:

           Abdominals                                  Gluteus Maximus                               Quadriceps

           Biceps                                              Hamstrings                                           Trapezius

           Deltoid                                             Latissiumus Dorsi                           Triceps

           Erector Spinae                             Obliques

           Gastrocnemius                           Pectoralis


Image Available from


One of the most important muscles in this group of thirteen is the abdominal muscle known as the rectus abdominis.  It is considered part of the core that includes 28 additional muscles. Hidden beneath your “abs” is your tranverse abdominis muscle and on the sides are your (internal/external) oblique muscles.


A strong core is important for good posture and even more critical when jumping, running or lifting weight overhead. The development of a strong core is vital for everything from Active Daily Living (ADL) to sport-specific movements to helping you maintain functionality as you age. To increase endurance and strength in this area continue to use full-body movements as well as over-head lifts.


Watch and Listen:

Major Muscles of the Body


Muscle Rap


Major Muscle Resources



 Activity 7: Muscle of the Week

Please refer to Module 1 Answer Sheets



Direction: Complete the following

Please refer to Module 1 Answer Sheets

  1. PAR-Q for Everyone 
  2. Barriers to Being Active Quiz: What Keeps You from Being More Active?





ACSM’s ertification Review Second Edition.  Lippincott Williams and Wilkins (2006).

Bushman, B. ACSM’s Complete Guide to Fitness & Health, Second Edition. Champaign, IL:Human Kinetics ( 2017).


Corbin, CB, Welk, GJ, Corbin, WR and Welk, CA.  Concepts of Fitness and Wellness: A Comprehensive Lifestyle Approach, Eleventh Edition. NY: McGraw-Hill (2015).


Fahey, TD, Insel, PM, Roth , WT AND Insel, CE.  Fitwell.  Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, 12th Edition.  New York: McGrawHill (2017).


Heyward, VH and Gibson, Ann L.  Advanced Fitness Assessment and Exercise Prescription, Seventh Edition.  Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics (2014).


Hoeger, WWK and and Hoeger, S. Fitness and Wellness, 11th Edition.  Standford, CT: Cenage Learning (2015).


Hoeger, S. A., Hoeger & K. Wenner. Principles and Labs for Fitness and Wellness, Tarrant County College Department of Kinesiology; 13th Edition Cengage Learning, Boston, MA, USA (2016).


Sallis, J. F., and M. F. Hovell. “Determinants of Exercise Behavior.” Exercise and Sport Science Reviews 18 (1990): 307–30.


Sallis, J. F., M. F. Hovell, and C. R. Hofstetter. “Predictors of Adoption and Maintenance of Vigorous Physical Activity in Men and Women.” Preventive Medicine 21.2 (1992): 237–51.


Electronic Publications


Anjewierden, A. The 5 Components of Health Related Fitness.  Available from


Cederberg, Michelle. “Barriers to Physical Activity Q.” Live Out Loud!  Accessed on June 7, 2020.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Barriers to Physical Activity Quiz.” Physical Activity for Everyone: Overcoming Barriers to Physical Activity. . Adapted with permission. Accessed on June 14, 2020.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Overcoming Barriers to Physical Activity.” Physical Activity for Everyone. 22 May 2007. Accessed on June 22, 2020.


Dairy Council of California. “Physical Activity Journal.” Meals Matter: Eating for Health—Health Topics. 2005. . Adapted with permission of Dairy Council of California.


EMTprep.  How to Find the Carotid Pulse Available from Accessed on August 1, 2020.


ePARmed-X.  PAR-Q For Everyone. 2020 PAR-Q + Collaboration. Available from Accessed on June 7, 2020.


Hamilton Health Sciences. How to take your pulse. Available from Accessed on June 2, 2020.


Implementing the Safety and Physical Activity Plan.  Module A Lesson 3.  Available from  Accessed on June 17, 2020.


Maffetone, P.B & P.B. Laursen.  Athletes: Fit but Unhealthy? Sports Medicine. Article number: 24 (2016) . DOI:10.1186/s40798-016-0048-x.  Available from


Manitoba Education. Addressing Barriers to Physical Activity.  Available from Accessed on June 3, 2020.


Physical Activity for Optimal Health and Fitness.  Module B Lesson 1.  Available from  Accessed on July 22, 2020.


Personal Physical Activity Inventory. Module A. Lesson 1.  Available from Accessed on July 24, 2020.


Lappe, S. Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Exercise: Differences & Benefits. BistroMD.  July 22, 2020. Available from Accessed on June 1, 2020.


QuickTeach PE. What is Fitness: Health & Skill Fitness Components PE. Available from Accessed on June 23, 2020.