Global Flashcards


Purpose: These are meant to help you prepare for the Global Regents ahead of time. 

Directions: Using 3x5 notecards, make a set of flashcards for each chapter.  Write your initials on the top LEFT of the term side and the term number (ex. "1a") on the top RIGHT of the term side.  Put the term/name/event on one side and the definition/explanation on the other.   Recommendation: I would recommend storing these in plastic bags, on binder rings or in an index card box (or any combination of those). 


You will often be able to use these cards as an aide during a quiz or quest.  You will be notified in advance as to whether you can use them or not.  I may also check flashcards randomly.


1d. Decembrist Revolt – after Alexander I died in 1825, an uprising of army officers who demanded a constitution and other reforms; suppressed by Nicholas I


2d.  Alexander II – rose to power during Crimean War; responsible for freeing the serfs & setting up local governments


3d.  Russification – under Alexander III, this policy involved suppressing non-Russian culture/people within the country


4d.  Bloody Sunday –  January 22, 1905; a peaceful march to the czar, led by Father George Gapon, ended when the army opened fire on the participants, killing and wounding hundreds; turning point: ended faith & trust in czar


5d.  October Manifesto – after Revolution of 1905, Nicholas II was forced to make many reforms; called the “October Manifesto” these included “freedom of person, conscience, speech, assembly, and union”


6d.  Peter Stolypin – conservative prime minister of Nicholas II; re-instituted pograms, arrests and executions; reforms weren’t enough & he was assassinated in 1911


7d.  Zemstvo – local elected assemblies, responsible for road repair, schools and agriculture; set up by Alexander II


8d.  Pogrom – violent mob attacks on Jews


9d.  Duma – elected national legislature; set up by Nicholas II


10d. Benjamin Disraeli – prime minister of England; transformed the Tories in the modern Conservative party


11d. Chartists – protestors that demanded more radical change, including universal male suffrage, annual parliamentary elections & salaries for Parliament members


12d.  Queen Victoria – longest reigning monarch in British history (1837-1901); practiced a strict code of morals and manners


13d .William Gladstone – prime minister of England; led the Whigs into the Liberal party


14d.  Rotten borough – rural town in England that send members to Parliament despite having few or no voters


15d.  Electorate – the body of people allowed to vote


16d. Secret ballot – allowed people to place votes without announcing it publically


17d. Corn Laws – British tariffs that set high tariffs on imported grains and kept the price of British grain high


18d. Fabian Society – a socialist organization created in 1883 that promoted gradual change through legal means rather than through violence


19d. Emmeline Pankhurst – a leading suffragist who was arrested & jailed for using aggressive tactics to win the vote


20d.  Catholic Emancipation Act – allowed Catholics to vote & hold political office (1829)


21d.  Great Hunger – terrible famine that was caused when a disease destroyed the potato crop in Ireland (1845)


22d.  Charles Stewart Parnell – an Irish nationalist who led Irish members of Parliament to fight for home rule


23d.  Free trade – trade between countries without quotas, tariffs or other restrictions


24d.  Capital offense – crime punishable by death


25d.  Penal colony – place where people convicted of crimes are sent


26d.  Absentee landlord – one who owns a large estate but does not live there


27d.  Home rule – local self-government


28d.  Paris Commune – a revolt in Paris that led to a civil war between the communards (rebels that included workers, socialists & bourgeoisie republicans) and French soldiers


29d.  Alfred Dreyfus – a French-Jewish high-ranking military officer who was accused of spying for Germany; convicted & condemned (anti-Semitism)


30d.  Theodor Herzl –a Hungarian Jewish journalist living in France who urged Jews to form their own separate state; helped to launch modern Zionism, a movement devoted to rebuilding the Jewish state in Palestine


31d.  Jeanne-Elizabeth Schmahl – founded the French Union for Women’s Suffrage; favored legal protests


32d.  Premier – prime minister


33d.  Coalition – temporary alliance of various political parties


34d.  Libel – knowing publication of false and damaging statements


35d.  Louisiana Purchase – a large territory in present day mid-west U.S. that was purchased from France in 1803 during Jefferson’s term


36d.  Manifest Destiny – a claim that Americans made which said that they were destined the spread across the entire North American continent


37d.  Frederick Douglass – an escaped slave who spoke about the evils of slavery


38d.  Abraham Lincoln – 16th president of U.S.; Civil War president who emancipated the slaves


39d.  Fifteenth Amendment – granted black men the right to vote


40d.  Progressives – reform-minded political movement that focused on banning child labor, limiting work hours, regulating monopolies, giving voters more power and extending suffrage to women


41d.  Expansionism – policy of increasing the amount of territory a government holds


42d.  Abolitionist – one who fought for the end of slavery in the U.S.


