Notes from Class

Elements of an Argument

  • Hook:  Grab the reader's attention
  • Claim:  Argument, Thesis, Statement
  • Concession:  Recognize the opposing views
  • Refute:  Argue against the opposing view citing your idea as the best one (prove with evidence)
  • Summary/Call to Action:  Closing statement and final pleaa for the audience to take your side "restate the claim"
  • Support: Use evidence from respected sources to justify your points and argument


  • Speaker      (the character telling their/the story)
  • Occasion    (What is the motivation for telling this story? (social, cultural, historical or geographical contexts)
  • Audience   (Who will be interested in reading this text?)
  • Purpose     (How does the author intend the audience to respond? What does he/she want the audience to do?)
  • Subject      (What is the main idea or theme?)
  • Tone          (What is the author's attitude to the subject?)



  • Title                  (actual title and author of the poem
  • Paraphrase    (Rewrite what the author is saying in your own words)
  • Connotation  (What do YOU think the author is trying to communicate?)
  • Attitude          (What is the Speaker's Attitude?)
  • Shift                 (Is there a shift in tone (a change) in this poem?  If so, where does it occur?)
  • Theme            (What is the main idea or message in this story?)
  • Title                (Explain now, what the title means or why the author chose this title)