How is stainless steel made?
Until the 1950s and 1960s, when the development of AOD (argon oxygen decarburization) and VOD (vacuum oxygen decarburization) was seen, the process of manufacturing stainless steel was time-consuming and costly. However, these two developments have revolutionized the production of stainless steel, significantly reducing raw material costs, increasing productivity and improving quality. This has led to the remarkable growth of steel production from the 1970s to the present.
How is stainless steel made?
The properties of the final alloy can be refined by varying the number of various elements.
Importance of chromium in the manufacture of stainless steel
There is no viable alternative. Chromium is a tough, corrosion-resistant transition element that gives stainless steel corrosion resistance. In general, the higher the chromium content, the more resistant the steel to corrosion.
Removal of carbon content
This is done by processing the molten metal with an AOD (Argon Oxygen Decarburization) converter. The converter reduces carbon by injecting a mixture of oxygen and argon. At this stage, alloying elements such as nickel and molly can be added to the AOD converter.
Alternatively, if you need very low carbon content, you can use a VOD (Vacuum Oxygen Decarburization) converter.
Most stainless steels have strict quality requirements. Adjustment is slowly stirring the steel to remove unwanted elements and improve consistency while keeping the required composition within the temperature limits. Tube Fittings manufacturers in India gives you the best type of stainless steel in India.
Now the molten steel is cast into a shape. Instrumentation Valve manufacturers provide you the best valve of stainless steel.
Hot rolling occurs at temperatures above the recrystallization temperature of steel. The exact temperature depends on the desired grade of stainless steel. The steel foam is heated and passes through the high rollers. Flowers and billets are formed into sticks and wires. Slabs are formed on plates, strips, and sheets.
Cold rolling is used when very accurate dimensions or attractive finishes are required. This process occurs below the recrystallization temperature of steel. Cold rolling is performed by a small diameter roller and a series of support rollers. This process allows you to produce wide sheets with an improved surface finish.
Annealing is a process used to soften stainless steel, improve ductility, and refine the particle structure. It is also used to relieve the internal stress of the metal caused by previous processes.
The annealing process causes the steel to come off. These scales are usually removed by pickles, which involves immersing the steel in hydrofluoric acid. Electrical cleaning is an alternative method of using an electric current to remove scale.
Now you can cut the stainless steel to the right size. Mechanical cutting is the most common method. Stainless steel can be cut straight with a guillotine knife, circular with a circular knife, sawed with a high-speed blade, or cut with a punch and die. Other methods include flame cutting using a flame torch powered by oxygen, propane, or iron powder, or plasma jet cutting using a column of ionized gas combined with an electric arc.
For stainless steel products, surface finish is important, especially in applications where appearance is important.
Grinding wheels or polishing belts are commonly used to grind or polish steel. The smooth surface provides better corrosion resistance.