43d.  Secede – withdraw


44d.  Segregation – separation of the races


45d.  Isolationism – policy of limited involvement in world affairs



1c. assembly line – production method that breaks down a complex job into a series of smaller tasks (p. 546) 

2c. Atomic theory – developed by an English Quaker schoolteacher, John Dalton, who showed how different kinds of atoms combine to make all chemical substances 

3c. Bessemer process – a process that purified iron ore and produced steel (lighter, harder and more durable than iron; could be produced quickly & cheaply) (p. 546) 

4c. cartel – association of large corporations formed to fix prices, set production quotas or divide up markets (p. 550) 

5c. corporation – business owned by many investors who buy shares of stock and risk only the amount of their investment (p. 549) 

6c. Cult of domesticity – idealized women and the home; the ideal woman was a “tender. Self-sacrificing caregiver” for her children and a “peaceful refuge” for her husband (p. 556) 

7c. dynamo – machine used to generate electricity (p. 546) 

8c. germ theory – idea that certain microbes might cause specific infectious diseases (p. 551) 

9c. impressionism – school of painting of the late 1800s and early 1900s that tried to capture fleeting visual impression (p. 565) 

10c. interchangeable parts – identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufacturing (p. 546) 

11c. mutual aid society – self-help group set up to aid sick or injured workers (p. 553) 

12c. natural selection – “survival of the fittest”; those with traits best suited to their environment will survive and pass those traits to their offspring 

13c. postimpressionists – painters after the impressionism period who used a variety of techniques: George Seurat (small dot of color to define shapes of objects); Vincent van Gogh (sharp brush lines & bright colors); Paul Gauguin (painted “flat” looking people with shapes outlined in black 

14c. racism – belief that one racial group is superior to another (p. 561) 

15c. realism – artistic movement whose aim was to represent the world as it is (p. 563)  

16c. romanticism – 19th century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason (p. 562) 

17c. Salvation Army – founded by William & Catherine Booth in1878; spread both Christian teachings and provided social services 

18c. Social Darwinism – applied the idea of “survival of the fittest” to war and economic competition; both industries and countries were more “fit” if they put others out of business or defeated them in battle (p. 561) 

19c. social gospel – movement of the 1800s that urged Christian to do social service (p. 561)

20c. standard of living – measures the quality and availability of necessities and comforts in society (p. 554) 

21c. stock – shares in a company (p. 549) 22c. temperance movement – campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages (p. 558) 

23c. urban renewal – rebuilding of the poor areas of a city (p. 552) 

24c. women’s suffrage – right of women to vote (p. 558) 

25c. Alexander Graham Bell – U.S. inventor who patented the telephone in 1876 (p. 548) 

26c. Charlotte Bronte – a British novelist and one of the famous Bronte sisters; wrote Jane Eyre (p. 562) 

27c. Lord Byron – a British writer/poet who was “larger than life” and created heroes that were mysterious, gloomy and often different than others in society (these heroes became known as “Byronic”; (p. 562) 

28c. Gustave Courbet – a French realist painter who painted only what he saw; painted The Stone Builders, showing two men building a country road (p. 564) 

29c. Charles Dickens – English writer who used his humor and descriptive settings and round characters to portray the poor and middle class in his stories; wrote Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol (among others) (p. 564) 

30c. Thomas Edison – American inventor who made the first electric light bulb, 1870s (p. 546) 

31c. Michael Faraday – a British chemist who created the first simple electric motor and first dynamo, the building block of all electrical generators and transformers for today (p. 546) 

32c. Henry Ford – used the assembly line to mass produce cars (made them more quickly and cheaper), which pushed the U.S. to the lead in auto industry; first models to move 25 mph (p. 548)  

33c. Robert Koch – a German doctor who, in the 1880s, identified the bacteria that causes tuberculosis (TB killed about 30 million in the 1800s) (p.551) 

34c. Alfred Krupp – a German businessman who inherited a steelmaking business from his father, then bought coal and iron mines and ore-shipping mines, as well as factories that made tools, railroad cars and weapons (p. 549) 

35c. Joseph Lister – an English surgeon who discovered how antiseptics prevented infection; encouraged surgeons to wash their hands and sanitize instruments before operations (p.552) 

36c. Charles Lyell – writer of Principles of Geology who put forth evidence to show that the Earth had been formed over millions of years (p. 560) 

