Quiz on the below vocabulary will be in middle of September and quiz on vocabulary and the 6 biomes will be in early October.
Test format will include both definitions and short answers.
For the first quiz, Students should be familiar with the words and definitions below:
Scroll down for information/notes on each of the six biomes.
Animals are classified as either Vertebrates or Invertebrates.
Vertebrates are classified into 5 groups:
Mammals Birds Fish Reptiles Amphibians
Students should be able to describe what makes a bird a bird, how a mammal is different than a fish, etc.
adaptation - a trait or characteristic that helps an organism survive.
carnivore - an animal that eats other animals; also called a second level consumer.
classification - the process of grouping similar things together.
climate - the pattern of weather an area experiences over a long period of time.
community - a group of populations that live together.
competition - a kind of contest amoung populations that need to get a cetain amound of food, water, and shelter to survive.
consumer - an animal that eats plants, other animals, or both.
decomposer - a consumer that obtains food energy by breaking down the remains of dead plants and animals.
ecosystem - a community of organisms and the environment in which they live.
energy pyramid - a diagram that shows how much food energy is passed from each level in a food chain to the next level.
environment - all the living and non living things that surround and affect an organism.
food chain - the transfer of food energy between organisms in an ecosystem.
food web - a diagram that shows the relationships between different food chains in an ecosystem.
germinate - to sprout, begin growing, for a plant.
habitat - an area where an organism can find everything it needs to survive.
herbivore - an animal that eats only producers.
instinct - a behavior that an organism inherits.
invertebrate - an animal without a backbone.
kingdom - a major, large group of similar organisms (plant kingdom, animal kingdom)
life cycle - the stages that a living thing goes through as it grows and changes.
organism - any living thing that maintains vital life processes (includes all plants and animals).
photosynthesis - the process in which plants make food by using water from the soil, carbon dioxide from the air, and energy from the sun.
population - a group of organisms of one kind that live in one location.
predator - an animal that kills and eats other animals.
prey - an animal that is eaten by a predator.
producer - a living thing, such as a plant, that makes its own food.
species - a unique kind of organism.
sun - the star at the center of our solar system, provides heat and light energy for plants and animals.
symbiosis - a relationship between different kinds of organisms.
vertebrate - an animal with a backbone.
water cycle - the process in which water continuously moves from Earth's surface into the atmosphere and back again.
omnivore - an animal that eats both plants and other animals.
-found near the Equator
- many tall trees forming a canopy over forest floor
- little sunlight reaches the forest floor
- Soil is shallow and infertile (not good)
- Climate is rainy and hot all year long
- 12 hours of sunlight and 12 of darkness each day
- Rainfall 80 - 180 inches of rain each year
- many species of organisms (2 - 20 million) some still undiscovered
Temperate Deciduous Forest
- found North of the equator
- deciduous trees have leaves that fall off in autumn and regrow in spring
- Climate 4 seasons with hot summers and cold winters
- long summer days and short winter days
- Rainfall 30 - 60 inches of rain each year
- soil is deep and fertile, good for growing, decaying leaves create layers
- wide variety of plant and animal life
- animals may migrate to find food, grow thicker coats, and may hibernate
- found in the tropics North and South of the Equator
- dominated by tall grasses with few trees
- transition biome between rainforests and deserts
- Climate two seasons rainy and dry
- Rainfall 30 - 40 inches each year
- soil is shallow and infertile, heavy rains wash away nutrients
- plant adaptations- deep roots, go dormant (rest) during dry seasons,
grasses regenerate quickly, thorns and sharp leaves protect plants from grazing animals
- animal adaptations - large herds of herbivores migrate to find food and water sources,
herds often followed by groups of carnivores and predators
- found North of the Equator
- often found in the interior of continents
- climate, generally dry with four seasons
- summer temperatures very hot (100 F) with harsh winters that get very cold (below freezing)
- rainfall is 8 - 40 inches per year
- soil is deep and fertile, great for growing, "America's Heartland"
- plant adaptations - plants tolerate dryness, fires, and grazing animals, grasses go dormant and have long, deep root systems
plants regenerate (regrow) quickly after fires and droughts
- animal adaptations - for winter some animals may grow thick coats of fur, some build burrows and hibernate,
some animals do not sweat (conserve water in dry times)
- found in the far North, just below the polar ice cap
- Climate - cold and dry, short cool summers with long cold winters
- Soil - shallow and infertile
- permafrost (permanently frozen soil)
- Rainfall - minimal but cold and dry
- plant adaptations - fragile ecosystems, short growing seasons
plants often small and require few nutrients
- animal adaptations - thicker coats of fur, smaller ears to conserve heat, may hibernate
herds (such as caribou) may migrate south for food
birds may migrate south in fall and return in spring
- found in many locations throughout many continents
- Climate - hot, dry
very hot summers and cool winters
hot day temperatures and cold night temperatures
- Soil - sandy, rocky, flat, mountainous
soil is infertile and shallow
- rainfall - less than 10 inches of rain each year
- plant adaptations - deep roots, plants grow far apart for less competition, may store water for dry times
some seeds may go dormant for years awaiting good conditions
- animal adaptations - many smaller animal species, larger animals may visit for food
many animals are nocturnal (come out at night to avoid daytime heat)