11R Vocab Flashcards


Purpose: These are meant to help you prepare for the Regents ahead of time. 

Directions: Using 3x5 notecards, make a set of flashcards for each chapter.  Write your initials on the top LEFT of the term side and the term number (ex. "1a") on the top RIGHT of the term side.  Put the term/name/event on one side and the definition/explanation on the other.   Recommendation: I would recommend storing these in plastic bags, on binder rings or in an index card box (or any combination of those). 


You will often be able to use these cards as an aide during a quiz or quest.  You will be notified in advance as to whether you can use them or not.  I may also check flashcards randomly.


1b. Adams-Onis Treaty – 1819 treaty between the U.S. and Spain, in which Spain ceded Florida to the U.S.; also call the Transcontinental Treaty (p. 252)

2b. Battle of the Alamo – capture by Mexican troops of a Texas-held mission in San Antonia in 1836 (p.264)

3b. cede – to surrender officially or informally (p. 252)

4b. denominations – a religious subgroup (p.246)

5b. evangelical – focusing on emotionally powerful preaching, rather than


6b. ceremonies and on the teachings of the Bible (p.245)

7b. ghost town – town that has been abandoned due to a lack of economic

activity (p.256)

8b. manifest destiny – argument that it was the undeniable fate of the U.S to

expand across North America (p. 253)

9b. mobile society – a society in which people constantly move from place to

place; could change their location as well as their position in society (p. 243)

10b. mountain men – an American fur trader who explored the Rocky Mountains and regions farther west in the early 1800s (p. 253)

11b. nomadic – people who move their homes regularly, usually in search of

available food sources (p. 259)

12b. Oregon Trail – trail from Independence, MO to Oregon; used by many

pioneers during eh 1840s (p.254)

13b. pass – a low place in a mountain range that allows traveler to cross over

to the other side (p.254)

14b. presidios – a fort built in the Southwest by the Spanish (p. 261)

15b. republican virtues – values that people would need to govern themselves

in the new republic; included self-reliance, hard work, frugality, harmony 

and sacrificing personal needs for the good of the community (p.  242)

16b. revival – a gathering where people are “revived” or brought back to a

religious life (p. 245)

17b. Santa Fe Trail – trail fro Independence, MO to Santa Fe, NM in the

mid- 1800s (p. 255)

18b. Second Great Awakening – a powerful religious movement in the early

1800s; began in Kentucky and Tennessee and attracted large numbers of

people  (p. 245)

19b. Texas War for Independence – successful revolt by Texans against

Mexican rule in 1835-1836 (p. 264)

20b. trans-Appalachia – area west of the Appalachian mountains (p. 249)


1a. tariff - a tax on imported goods

2a. interest - an extra sum of money that borrowers pay creditors in return for a loan

3a. strict construction - a view that gov't should only use the implied powers of the Constitution when it was absolutely necessary

4a. loose construction - a view that the gov't could use the implied powers of the Constitution to do many things, as long as it was not directly prohibited by the Constitution

5a. Whiskey Rebellion - unrest in 1794 caused by opposition of farmers to a tax on whiskey

6a. Political party - a group of people who seek to win elections and hold public office in order to shape gov't policy/programs

7a. XYZ Affair - congrovery in 1798 over French demands for bribes from American negotiators

8a. Alien & Sedition Acts - laws passed by Congress in 1798 that enabled the gov't to imprison or deport aliens and to prosecute critics of the gov't  (J.Adams presidency)

9a. Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions - resolutions passed in 1798 that attacked the Alien & Sedition Acts as being unconstitutional

10a. agenda - a list of things a politician wants to accomplish

11a. bureaucracy - the depts. and workers that make up the federal gov't

12a. midnight judges - last-minute judicial appointments with federalist beliefs that were made by Pres. Adams just before T.Jefferson took office

13a. Marbury vs. Madison - 1803 Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review 

14a. judicial review - a power of the judicial branch; determines if laws passed by Congress are constitutional

15a. Louisiana Purchase - purchase by the U.S. of the Louisiana Territory from France (Napoleon Bonaparte) in 1803; cost = $15 million and doubled the size of the U.S. (during Jefferson's presidency) 

16a. Lewis & Clark Expedition - journey by Meriweather Lewis & William Clark through the Louisiana Territory; escorted by Sacajawea  and her husband, who acted as interpreters (1804-1806)

17a. embargo - a restriction on trade

18a. Battle of Fallen Timbers - battle between American and Native American (NA) forces in 1794 over Ohio Territory that led to the defeat of the Native Americans

19a. Treaty of Greenville - treaty signed in 1795 by the U.S. and several NA peoples in which the NAs gave up control of most of Ohio

20a. reservation - an area that the federal gov't sets aside for Native Americans who had lost their homes

21a. assimiliation - process by which people of one culture merge into and become part of another culture (many in  U.S. wanted the NAs to assimilate)

22a. Battle of Tippecanoe - battle in the Indiana Territory in 1811 between U.S. and NA forces that led to the defeat of the NAs 

23a. impressment - the act of forcing people into military service (British were doing this before War of 1812; one of the causes)

24a. War of 1812 - War between U.S. and Great Britain; causes: Britain encouraged NAs to attack American settlers and continued to interfere with U.S. shipping/trade 

25a. Burning of Washington, D.C. - 8/24/1814: 4,000 British troops attacked D.C., burning the city; even the Capitol & White House were damaged; First Lady Dolly Madison saved many of the historical documents that we treasure today; Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner" as he watched the British bombard the city 

26a. Treaty of Ghent - agreement, signed in 1814, that ended the War of 1812

27a. Battle of New Orleans - battle in 1815 between U.S. and British troops for control of New Orleans; ended with a U.S. victory and Andrew Jackson as the hero

28a. depression - a severe economic downturn marked by a decrease in business activity, widespread unemployment and falling prices and wages

29a. Missouri Compromise - 1820 agreement calling for the admission of Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state and outlawing slavery in future states to be craeted north of the 36 degree 30' N latitude