Phonemic Awareness: the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual sounds-phonemes--in spoken words.

Phoneme: the smallest parts of sound in a spoken word that make a difference in a word's meaning

Phonics:  refers to a method for teaching speakers of English to read and write that language. Phonics involves teaching how to connect the sounds of spoken English with letters or groups of letters (e.g., that the sound /k/ can be represented by c, k, ck, ch, or q spellings) and teaching them to blend the sounds of letters together to produce approximate pronunciations of unknown words.

Consonant Diagraph:  two consonants that come together and make one sound. The most common consonant digraphs are ch-, sh-, th-, ph- and wh-.

Onset: the part of the syllable that precedes the vowel of the syllable. 


Rime:the part of a syllable which consists of its vowel and anyconsonant sounds that come after it.

 Stop sounds: sounds that can be said for only an instant, such as /t/. Words beginning with stop sounds are harder for students to sound out than words beginning with a continuous sound

Letters with stop sounds include:

b (bat)

c (can)

d (did)

g (get)

h (hit)

j (jet)

k (kiss)

p (pot)

q (quit)

t (tap)

x (fox)

Contiunous Sounds: sounds that can be said for multiple seconds, such as /mmm/. Words beginning with continuous sounds are easier for students to sound out than words beginning with a stop sound.

Letters with continuous sounds are:

a (mat)

e (bet)

f (fit)

i (sit)

l (let)

m (mad)

n (nut)

o (top)

r (rat)

s (sit)

u (run)

v (vat)

w (wet)

y (yes)

z (zoo)


Alliteration: refers to the repetition of a particular sound in the first syllables of a series of words and/or phrases. 

Rhyme:repetition of similar sounds in two or more words and is most often used in poetry and songs.