Normal Stages of Human Development (Birth to 5 Years)
This page presents an overview of child development from birth to five years of age. It is important to keep in mind that the time frames presented are averages and some children may achieve various developmental milestones earlier or later than the average but still be within the normal range. This information is presented to help parents understand what to expect from their child. Any questions you may have about your child's development should be shared with his or her doctor.
Physical and Language
| Birth |
Feedings: 5-8 per day
Sensory Capacities: color perception, visual exploration, oral exploration.
Smiles at a Face Visually fixates at a face, smiles at a face, may be soothed by rocking.
|Sensory Capacities: localizes sounds|
Sounds: babbling, makes most vowels and about half of the consonants
Feedings: 3-5 per day
Motor Ability: control of head and arm movements, purposive grasping, rolls over.
|Enjoys being cuddled|| Recognizes his mother. Distinguishes between familiar persons and strangers, no longer smiles indiscriminately. |
Expects feeding, dressing, and bathing.
|Motor Ability: control of trunk and hands, sits without support, crawls about.||Specific emotional attachment to mother.||Protests separation from mother. Enjoys "peek-a-boo"|
| Motor Ability: control of legs and feet, stands, creeps, apposition of thumb and fore-finger.|
Language: says one or two words, imitates sounds, responds to simple commands.
Feedings: 3 meals, 2 snacks
Sleep: 12 hours, 2 naps Anger
Fear of strangers
| Responsive to own name. |
Plays pat-a-cake, understands "no-no!"
Gives and takes objects.
1 ½ years
| Motor Ability: creeps up stairs, walks (10-20 min), makes lines on paper with crayon. Dependent Behavior||Very upset when separated|
Fear of Bath
|Obeys limited commands. |
Repeats a few words.
Interested in his mirror image.
|1 ½ years|
| Motor Ability: runs, kicks a ball, builds 6 cube tower (2yrs) Capable of bowel and bladder control.|
Language: vocabulary of more than 200 words
Sleep: 12 hours at night, 1-2 hr nap
|Temper tantrums |
|Resentment of new baby Does opposite of what he is told (18 months).|
|Motor Ability: jumps off a step, rides a tricycle, uses crayons, builds a 9-10 cube tower.|
Language: starts to use short sentences controls and explores world with language, stuttering may appear briefly. Fear of separation
|Negativistic (2 ½ yrs)|
Violent emotions, anger
Differentiates facial expressions of anger, sorrow, and joy.
Sense of humor (Plays tricks)
|Talks, uses "I" "me" "you" |
Copies parents' actions.
Dependent, clinging, possessive about toys, enjoys playing alongside another child.
Negativism (2 ½ yrs).
Resists parental demands.
Rigid insistence on sameness of routine. Inability to make decisions.
|Motor Ability: Stands on one leg, jumps up and down, draws a circle and a cross (4 yrs) || Self-sufficient in many routines of home life. Affectionate toward parents.|
Pleasure in genital manipulation
Romantic attachment to parent of opposite sex
(3 to 5 yrs)
Jealousy of same-sex parent.
Imaginary fears of dark, injury, etc. (3 to 5 years)
|Likes to share, uses "we" |
Cooperative play with other children, nursery school. Imitates parents.
Beginning of identification with same-sex parent, practices sex-role activities. Intense curiosity & interest in other children's bodies.
|Motor ability: mature motor control, skips, broad jumps, dresses himself, copies a square and a triangle.|
Language: talks clearly, uses adult speech sounds, has mastered basic grammar, relates a story, knows over 2,000 words
| Responsibility and guilt|
Feels pride in accomplishment
|Prefers to play with other children, becomes competitive prefers sex-appropriate activities|