CHAPTER 3 NOTES
Chapter 3: The English Colonies
The Southern Colonies
nJamestown – the first permanent English settlement in America
nFounded in 1607 on the James River
nSettled in the marshes
nSuffered disease and death
Powhatan Confederacy (about 30 tribes)
nJohn Smith took control
nDon’t work = don’t eat
nPowhatan helped colonists
nPopulation went from 400 to 60 in one year
Daily Life in Virginia
nHigh death rate caused a labor shortage
nIndentured Servants – agreed to work 4 to 7 years for those who paid for their journey
nAs the cost of slaves fell, slave labor increased
nBacon’s Rebellion - Bacon and his followers attacked and burned Jamestown
Other Southern Colonies
nFounded in 1634 by Lord Baltimore
nFounded by Catholics but Protestants soon began moving there
nToleration Act of 1649 – made it a crime to restrict the religious rights of Christians (Lord Baltimore)
Carolinas and Georgia
nOriginally founded in 1633, Carolina was separated into North and South Carolina in 1712
nNorth – mostly farmers moved from Virginia
nSouth – mostly settlers from Europe
nGeorgia – founded in 1732 by James Oglethorpe
nOriginally meant to a Spanish attack
Economy of Southern Colonies
nMany small farms/some large plantations
nWarm climate and long growing season
nCash crops – sold for profit
nTobacco, rice, and indigo
nSlaves were the main source of labor
nSlave codes – laws to control slaves
New England Colonies
nPuritans - wanted to reform the Anglican Church
nPilgrims – separatist group that left England to escape persecution
nImmigrants – people who left the country of their birth to live in another country
nLanded at Plymouth Rock in present- day Massachusetts
nMayflower Compact – legal contract in which they agreed to have fair laws to protect the general good
nSquanto helped the Pilgrims to survive
New England Economy
nHarsh climate and rocky soil
nFew cash crops
nSlavery was not important
nTrading was vital
nFishing became one of the leading industries
nAs trade grew, shipbuilding grew
Education in New England
nParents wanted their kids to be able to read the bible
nMore schools in New England than in any other colonies
nChildren went to work after elementary grades
nHarvard – 1636
nWilliam and Mary – 1693
nDutch found New Netherland (New York) and New Amsterdam (New York City)
nQuakers were a large religious group in New Jersey
nWilliam Penn found Pennsylvania 1681
Economy of Middle Colonies
nGood climate and rich land
nStaple crops – crops that are always needed
nIndentured servants filled most labor needs
nExported wheat to Britain and the West Indies
Life in the ColoniesnEach colony had a governor
nThe center of politics was the town meeting
nTown meeting – people talked about and decided on issues of local interest
nParliament replaced King James II and passed the
English Bill of Rights, which reduced the powers of the English monarch
English Trade Laws
nEngland wanted to control the colonies to earn money from trade
nNavigation acts limited the trading of colonists
nTriangular trade – goods and slaves were traded among the colonies, Britain, and Africa
nSlaves were brought across the ocean in a voyage called the Middle Passage
Great Awakening and Enlightenment
nMinisters began holding revivals
nGreat Awakening – religious movement that swept through the colonies in the 1730s and 1740s
nEnlightenment – spread the idea that reason and logic could improve society in the 1700s
nJohn Locke – people have the right to equality and liberty
Causes of French and Indian War
nThe British and French both wanted to control certain territory in North America.
nThe British wanted to settle in the Ohio Valley and the French wanted it for the fur trade.
nThe war officially ended with a British victory and with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on February 10, 1763.
nMost of the war was fought in America, so the British government thought the colonists should help pay for it.
nBritain imposed a series of taxes without consulting colonial governments.
Proclamation of 1763
nDue to Pontiac’s Rebellion, King George III issued the Proclamation of 1763.
nColonists were forbidden from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains.
nThe Stamp Act of 1765 was passed by Great Britain.
nIt required all legal documents, permits, commercial contracts, newspapers, pamphlets, and playing cards in the American colonies to carry a tax stamp.
nThe act was made to reduce the cost of maintaining the military presence protecting the colonies.
nColonists threatened tax collectors with tarring and feathering.
nBritish Parliament decided to repeal the Stamp Act since no one was obeying it.
nAt the same time, they passed the Declaratory Act which was an attempt to control the behavior of the colonies.
nNo Taxation without Representation became a rallying cry for colonists.
nAmericans didn’t feel they should have to pay taxes when they did not have anyone to represent them in parliament.
Sons of Liberty
nThis group formed as a result of the Stamp Act
nMany times they would seize the stamps or the papers that were stamped and burn them.
nSamuel Adams and Paul Revere headed the Sons of Liberty in Massachusetts.
nThey enforced boycotts and occasionally resorted to violence.
nThis act was passed to require colonists to pay for housing and feeding British soldiers that were staying in their area. Townshend Acts
nThe Townshend Acts were a British trick to tax the colonists. The British treasurer Charles Townshend had the idea for the tax and the King liked it.
nThe Townshend Acts called for new import taxes on glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea. In March, 1770, the Townshend Acts were repealed except for the tax on tea.
nOn March 5, 1770 the Boston Massacre occurred when a few troops fired on Bostonians who were throwing snowballs at them. The soldiers and their officer were charged with murder. A jury found the officer and six soldiers acted in self-defense and were not guilty.
Boston Tea Party
nWhen repealing the Townshend Acts, British Parliament kept the tea tax. A group of colonists, led by Samuel Adams and Paul Revere disguised themselves as Native Americans, boarded the ships on the night of Dec. 16, 1773, and threw the tea into the harbor.
nThe British government responded by closing the port of Boston and passed the Intolerable Acts. The Boston Tea Party eventually proved to be one of the many causes that led to the American Revolution.
nThe Intolerable Acts were a threat to liberty and all the colonies.
nThe Intolerable Acts were passed by Parliament in 1774. These acts were passed to take more control over the American Colonies. There were four acts.
nFirst was the Quartering Act. It was passed on March 24, 1765.
nIt said that colonists were to house any British soldier who came to their door and asked to stay.
Boston Port Act
nThe second was the Boston Port Act. This bill was passed on June 1, 1774.
nThis bill closed the port of Boston until the damages from the Boston Tea Party were paid for.
Administration of Justice Act
nThe third was the Administration of Justice Act. It was passed on May 20, 1774.
nThis bill said that British officials would not be able to be tried in colonial courts. They would be sent back to Britain and tried there.
Massachusetts Government Act
nThe fourth was the Massachusetts Government Act. This happened on May 20, 1774.
nIt gave the British control of the town meetings and took control out of the colonists' hands.