37c. Florence Nightingale – a British nurse who insisted on better hygiene in war hospitals, founded the first nursing school and launched sanitary measures in British hospitals (p. 552) 

38c. Guglielmo Marconi – Italian inventor who developed the radio; in 1901 sent a radio message from Britain to Canada using Morse code (p. 549) 

39c. Claude Monet – a French impressionist who used strokes of color without blending to produce pictures; often painted the same subject many times during different times of day (ex. cathedral in Rouen, France) (p. 565) 

40c. Samuel F. B. Morse – U.S. inventor who developed the telegraph, which could send coded messages over wires by electricity (p. 548) 

41c. Alfred Nobel – a Swedish chemist who invented dynamite in 1866; it was used in construction and warfare; Nobel left the money he made to fund the Nobel prizes (p. 546) 

42c. Louis Pasteur – a French chemist who showed a link between microbes and disease (germ theory) in 1870; also developed vaccines against rabies and anthrax and discovered pasteurization, a process that kills disease-carrying microbes in milk (p. 551) 

43c. Orville & Wilbur Wright – bicycle makers who designed and flew a small airplane at Kitty Hawk, NC in 1903; stayed in the air for only moments (p. 548) 

44c. Ludwig von Beethoven – a romantic German composer, widely considered one of the best of his age; produced numerous musical pieces ranging from symphonies and concertos to operas; 1st composer to use a wide range of instruments in his modern orchestra (p. 563) 

45c. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe – a German writer; wrote the poem Faust, about a man (Faust) who makes a deal with the devil to exchange his soul for lasting youth (p. 562)


1b. Abraham Darby – discovered a way to remove impurities from coal that led to better-quality, less expensive iron


2b. Adam Smith – wrote The Wealth of Nations, created the idea of laissez-faire (“hands-off”) and discussed the benefits of capitalism for all class levels


3b. Anesthetic – a drug that prevents pain during surgery


4b. Capital – wealth to invest in other enterprises


5b. Communism – a form of socialism that sees class struggle between employers & employees as unavoidable


6b. Enclosure – the process of taking over and fencing off land formerly shared by peasant farmers in order to gain pastures and farm land


7b. George Stephenson – invented steam-powered locomotives to pull carriages along iron rails


8b. Iron law of wages – when wages were high, families had more children; more children meant a greater supply of labor, which led to lower wages and higher unemployment


9b. Jethro Tull – invented the seed drill, which planted seeds in rows rather than scattering & wasting them


10b. John Kay – invented the flying shuttle to speed up weaving


11b. James Hargreaves – invented the spinning jenny, which spun many threads at the same time


12b. James Watt – Scottish engineer; improved Newcomen’s steam engine, which would become a key part of the IR (1769)


13b. John Stuart Mill – a utilitarian who believed that actions are right if they promote happiness and wrong if they cause pain; supported gov’t help for the working class and votes to workers and women


14b. John Wesley – founder of the Methodist Church; emphasized the need for personal faith


15b. Karl Marx – German philosopher (1840s); co-wrote The Communist Manifesto which supported communism


16b. Labor union – workers’ organizations who bargain with employers for employee rights and benefits


17b. Luddite – rioters named after a mythical figure, Ned Ludd, who supposedly destroyed machines in the 1780s


18b. Means of production – the businesses that produce and distribute goods


19b. Methodism – a Christian faith that urged people to adopt sober, moral ways and promised forgiveness of sin


20b. Proletariat – the working class


21b. Smelt – to separate iron from its ore


22b. Socialism – people as a whole rather than private individuals own and operate businesses that produced and distributed goods


23b. Tenement – multistory buildings divided into crowded apartments


24b. Thomas Malthus – wrote “Essay on the Principle of Population”, which concluded that poverty and misery were unavoidable because the population was growing faster than the food supply; tried to understand the changes taking place in the early industrial age


25b. Thomas Newcomen – invented a steam engine that was powered by coal and pumped water out of mines


26b. Turnpike – privately built roads that charged a fee to travelers who used them


27b. Urbanization – the movement of people to cities


28b. Utilitarianism – the idea that the goal of society should be “the greatest happiness for the greatest number”


29b. Utopians – those who searched for ideal communities



1a. conservatives – supported the political & social order that had existed before the French Rev. (ex. Monarchy, aristocracy, 1st, 2nd, 3rd Estates)

2a. liberals – wanted gov’ts based on written constitutions and a separation of powers; did not support “divine right monarchies”, the aristocracy or established churches

