Provide a description of the 3 types of volcanic cones, giving special attention to the type of volcano that you are studying, "El Popo".


What types of eruptions are associated with the different types of volcanoes?

Be sure to provide definitions of each.

Be sure to identify which type or eruption El Popo will likely have.


How does each type of eruption form? What causes the type of eruption that El Popo will likely have?


Give other examples of volcanic activity in Central America and the northern portion of South America.

Be sure to include the most recent volcanic eruptions from the last 10 years.

Be sure to include any major eruptions that have occurred in Central America.


Do you consider "El Popo" active, dormant or extinct? Please define the terms, then explain your answer.

Be sure to include the eruption cycles of each.

When did El Popo last have a major eruption? Is another major eruption likely to occur?


What signs, if any, might a volcano like this exhibit before an actual eruption?



Explain why there are numerous volcanoes in Central America and northern region of South America. What kinds of boundaries do volcanoes occur along?

Be sure to refer to Plate Tectonics.


Why are geologists needed in the effort to predict volcanic eruptions? Be clear about the relationship between earthquakes and volcanoes.

What happens to seismic activity before an eruption?

Is El Popo showing any signs of seismic activity that would indicate a future eruption?


What type of boundary, if any, does "El Popo" occur along? If not, how might it have formed?


What plates are involved with the creation of this volcano? (Illustrate with a drawing.)


Presently is the area seismically active?

Have there been any earthquakes or tremors over the last 10 years?

Try to find the most recent information regarding earthquake activity around El Popo and Central Mexico.

Make note of any major earthquake that have occurred on the last century.


Can earthquakes trigger volcanic eruptions? Has seismic activity ever triggered an eruption of El Popo?



Provide a history of volcanic eruptions that have occurred in the region during the last two centuries.

Focus on major eruptions of Mexico and Central America

Focus on the eruption history of El Popo

Give at least 1 example of a volcano that erupted in the same manner as El Popo.

Did these cause major damage or deaths?


What major dangers would be associated with an eruption from "El Popo".

Use evidence from other volcanoes as proof of the dangers, i.e. Nevada Del Ruiz (Colombia)

Be sure to discuss which areas around El Popo are likely to experience the greatest amount of danger.


How many people could be impacted by an eruption of El Popo?

How many people live within the danger zones of El Popo?

How many people would experience some destruction?

How many people currently live near or alongside the volcano?


Does the volcano have any cultural/religious significance to the people living in close proximity to El Popo?

Include any rituals, ceremonies, or traditions associated with the volcano.

Could a Pompeii happen around El Popo?


What steps should be taken to protect the citizens?

Is there an evacuation plan?

What other things could be done to ensure the safety of the citizens living around El Popo?




Where are most of the world's volcanoes located and WHY?

Focus on Pacific Ring of Fire.


Provide a brief history of some major volcanic eruptions. (5 Ws)

Mt. St. Helens

Mt Pinatubo



Describe the evacuation procedure for a major eruption for one of the places in #2. Some factors to consider are: who made the call, how much notification were they given, how far away were they relocated and for how long?


How did any of the eruptions affect people in the local regions?


Learn about Pompeii and Herculeneum and Santorini (Greece) volcanoes to understand the archeological significance of volcanoes. 

Is El Popo connected to any archeological significance?

Are there any sites that have been preserved by an eruption?


Are there any areas that recently (in the past several months) have exhibit signs of a major eruption? (Illustrate with maps to show locations.)


RESOURCES - Volcano World Volcano Live - Cascades Observatory - - Volcanoes Online - U.S. Geological Survey: All About Volcanoes - How Volcanoes Work  -   U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program - Volcanoes, Can We Predict Volcanic Eruptions -Latest Volcano News Washington Post article on Popocatepetl - New York Times article on Popocatepetl - Virtual Field Trip of Central American Volcanoes

- Mexico Volcanoes and Volcanics - Italy’s Volcanoes - Deadly Shadow of Vesuvius -Earth’s Active Volcanoes - Discovery Channel - Volcanoes: Window to the Inner Earth - Exploring our raging earth - Exploring the Environment - The Savage Earth -