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An appositive/appositive phrases is a word or a phrase that follows a noun or a pronoun.  Its job is to make that noun or pronoun clearer for the reader.  A sentence does not have to have an appositive.  Appositives can be removed from the sentence without harming the sentence.  One worded appositives do not require a comma to set themselves apart, but appositive phrases do require a comma to separate themselves from the rest of the sentence.


On very rare occasions, the writer will place the appositive or appositive phrase at the beginning of the sentence.  If that occurs, place a comma after the appositive phrase.  THIS IS RARE!




My sister Susan is my best friend.  The appositive is Susan.  It is a one worded appositive so it does not need commas to separate it from the rest of the sentence.


The winner, my next door neighbor, is a really nice human being. The appositive phrase is my next door neighbor.  Notice the use of COMMAS to separate the appositive phrases form the rest of the sentence. Since the appositive phrase is in the middle of the sentence, you must place a comma before it and after it.


I enjoyed reading the book, the one my English teacher gave to me.  The appositive phrase is the one my English teacher gave to me.  Notice the use of the COMMA before the appositive phrase.  No COMMA is needed since the appositive phrase ends the sentence.


A popular new car with the automatic driving feature, Audi 5000 costs a lot of money. The appositive phrase is a poplular new car with the automatic driving feature is the appositive phrase.  It starts the sentence. Notice the COMMA after it ends.




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