3a. nationalists – groups that shared a common heritage and wanted to have their own nation-state (a political entity that is made up of the same cultural/ethnic population)

4a. Karageorge – the leader of the 1st Serb revolt against the Ottomans (unsuccessful)

5a. Milos Obrenovic – the leader of the 2nd Serbian revolt; requested help from Russia and won autonomy within the Ottoman empire

6a. ideology – a system of thought and belief

7a. universal manhood suffrage – the right of ALL men to vote

8a. autonomy – self-rule

9a. Charter of French Liberties – a constitution issued by Louis XVIII that created a 2-house legislature & limited freedom of the press (king still reserved much power)

10a. Charles X – younger brother of Louis XVIII; suspended the legislature, limited the right to vote & restricted the press (which caused a revolt and send Charles X running to England)

11a. Louis Philippe – called “the citizen king” because he owed his throne to the people; dressed like the bourgeoisie and was friendly with them; they prospered during his rule

12a. Louis Napoleon – 1st leader of the Second Republic (1848) and nephew of NB; by 1852 proclaimed himself emperor (Napoleon III)

13a. Frankfurt Assembly – a meeting of German delegates who’s goal was to create a constitution for Germany; dissolved in 1849

14a. Frederick William IV – Prussian; offered the crown of an united Germany, but refused it since it was from the people or “the gutter”, not princes

15a. ultraroyalist – the king’s supporters on the far right (high clergy, émigré nobles); despised constitutional gov’ts & wanted to return things back to what they had been before the Fr. Rev. 

16a. recession – a period of reduced economic activity

17a. Toussaint L-Ouverture – a self-educated former slave who led Haitian slaves in revolt against their French masters; eventually captured and imprisoned; died before Haiti became free from France

18a. Miguel Hidalgo – a creole priest in Mexico; led Mexican mestizos and NAs in revolt; captured & executed

19a. el Grito de Delores – Hildalgo’s speech that called Mexicans to fight for independence and liberty

20a. Jose Morelos – followed in Hidalgo’s footsteps; called for improved living conditions, suffrage for all men and to abolish slavery; after 4 years he was captured & shot

21a. Tupac Amaru – demanded that the Spanish gov’t end forced Indian labor; led a NA revolt, but the rebels were crushed and he was killed

22a. Simon Bolivar – led a revolt in his homeland (Venezuela) against the Spanish; took Bogota (Colombia) & Caracas (Venezuela); called “The Liberator”; joined forces with San Martin; tried to unite all the lands he had freed into one nation (Gran Colombia), but it split into 3 countries  

23a. Dom Pedro – King of Brazil; followed his father’s wisdom and proclaimed independence when a revolution was brewing; became emperor of an independent Brazil

24a. peninsulares – the Spanish-born members of Spain’s colonies in Latin America; the highest class (#1)

25a. creole – in Spanish colonies, the European-descended Latin Americans (#2)

26a. mestizo – in Spanish colonies, the people of Native American (NA) & European descent (#3)

27a. mulatto – in Spanish colonies, the people of African & European descent (#4)

28a. truce – temporary peace 


1b. Zollverein – an economic union created by Prussia that dismantled tariff barriers between many German states

2b. Otto von Bismarck – chancellor of Prussia; united German states under Prussian rule

3b. William I – King of Prussia; eventually became Kaiser of the German empire

4b. chancellor – prime minister

5b. Realpolitik – realistic politics based on the needs of the state

6b. annex – to add a territory to an existing state or country

7b. kaiser - emperor

8b. Reich - empire

9b. house of Krupp – an enormous German industrial company that produced steel and weapons to ship around the world

10b. August Thyseen – business tycoon; owner of the house of Krupp

11b. Iron Chancellor – Otto von Bismark’s nickname

12b. Kulturkampf – Bismarck’s “battle for civilization” in which his goal was to make Catholics put loyalty to the state above their allegiance to the Church

13b. social welfare – programs to help the poor

14b. Giuseppe Mazzini – an Italian nationalist leader; founded “Young Italy” a secret society created to create a free Italy

15b. Risorgimento – the Italian nationalist movement

16b. Victor Emmanuel II – the constitutional monarch of the kingdom of Sardinia (included Piedmont, Nice, Savoy & Sardinia); eventually crowned king of  Italy

17b. Camillo Cavour – prime minister of the kingdom of Sardinia

18b. Giuseppe Garibaldi – Italian nationalist; ally of Mazzini; wanted a republic

19b. anarchist – a person who wants to abolish all gov’t

20b. emigration – movement AWAY from one’s homeland